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Power and Influence Tactics


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Leadership power and influence tactics in organizations.

Published in: Education
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Power and Influence Tactics

  1. 1. POWER AND INFLUENCE TACTICS By; Vinay Chaithanya
  2. 2. POWER Ability to influence. Agent and target
  3. 3. AUTHORITY Rights ,prerogatives, obligations and duties associated with particular positions in an organization.
  4. 4. INFLUENCE PROCESSES The psychological explanation for interpersonal influence involves the motives and perceptions of the target person in a relation to the actions of the agent and the context in which the interaction occurs. 3 Types of influence processes as proposed by Kelman(1958) • Instrumental compliance • Internalization • Personal Identification
  5. 5. INSTRUMENTAL COMPLIANCE Target carries out a requested action for the purpose of obtaining a tangible reward.
  6. 6. INTERNALISATION The target commits and supports the proposals made by the agent.
  7. 7. PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION Target imitates the agents behavior to please agent and to be like the agent
  8. 8. TYPES OF INFLUENCE TACTICS The type of behavior used intentionally to influence the attitudes and behavior of another person is called influence tactics. 3 different types of influence tactics can be differentiated according to the primary purpose: •Impression management tactics •Political tactics •Proactive tactics
  9. 9. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT TACTIC Intended to influence people to like the agent.
  10. 10. POLITICAL TACTICS Used to influence organizational decisions or gain benefits from the group.
  11. 11. PROACTIVE TACTICS These tactics have immediate task objectives. Like influencing the group to do a new task or change the procedures.
  13. 13. POWER SOURCES •Legitimate power •Reward power •Coercive power •Referent power •Expert power •Information power •Ecological power •Position and personal power
  14. 14.  Described by 3 theories  Social Exchange Theory  Strategic Contingencies Theory  Institutionalization of power
  15. 15.  In a group, the amount of status and power accorded to an elected or emergent leader by other members depends on the person’s loyalty, demonstrated competence and contribution.  Gain influence from repeated demo of expertise and loyalty  Innovation is a double edged sword.  Failure and power
  16. 16.  Power of a subunit in an organisation depends on, -Expertise in coping with important problems -Centrality of subunit in workflow -Extent of uniqueness of subunits expertise.  Subunits with critical expertise more likely to be elected to positions of authority  Theory fails to take into account the possibility that a powerful subunit can use its power to protect its dominant position & denying rivals an opportunity to demonstrate their strength.
  17. 17.  The process of using political tactics to increase influence or protecting existing power sources  Can get members appointed to key leadership positions. Where they promote the subunits objective.  Use power to maintain dominant position even after their expertise is no longer critical  Control over resources & denying others opportunities to demonstrate their expertise.  Critics expelled, silenced.
  18. 18.  Effective leaders-> Personal power + Positional power  Control over information complements expert power  Reward power: Deeper relationship with subordinates. Enhance referent power  Coercive power: Compliance with rules which are unpopular but necessary  Power corrupts!  Personal power less susceptible to misuse.
  19. 19. How to use legitimate power?  Make polite, clear requests  Explain the reasons for the request  Don’t exceed scope of authority.  Follow proper channels  Follow up to verify compliance How to use Reward power?  Offer type of rewards that people like  Fair & ethical  Don’t promise more than you can deliver  Explain criteria for giving reward  Keep your promises  Don’t manipulate
  20. 20. Coercive power:  Use only when absolutely necessary  Used to deter illegal activities, violation of safety, direct disobedience of legitimate requests.  Explain, respond, investigate  Sufficient oral & written warnings  Reprimand in private  Maintain credibility  Punishments should be fair, legitimate
  21. 21. Expert Power:  Explain the reasons  Provide evidence  No rash statements  Don’t lie, exaggerate  Listen seriously to other person’s concerns  Confident & decisive Referent power:  Acceptance and positive regard  Be supportive & helpful  Keep promises & commitments  Sacrifice  Lead by example.
  22. 22. • Rational Persuasion • Apprising • Inspirational Appeals • Consultation • Collaboration
  23. 23. • Ingratiation • Personal Approach • Exchange • Coalition Tactic • Legitimating Tactics • Pressure
  24. 24. • Pro active tactics are not needed always in an influence attempt. • But when a person is likely to resist a simple request, use of pro active influence tactics will make influence attempt successful. • These tactics are used generally used when request is unusual, controversial, or difficult to do.
  25. 25. Influence Tactic Definition Example Rational Persuasion The agent uses logical arguments and factual evidence to show a proposal or request is feasible and relevant for attaining important task objectives. Advertisements Apprising The agent explains how carrying out a request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target personally. Educational Institutions suggest some certifications Inspirational Appeals The agent makes an appeal to values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target person’s emotions to gain commitment. Political Leaders Collaboration The agent offers to provide relevant resources and assistance if the target will carry out a request or approve a proposed change. Myntra and Flipkart Delivery
  26. 26. Influence Tactic Directional Use Sequencing Results Used Alone or in combination General Effectiveness Rational Persuasion In all directions Initial Request In both ways High Apprising More down than up/Lateral --- Used with other tactics Moderate Inspirational Appeals More down and Lateral than Up No Difference Used with other tactics High Collaboration More down than up/Lateral --- Used with other tactics High
  27. 27. • Rational Persuasion - explain in detail why request or proposal is important. - Use facts and logics to make clear case in support of request - Provide evidence request is feasible and better than alternatives
  28. 28. 1)Provide evidence that proposal is feasible 2)Explain why it is better than competing ones 3)Explain how likely problems could be handled INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS 1)Appeal to the person’s ideals and values 2)Link the request to the person’s self image 3)Link the request to a clear and appealing vision 4)Use positive ,optimistic language
  29. 29. CONSULTATION 1)State your objective and ask what the person can do to help 2)Ask for suggestions to improve 3)Involve the person in planning to attain an objective 4)Respond to the person’s concerns and suggestions
  30. 30. • Offer to show the person to perform the requested task • Offer to provide necessary resources • Offer to help the person solve problems caused by a request • Offer to help the person implement a proposed change