The Interwar Years

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The Interwar Years

  1. 1. An Age of Anxiety:Prelude to World War I I
  2. 2. Prelude to War Search for stability Europe characterized by pessimism Aversion to war Totalitarians, Fascism, Dictatorships
  3. 3. Prelude to WarWorld War I - The Treaty of Versailles  This treaty had been very unfavorable to Germany  Territory lost  Sole blame for the war  Limited defense capabilities  Reparations  Inflation
  4. 4. The Ruhr Crisis 1923 - Germany announced that it can’t pay reparations Invasion of the Ruhr by France Inflation gets worse – hyperinflation Weimar Republic  Reichstag
  5. 5. Crisis in Germany Other countries made plans to help ease the German burden  The Dawes Plan – 1924 Treaty of Locarno - 1925 Kellogg-Briand Pact -1928
  6. 6. The Great Depression
  7. 7. Rise of Fascism Germany – Adolf Hitler Italy – Benito Mussolini
  8. 8. DesperationMany Europeans were desperate for changeThis provided an opening for fascism / totalitarianism  Form of government usually headed by a dictator. It involves government control over politics, economy, culture, religion and society.  1. Extremely nationalistic and expansionist.  2. Hate Marxism/communism/socialism  3. Hate liberalism – individual not important  4. The state was the all important political structure.  5. Celebrate war and violence – militaristic  6. Racism
  9. 9. Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini-Italy’s economy was in decline after WWI-Didn’t gain territory they were promised-1919 Mussolini started the 1st Fascist Party-Gained support-By 1926, controlled Italy-Hitler admired Mussolini
  10. 10. HITLER’S RISE TO POWER FACTORS IN HITLER’S RISE TO POWER Germanys defeat in WWI and the effect of the defeat on the German people. Economic, political, and social developments in Germany 1920-30s. Way in which Hitler appealed to the German people. Ineffectiveness of the Weimar Republic  Reichstag
  11. 11. HITLER’S RISE TO POWERBeer Hall Putcsh – November 8, 1923-Mein Kampf – 1924 “My Struggle”Set forth his ideas / plans for the future of Germany - Blame Aryans vs. Jews - Leadership -International conquest -Step Plan -Lebensraum – “living space” or “breathing space”
  12. 12. Legal Takeover Reichstag Elections  Propaganda  National Campaigns Election of 1930  Nazi’s increased their seats in the Reichstag  Gained increased support Election of 1932  Storm Troopers 1933 – Hitler is named Chancellor of Germany  Reichstag Fire
  13. 13. Nazi Goverment The Enabling Act Hitler established a police state  GESTAPO Very repressive Very racist and ethnocentric  Anti-semitism  Jews losts their jobs  Synagogues were burned down Censorship Night of the Long Knives
  14. 14. Anti – Semitism Stage I - Nuremberg Laws 1935 Stage II - Crystal Night [Night of broken glass]- Nov 1938
  15. 15. Anti – Semitism Stage III Holocaust
  16. 16. Japan – Rise of Militarism Japan – the Rise of Militarism Emperor Hirohito- Asia for Asians- Military leaders took control of government- Aggressive imperialism General Tojo- Japan grew closer to Italy and Germany

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