Challenges to the ChurchUnintended Consequences From the Renaissance?
Objectives❖ Students will analyze factors that encouraged the Protestant Reformation.❖ Students will analyze the changes in European thought and culture resulting from the Renaissance.
Vocabulary❖ indulgences: pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime❖ diet: assembly or legislature; assembly of Princes❖ predestination: Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation❖ theocracy: government run by religious leaders
Coming of the Reformation❖ Unrest and uncertainty large part of Northern Europeans’ lives❖ Change in traditional economies; traditional society❖ Humanism: ﬁnd ways to understand forces of their lives ❖ Biggest force in daily life: the Church
Church: Issues❖ Catholic church becoming more concerned with worldly issues ❖ Competing with Italian princes for control and inﬂuence❖ Popes and clergy living comfortable lives ❖ Corruption: Selling indulgences to the wealthy ❖ Until 1400 - only granted for good deeds; after available to be bought❖ Caused anger and frustration, especially in the North ❖ Printing press and Erasmus ➙ fuel to the ﬁre
Martin Luther ❖ Disillusioned with the church as a Monk and professor ❖ 1517: Wittenberg, Germany - Johann Tetzel oﬀering sale of indulgences for individuals and family ❖ Luther drafted 95 Theses (arguments) to refute the right of priests or the church as a whole against indulgences ❖ No basis in the Bible; Christians could be saved only through faith
Spread of Luther’s Word❖ Copies of Luther’s protest were printed and distributed across Europe ❖ Stirred debate❖ Church demanded Luther recant his views ❖ Luther refused and developed even more radical doctrines - rejecting authority from Rome
Outlaw or Hero?❖ 1521: Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther ❖ Charles V summoned Luther to the diet to demand he give up his views; Luther refused.❖ Charles V declared Luther an outlaw; a crime to give him food or shelter❖ Luther still had many friends and supporters; support grew
Luther’s Movement❖ New ideas spread quickly throughout the land❖ Many denouncements of the Church abuses and the hypocrisy that was seen❖ Lutherans became Protestants❖ At the grassroots level: Change of peasants life (Peasants Revolt - 1524) ❖ For many German Princes: opportunity to throw oﬀ rule by Church and Holy Roman Emperor
Peace of Augsburg (1555)❖ Charles V tried to force princes back into the church❖ Resulted in wars - costly❖ Peace of Augsburg allowed princes to decide religion for themselves ❖ North: Protestant; South: Catholic
Switzerland Reformation❖ John Calvin: French priest who shared many ideas with Luther ❖ Diﬀered slightly in the idea of predestination ❖ World was separated into two kinds of people: saints and sinners❖ Calvinists believed that saved individuals were the only ones who could live good Christian lives
Calvinism Spreads❖ Led to establishing a theocracy in Geneva❖ Calvinism spreads to France, Germany, England and Scotland ❖ Sets oﬀ numerous wars across Europe ❖ Between Catholics and Protestants; Protestants and Calvinists; Among them all