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Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
Power & Poltiics
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Power & Poltiics

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This will help to learn about Power and Politics.

This will help to learn about Power and Politics.

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  • 1. POWER AND POLITICS
  • 2. Influence and power <ul><li>Any organisation’s primary objective is to </li></ul><ul><li>enable the management to direct and control </li></ul><ul><li>the activities in pursuit of goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of this control revolves around the </li></ul><ul><li>authority management. In other words, it is the </li></ul><ul><li>right usage of power vested with authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations must also galvanize their workers </li></ul><ul><li>into action, and to do so, they must use influence </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 3. Influence <ul><li>Influence is a person’s ability to produce results </li></ul><ul><li>and to bright about change in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal influence is the ability to produce a </li></ul><ul><li>change in others – to change their attitudes, </li></ul><ul><li>motivation and/or behavior </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 4. Power <ul><li>Power is the means to achieve influence. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, organisational members generally have and need – more than one form of power in order to make things to happen. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 5. Power Defined © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Power is the ability to get things done in the way one wants them to be done.
  • 6. A Definition of Power © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– A B Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Dependency B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.
  • 7. Sources of Power © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Interpersonal Sources Structural Sources - Legitimate - Reward - Coercive - Expert - Referent <ul><li>- Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Making </li></ul><ul><li>- Information </li></ul>
  • 8. Bases of Power: Formal Power © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear. Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Formal Power Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information.
  • 9. Bases of Power: Formal Power (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Legitimate Power The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Information Power Power that comes from access to and control over information.
  • 10. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Example of Formal Power Naina Lal Kidwai’s formal power is an example of legitimate power, as it is based on her structural position at bank. This power gives her the authority to control and use organizational resources. She is the MD and vice chairman of HSBC. Legitimate power
  • 11. Bases of Power: Personal Power © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Expert Power Influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Charismatic Power An extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style.
  • 12. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Example Charismatic Power Amitabh Bachchan, bollywood celebrity, has the power to influence decisions of consumers. Charismatic power
  • 13. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Source: Drawing by Leo Cullum in The New Yorker , copyright ©1986 The New Yorker Magazine. Reprinted by permission.
  • 14. Power Dynamics <ul><li>The dynamics of power are studied from several angles viz., </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Power determinants/consequences </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 15. Dependency: The Key To Power <ul><li>The General Dependency Postulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Creates Dependency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of the resource to the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity of the resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsubstitutability of the resource </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 16. Distribution <ul><li>Some members do wield more power than others. Often, the power wielded by one member may be disproportionate to the organisational position he holds. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are in power try to grab more of it. They strongly resist any attempt to weaken the power they wielded. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual cannot have power at all times and at all places, at times he may be forced to forego and stripped of it. </li></ul><ul><li>In the event to regain the power or failure of power, he or she will try to form coalition. There is strength in numbers. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 17. Uncertainty <ul><li>Organisations do seek to avoid uncertain conditions. Those who can predict, absorb and resolve such uncertain conditions, tend to grab more powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty depends on the nature of the operations of the organisation. For instance, Marketing and sales has to deal with uncertain conditions and produce results, and naturally they wield more power. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 18. Compliance <ul><li>Of all types of power, people generally comply with </li></ul><ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>People perceive reward and coercive powers as weak </li></ul><ul><li>for comply with manager’s requests. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 19. Power determinants/consequences <ul><li>One method of assessing power focuses on the potential to influence (in other words power base). Based on the potential of power source, the consequences would obviously follow suit. </li></ul><ul><li>The power base can be legitimate, reward and punishment, expert, referent, information, decision making etc., </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 20. Power Tactics <ul><li>People use different tactics to gain power and wield power. </li></ul><ul><li>Power tactics are used by individuals on their own, within groups (inter-group) and between groups (intergroups) in order to influence people and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence can be used in a positive or negative way. When used positively, we can expect beneficial outcomes. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 21. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– <ul><li>Individual and intra-group Intergroup </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness Uncertainity absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Friendliness or ingratiation Substitutability </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality Integrative </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Higher authority/position </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition </li></ul>
  • 22. Power Tactics © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– <ul><li>Influence Tactics : </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rational persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Personal appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Ingratiation </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions </li></ul>Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions.
  • 23. Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions
  • 24. Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics <ul><li>Sequencing of tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softer to harder tactics works best. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skillful use of a tactic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced users are more successful. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative power of the tactic user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tactics work better when applied downward. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The type of request attaching to the tactic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the request legitimate? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How the request is perceived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the request accepted as ethical? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The culture of the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture affects user’s choice of tactic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Country-specific cultural factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local values favor certain tactics over others. </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 25. Power in Groups: Coalitions © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– <ul><li>Seek to maximize their size to attain influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek a broad and diverse constituency for support of their objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Occur more frequently in organizations with high task and resource interdependencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Occur more frequently if tasks are standardized and routine. </li></ul>Coalitions Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to a achieve a specific purpose.
  • 26. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Example of Politics in Realty Anil and Mukesh Ambani were in the limelight for their disagreement regarding ownership and management issues. Mother settled the ownership issue amicably. Power in groups: coalitions
  • 27. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace <ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Supreme Court test for determining if sexual harassment has occurred: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived, and is perceived, as hostile or abusive.” </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 28. Politics: Power in Action © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics. Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game.
  • 29. Factors That Influence Political Behaviors © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 30. Employee Responses to Organizational Politics © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 31. Defensive Behaviors © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– <ul><li>Avoiding Action : </li></ul><ul><li>Over conforming </li></ul><ul><li>Buck passing </li></ul><ul><li>Playing dumb </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Stalling </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Blame : </li></ul><ul><li>Buffing </li></ul><ul><li>Playing safe </li></ul><ul><li>Justifying </li></ul><ul><li>Scapegoating </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresenting </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Change : </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Self-protection </li></ul>
  • 32. Impression Management (IM) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– <ul><li>IM Techniques : </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Excuses </li></ul><ul><li>Apologies </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Flattery </li></ul><ul><li>Favors </li></ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul>Impression Management The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.
  • 33. Is A Political Action Ethical? © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13– Utilitarianism Rights Justice
  • 34. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–
  • 35. <ul><li>DO YOU HAVE ANY LEGITIMATE AND REASONABLE QUESTIONS FOR ME? </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 13–

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