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Power & influence

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Power & influence

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Power & influence

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION, Yukl G. POWER AND INFLUENCE dr Slavka Draskovic, http://www.esb.edu.rs/
  2. 2. • LEADERSHIP IS (definitions): • The behavior of an individual…directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. (Hemphill & Coons, 1957) • The process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. (Rauch & Behling, 1984.) • The process whereby one or more individuals succeed in attempting to frame and define the reality of others. (Smircich & Morgan, 1982.) • The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization…(House et al., 1999.)
  3. 3. Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what A needs working to be done definition and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.
  4. 4. Conceptions of Power and Influence Power • Capacity of one party (the agent) to influence another party (the target) • Influence the behavior or attitudes of one or more designated target persons at a given point in time Authority • The right of the agent to exercise control over things associated with particular positions The scope of authority • The range of requests that can properly be made • The range of actions that can properly be taken
  5. 5. Outcomes of Influence Attempts Commitment – The target agrees with a decision or request and makes a great effort to carry out the request or implement the decision effectively Compliance – The target is willing to do what the agent asks but is apathetic rather than enthusiastic about it and will make only a minimal effort Resistance The target person opposed to the proposal or request 1. Refuse to carry out the request 2. Make excuses about why the request cannot be carried out 3. Try to persuade the agent to withdraw or change the request 4. Ask higher authorities to overrule the agent’s request 5. Delay acting 6. Make a pretense of complying but try to sabotage the task
  6. 6. Influence Processes Instrumental Compliance The target carries out a requested action --The purpose is obtaining a reward or avoiding a punishment. The motivation is instrumental (the only reason is benefit) Internalization The t.p. becomes committed to support and implement Because they appear to be desirable and correct in relation to the target’s values, beliefs, and self-image Personal Identification Target person imitates the agent’s behavior or adopts the same attitudes to please the agent and to be like the agent Motivation is target person’s need of acceptance and esteem
  7. 7. Power Types and Sources French &Raven (1959); Bass(1960), Entzioni(1961); Yukl&Falbe (1991) Position Power – Legitimate power – Reward power – Coercive power – Information power – Ecological power Personal Power – Referent power – Expert power
  8. 8. Power Types & Sources: Legitimate Power Power stemming from formal authority over work activities The target person complies because he/she believes the agent has the right to make the request and the target person has the obligation to comply • Higher level managers usually have more authority than lower-level managers • The way in which legitimate power is exercised affects the outcome : Guidelines for Using Legitimate Authority » Explain the reasons for a request » Do not exceed your scope of authority » Make polite clear request » Etc.
  9. 9. Power Types and Sources: 2 Reward Power Stems in part from formal authority to allocate resources and rewards -- from control over benefits such as a promotion, a better job, a better work schedule, a larger operating budget, a larger expense account, larger office The target person complies in order to obtain rewards controlled by the agent Much more over subordinates than over peers or superiors • The way in which reward power is exercised affects the outcome : Guidelines for Using Reward Power » Offer rewards that are fair and ethical » Offer the type of rewards that people desire » Do not promise more than you can deliver » Explain the criteria for giving rewards » Etc.
  10. 10. Power Types and Sources: 3 Coercive Power Based on authority over punishments The target person complies in order to avoid punishments controlled by the agent General decline in use of legitimate coercion by all types of leaders • Avoid using coercion except when absolutely necessary • Difficult to use, and likely to result in undesirable side effects • Arouses anger or resentment
  11. 11. Power Types & Sources : 4 Information Power • Results from a person’s position • Control over information • Access to vital information • Control over its distribution • Actively involved in cultivating a network of information sources and gathering information • Way to enhance their expert power and increase subordinate dependence • Easier for a leader to cover up failures and mistakes • Source of upward influence as well as downward and lateral influence
  12. 12. Power Types & Sources: 5 Ecological Power Control over the physical environment, technology, and organization Opportunity for indirect influence over other people • Design of subordinate jobs - Improvements in work quality and job satisfaction • Design of formal structure - The grouping of activities into subunits, determination of reporting relationships, design of information systems • Control over the physical work environment - Lights, On equipment, machine-paced assembly lines set the speed at which employees work • Cultural engineering - Shared norms, values, and beliefs of members. Strong culture influence the attitudes and behavior of members (Schein, 1992)
