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Intellectual Transformations
 

Intellectual Transformations

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    Intellectual Transformations Intellectual Transformations Presentation Transcript

    • Intellectual Transformations
    • Intellectual Transformations Christendom Middle Ages (Dark Ages) Depopulation ◦ Social Change ◦ Lack of emphasis on cultural achievements
    • Renaissance… The best of times/ the worst of times “…as if on a given signal, splendid talents are stirring.” 1517 “This is the worst age of history.” 1536 Erasmus – Humanist Scholar
    • Renaissance (1300 – 1600) “Rebirth” Italy Revival of interest in ancient arts ◦ Rome ◦ Greece
    • Renaissance Art Leonardo Da Vinci
    • Renaissance Art Michelangelo
    • Renaissance Art Raphael
    • Renaissance Art Donatello
    • Renaissance Literature Shakespeare ◦ Romeo and Juliet ◦ Hamlet ◦ King Lear ◦ Othello
    • Renaissance Literature Cervantes ◦ Don Quixote
    • Renaissance Literature Machiavelli ◦ The Prince
    • Renaissance (1300 – 1600) Humanism Secularism Impact of printing ◦ Johannes Gutenburg Gutenburg and his press
    • Protestant Reformation Martin Luther Indulgences Ninety - five Thesis ◦ Wittenburg ◦ 1517 Salvation by Faith Alone “Priesthood of all believers.” Edict of Worms Peace of Augsburg
    • Protestant Reformation John Calvin ◦ Predestination ◦ Hard work Catholic Reformation ◦ Counter – Reformation
    • Reform in England Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn ◦ YouTube Anglican Church Act of Supremacy, 1534 Edward VI Bloody Mary Elizabeth I
    • Reformation in France Huguenots Henry of Navarre Edict of Nantes Thirty Years War 1618 – 1648 Treaty of Westphalia Henry of Navarre
    • Results of the Reformation Increased literacy Rise of capitalism Religious division End of Catholic church’s monolithic power Warfare Religious intolerance State centralization and secularization
    • Rise of Modern States Decline of Church Secular character of society Rise of nationalism Absolutism ◦ Propaganda ◦ Divine Right of Kings Theory
    • France: The Model ofAbsolutism Divine Right Marie de’ Medici Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIV ◦ Versailles Cardinal Mazarin ◦ The Fronde
    • England: ConstitutionalMonarchy Magna Carta The Tudors Parliament The Stuarts ◦ James I ◦ Charles I Civil War ◦ Oliver Cromwell The Restoration ◦ Charles II ◦ James II Glorious Revolution ◦ William and Mary of Orange
    • The Scientific Revolution Ptolemy ◦ Geocentric Theory Copernicus ◦ On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Heliocentric Theory Johaness Kepler ◦ On the Motion of Mars Galileo Sir Isaac Newton
    • The Enlightenment Philosophes Voltaire ◦ Candide John Locke ◦ Second Treatise on Civil Government Baron de Montesquieu Diderot Adam Smith ◦ Wealth of Nations ◦ Laissez – faire