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Row 1, Col 1 He commissioned to have the Pyramids of Giza built King Cheops or Khufu
1,2 Who was Hatshepsut? Name 2 things / actions - Hatsheput was one of the four female kings to rule Egypt - She is known as the first powerful female leader - When her husband died, Hatsheput decided to name herself king of Egypt until her stepson was old enough to assume the responsibilities of king - The time during which Hatsheput was in power is said to have been peaceful, stable and prosperous; she expanded trade, and supervised the building of her own tomb, and two obelisks at the Great Temple of Karnak
1,3 Name 3 actions by Akhenaton Akhenaton was the Pharaoh who brought about a religious revolution for the people of Egypt - In Egypt, the kings worshipped the god Amon-Re, the god of the kings, but Akhenaton opposed this worship, and favoured the worship of Aton - He went through great lengths to stop the worship of Amon-Re, destroying temples and creating new hymns for his new religion - Due to all the energy Akhenaton emitted into the reforming of the religion in Egypt, the empire was neglected and it began to shatter
1,4 How did the Nile contribute to the stability and continuity of Egypt? Nile was the source of life and path to immortality Egyptians lived on Eastern side but buried on Western side River was symbol of passage of one life to next (eternity) Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs -Changing season of the Nile regulated all aspects of Egyptian life
2,1 Who joined Upper and Lower Egypt? King Menes
2,2 What was the Rosetta Stone? The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek). It was carved in 196 BCE.
2,3 He brought the idea of monotheism to Egypt and forbade worship of any other god Akhenaton
2,4 Djoser is famous for this - Building the first step pyramid out of a series of mastabas stacked on top of each other
3,1 Who was Imhotep? Describe 3 Things / actions. - Imhotep is one of the few individuals whose life achievements were recorded by the Egyptians; historians believe he was a genius - Imhotep served at the right hand of Pharaoh Djoser, was a priest, a builder, a sculptor and much more - He created the system of medicine, one that was highly honoured as the best of the ancient world - Imhotep also designed the production of the world’s first stone building and the first pyramid - Step Pyramid, which was Pharaoh Djoser’s tomb, was the quintessence of Egyptian religious beliefs; he etched images of the royal palace and all the aspects of royal life in the tomb - This pyramid was the first structure of monumental architecture that was produced by an artist
3,2 Describe Egyptian Hieroglyphics Each hieroglyph found in pyramids and tombs often symbolized more than one consonant. Not only that, but actual Egyptian hieroglyphs were a combination of sound-signs, pictograms, and ideograms. No wonder it was so hard to decode them! New Kingdom= 700 hieroglyphs in common usage, while rest were phonograms 100 were strictly visual, while rest were phonograms Eventually scribes adapted hieroglyphic symbols By 700 BCE, script was refined to the demotic (or popular script) was used for secular matters such as letters, accounts and record keeping
3,3 He was nicknamed the “ Napoleon of Egypt” Tuthmosis III
3,4 What were the Ka, Ba and the Akh? What happened to a person at death? The three parts of the soul necessary to move on to the afterlife (soul, personality, form mummy takes in afterlife) -judgment of in Hall of Osiris (panel of 14 judges ankh, the key of life; Weighing of the heart vs Ma’at; Judgment of scale; record of the outcome
4,1 According to Ma’at Egyptians must: Describe 2 things. Must live their life with order, truth and justice - Ma’at was a goddess and was the symbol of equilibrium of the universe - She represented order, truth and justice and the Egyptians believed that by following these qualities, they would attain harmony with the gods and were guaranteed entry into the after life - They also believed that these qualities were placed in the world at the time of creation - The king was expected to rule according to the principles of Ma’at
4,2 What was Cleopatra’s importance in history? She tried to unite Rome and Egypt, ruled as Queen and used her feminine power to get what she wants -affairs with Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony to secure Egypt’s place / security in the Roman World -killed herself and Egypt became part of the Roman Empire, ending over 3000 years of dynastic rule
4,3 Explain the process of mummification To keep the three parts of the soul together so that the person could move on the afterlife Mummification focused on Egyptian belief of the importance of preserving the body Afterlife would be spent enjoying best of life experiences Body covered with natron and dried for up to 70 days Body wrapped in linen coated with resins and oils Middle Kingdom became customary to place a mask over the face Removal of organs (lungs, stomach, intestines, liver) in Canopic Jars were closed with stoppers fashioned in the shape of four heads -- human, baboon, falcon, and jackal - representing the four protective spirits called the Four Sons of Horus. brain was sucked out of the cranial cavity and thrown away because the Egyptian's thought it was useless.
4,4 Who is Amon-Re? His name means the setting sun – he started as one of eight gods and become the main god, the fertility god and the image of a Ram - - Amon had been the local Theban deity, but he later merged with the Sun god Re to become the national god of Amon-Re - Amon-Re was the god of the kings, the supreme god - He was worshipped by the kings and as the rest of Egypt followed the same religion as the kings, all Egyptians prayed to him - Along with the rise of the Theban kings after the civil wars in Egypt, Amon-Re also rose
5,1 He was the pharaoh responsible for more buildings and colossal statues than any other king Ramses II
5,2 How has Egypt’s geography affected its culture? Isolation and thus stability to home environment
5,3 Describe the role /rights women held in Egyptian society Well treated- and had considerable legal rights compared to other civilizations Same legal rights as men (land, property, divorce) -Left women to be economically independent -Primary role was in domestic life -Common title for a married women in ancient Egypt was “nebet per” meaning “the lady of the house” -Bear and raise children -Could inherit property equally with her brothers from her parents
5,4 He was the god of the underworld Who is Osiris?
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