Formal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. Personal power influence derived from an individuals characteristics. Coercive power: A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from falling to comply. Reward power: compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. Legitimate power: the power a person receives as a result of his position in the formal hierarchy of an organization Expert power: influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent power:influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.
Power tactics : ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Legitimacy: relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules Rational persuasion: presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable Inspirational appeals: developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes and aspirations Consultation: Increasing the targets support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan Exchange; Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request. Personal appeals: Asking for compliance based on friendship Ingratiation : using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request. Pressure: Using warnings, repeated demands and threats Coalitions: Enlisting the aid or support of offers to persuade the target to agree.
Power and Politics in Organization
Presented by : Sonali Vaity & Sushant Patil
The capacity to direct or influence the
behavior or the course of action of
Power refers to a capacity that A has
to influence the behavior of B, so B
acts in accordance with A’s wishes
Power does not require goal similarity, only dependence
Leadership requires some match between the goals of
the leader and those being led
Leadership focuses on the downward influence on
Groups as well as individuals can use power to control
other individuals or groups
Organizational Politics are the activities managers engage in
to increase their power and use it to achieve their goals.
Political strategies: Specific tactics used to increase power
and use it effectively.
Political can be negative, but also is a positive force allowing needed
Everyone throughout the firm engagers in politics
Political activity allows a manager to gain support for an idea.
Politics arises when employees aspire to achieve
something beyond their authority and control in a short
span of time
Lack of supervision and control at the workplace
Too much of gossip at work lead to politics
To make effective use of organizational politics,
leader must be aware of specific political tactics &
There are three major tactics
Building relationship with superiors & co-workers
Avoiding political blunder
All political tactics are aimed at gaining & maintaining
power, even the power to avoid a difficult assignment.
Six techniques to gaining power
Develop power contacts
Control vital information
Control lines of communication
Bring in outside expert
Make a quick showing
Much of organization politics involve building
relationship with network member who can be helpful
now or later
Strategies for building relationship
Make & manage impression on others
Ask satisfied customers to speak about you
Be overly courteous, pleasant & positive
A strategy for retaining power is to refrain from
making power eroding blunders which can prevent
one from attaining power
Criticizing the boss in public forums
By passing the manager
Overt display of disloyalty
Being or perceived as a poor team player
Act in haste
Declining an offer from top management
Power is the ability to influence people and events.
Managers need to use power effectively.
Closely related to power is politics. Politics relates to the ways
people gain and use power in organizations.
Political activities in an organization are inevitable and
managers should manage them carefully.
Power and politics are present in all organizations and are
inevitable. However it depends on the stakeholders whether to
use it for their selfish benefits or for an organizational
development that can lead to everyone's benefits.