Rights ,prerogatives, obligations and duties associated with particular
positions in an organization.
The psychological explanation for interpersonal influence involves the motives
and perceptions of the target person in a relation to the actions of the agent
and the context in which the interaction occurs.
3 Types of influence processes as proposed by Kelman(1958)
• Instrumental compliance
• Personal Identification
Target carries out a requested action for the purpose of obtaining a tangible
The target commits and supports the proposals made by the agent.
Target imitates the agents behavior to please agent and to be like the agent
TYPES OF INFLUENCE TACTICS
The type of behavior used intentionally to influence the attitudes and
behavior of another person is called influence tactics.
3 different types of influence tactics can be differentiated according to the
•Impression management tactics
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT TACTIC
Intended to influence people to like the agent.
Used to influence organizational decisions or gain benefits from the group.
These tactics have immediate task objectives.
Like influencing the group to do a new task or change the procedures.
•Position and personal power
Described by 3 theories
Social Exchange Theory
Strategic Contingencies Theory
Institutionalization of power
In a group, the amount of status and power accorded to an elected or
emergent leader by other members depends on the person’s loyalty,
demonstrated competence and contribution.
Gain influence from repeated demo of expertise and loyalty
Innovation is a double edged sword.
Failure and power
Power of a subunit in an organisation depends on,
-Expertise in coping with important problems
-Centrality of subunit in workflow
-Extent of uniqueness of subunits expertise.
Subunits with critical expertise more likely to be elected to positions of
Theory fails to take into account the possibility that a powerful subunit can
use its power to protect its dominant position & denying rivals an
opportunity to demonstrate their strength.
The process of using political tactics to increase influence or protecting
existing power sources
Can get members appointed to key leadership positions. Where they
promote the subunits objective.
Use power to maintain dominant position even after their expertise is no
Control over resources & denying others opportunities to demonstrate their
Critics expelled, silenced.
Effective leaders-> Personal power + Positional power
Control over information complements expert power
Reward power: Deeper relationship with subordinates. Enhance referent
Coercive power: Compliance with rules which are unpopular but necessary
Personal power less susceptible to misuse.
How to use legitimate power?
Make polite, clear requests
Explain the reasons for the request
Don’t exceed scope of authority.
Follow proper channels
Follow up to verify compliance
How to use Reward power?
Offer type of rewards that people like
Fair & ethical
Don’t promise more than you can deliver
Explain criteria for giving reward
Keep your promises
Use only when absolutely necessary
Used to deter illegal activities, violation of safety, direct disobedience of
Explain, respond, investigate
Sufficient oral & written warnings
Reprimand in private
Punishments should be fair, legitimate
Explain the reasons
No rash statements
Don’t lie, exaggerate
Listen seriously to other person’s concerns
Confident & decisive
Acceptance and positive regard
Be supportive & helpful
Keep promises & commitments
Lead by example.
• Pro active tactics are not needed always in an influence
• But when a person is likely to resist a simple request,
use of pro active influence tactics will make influence
• These tactics are used generally used when request is
unusual, controversial, or difficult to do.
Influence Tactic Definition Example
Rational Persuasion The agent uses logical arguments and
factual evidence to show a proposal or
request is feasible and relevant for
attaining important task objectives.
Apprising The agent explains how carrying out a
request or supporting a proposal will
benefit the target personally.
suggest some certifications
The agent makes an appeal to values
and ideals or seeks to arouse the target
person’s emotions to gain commitment.
Collaboration The agent offers to provide relevant
resources and assistance if the target will
carry out a request or approve a
Myntra and Flipkart Delivery
Influence Tactic Directional Use Sequencing
Used Alone or in
In all directions Initial Request In both ways High
Apprising More down than
--- Used with other
More down and
Lateral than Up
No Difference Used with other
Collaboration More down than
--- Used with other
• Rational Persuasion
- explain in detail why request or proposal is important.
- Use facts and logics to make clear case in support of
- Provide evidence request is feasible and better than
1)Provide evidence that proposal is feasible
2)Explain why it is better than competing ones
3)Explain how likely problems could be handled
1)Appeal to the person’s ideals and values
2)Link the request to the person’s self image
3)Link the request to a clear and appealing vision
4)Use positive ,optimistic language
1)State your objective and ask what the person can
do to help
2)Ask for suggestions to improve
3)Involve the person in planning to attain an
4)Respond to the person’s concerns and suggestions
• Offer to show the person to perform the
• Offer to provide necessary resources
• Offer to help the person solve problems caused
by a request
• Offer to help the person implement a proposed