Power“ Power is the probability that one actor within the relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance.” Max Weber “ Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B does something he or she won’t otherwise do.” - Barnard M. Bass
Nature of Power in Organizations • Power: the capacity to influence the behavior of others• Power as a dirty word in the US (low power distance)• Power as a natural process in any group or organization• Power as an indispensable base of leadership
Bases of PowerInter-Personal Power• Coercive Power• Reward Power• Legitimate Power• Referent Power• Expert Power
Coercive power It is the ability to punish or intimidate. Its oftensaid that unions eliminate managements abilityto sanction uncooperative employees. That maybe a bit of an exaggeration, but when collectivebargaining agreements state that managementcan only terminate employees with cause,management does have restricted ability tocoerce cooperation. Managers should usecoercion with great care anyway. Coercion onlymotivates minimal cooperation and breedsresentment
Reward power It is the ability to provide incentives toothers if they will cooperate with you. Managers who can affect their directreports income, perks, job assignments,etc. are able to offer rewards in exchangefor compliance. Having a high degree ofreward power really helps a managerinfluence others
Legitimatepower It allows leaders to motivate others simply because they hold the leadership position. Sometimes we comply with the wishes of a leader just because of the societal expectations for us to do so Legitimate power is not always very strong for managers who are promoted to a position in which they must supervise their former peers. If the former peers have any difficulty adjusting to their managers new positions, legitimacy will be kind of weak.
Referent Power• This power is known as chrismatic power• It is based upon the attraction exerted by one individual over another.• This power develops out of admiration of another and disire to be like that person.
Expert power• Expert power is based on the perception or belief that the person has some relevant expertise or special knowledge that others do not have.• It is more of personal power rather than organizational power.• The subordinate view their leaders has competent ,they would follow their leader.
Sources of PowerPower may be held through:• Delegated authority (for example in the democratic process)• Social status• Expertise (ability, skills) .• Persuasion (direct, indirect, or subliminal)• Knowledge• Celebrity• Force (law) (violence, military might, coercion).• In relationships; domination/submissiveness
Politics“ Politics refers to the structure and process of the use of authority and power to affect definition of goals, directions and the other major parameters of the organization. Decisions are not made in a rational or formal way but rather through compromise, accommodation and bargaining.” M. L. Tushman
Organizational PoliticsOrganizational politics is theprocess whereby individuals orgroups use whatever powerthey can amass to influenceorganizational decision in thedirection of their own interests
Organizational politics refer tointentional behaviors that aredesigned to enhance or protect apersons influence and self-interest. - Amos Drory and TsiliaRomm
Factors influencing political behavior Individual factors Organizational factorsExpectations of success Promotion opportunities High self –monitors Low trustHigh match personality Role ambiguity Favorable outcome