  13. 13. Power Types & Sources: 6 Referent Power Derived from the desire of others to please an agent toward whom they have strong feelings of affection, admiration, and loyalty The target person complies because he/she admires or identifies with the agent and wants to gain the agent’s approval • The strongest form - Personal identification • Greater for someone who is friendly, attractive, charming, and trustworthy • Increased by showing concern for the needs and feelings of others. Treating people fairly Strong referent power will increase the agent’s influence even without any explicit effort by the agent to invoke this power
  14. 14. Power Types & Sources: 7 Expert Power Task-relevant knowledge and skill are a major source of personal power in organizations Unique knowledge about the best way to perform a task The target person complies because he/she believes that the agent has special knowledge about the best way to do something • Target person must recognize this expertise • Expertise is maintained through a continual process of education and practical experience • Remain a source of power only as long as dependence on the person who possesses them continues
  15. 15. How Power Is Acquired or Lost
  16. 16. Power is not a static condition. It changes over time Social exchange theory Between leaders and followers in small groups Strategic Contingencies theory Different subunits of an organization The two theories Focus at different levels of analysis Emphasize importance of demonstrated expertise for the acquisition of authority
  17. 17. Exchange of benefits or favors Material benefits & Psychological benefits (expressions of approval, respect, esteem, and affection) Social Exchange Theory • Proportionate to the group’s evaluation of the person’s potential contribution • The group is ready to wait for contribution if it was demonstrated good judgment, or Innovative proposal for attaining group goals – If it is successful- more status and influence.
  18. 18. Social Exchange Theory • Greater loss of power - if failure appears to be due to poor judgment or incompetence rather than to circumstances beyond the leader’s control • More loss of power - if selfish motives rather than loyally serving the group • How serious the failure is to the group. A major disaster results in greater loss of power • Amount of status the leader had prior to the failure • Social exchange theory emphasizes expert power and other forms of power do not receive much attention
  19. 19. Explains how some organizational subunits gain or lose power to influence important decisions (chief executive selection, allocation of resources) Strategic Contingencies Theory The power of a subunit depends on three factor • Expertise in coping with important problems • Centrality of the subunit within the workflow • The extent to which the subunit’s expertise is unique rather than substitutable
  20. 20. Strategic Contingencies Theory • The more unique and irreplaceable the expertise required to solve critical problems, the more power is gained. (Subunits with critical expertise will have more representatives on the board, committees…) • Strategic Contingencies Theory fails to take into account that a powerful subunit can use its power to protect its dominant position.
  21. 21. Consequences of Position & Personal Power Legitimate power was the most common reason for compliance with requests from the boss, but it was not correlated to the task commitment Expert and referent power were positively correlated with subordinates satisfaction and performance Effective leaders rely more on expert and referent power to influence subordinates Rewards announced for subordinates performance led to a higher satisfaction and performance Some- contingent punishment when used in combination with rewards can have positive effect on subordinates performance dr Slavka Draskovic, ESB Belgrade,S.Draskovic@hw.ac.uk
  22. 22. How Much Power Should Leaders Have? Leaders need some power to be effective The necessary power will depend on what needs to be accomplished and on the leader’s skill in using available power. More influence is necessary in an organization where major changes are required, but there is strong initial opposition dr Slavka Draskovic, ESB Belgrade,S.Draskovic@hw.ac.uk
  23. 23. How Much Power Should Leaders Have? Too much position power may be as damaging as too little Leaders may be tempted to rely on it instead of developing personal power and using approaches for influencing (consultation, persuasion) The notion that power corrupts is especially relevant for position power What about personal power? It is less suited to misuse, because it erodes quickly when a leader acts contrary to the interests of followers Nevertheless the potential of corruption remains
  24. 24. How Much Power Should Leaders Have? So, there is also danger from having a great deal of expert and referent power --Expert can be tempted to act in ways that will eventually lead to failure Experiment conducts by Kipnis (1972)- greater reward power of a leader resulted in seeing subordinates as objects of manipulation; Devalued the worth of subordinates, maintained more social distance from subordinates (when positively used, develop a deeper exchange relationship and enhances referent power) One of the best ways is to provide formal mechanisms to promote reciprocal influence (Procedures, Bylaws, Official policies) dr Slavka Draskovic, ESB Belgrade,S.Draskovic@hw.ac.uk
  25. 25. LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION dr Slavka Draskovic, http://www.esb.edu.rs S.Draskovic@hw.ac.uk

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