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AH1- Egypt


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AH1- Egypt

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 3 Egypt Under the Pharaohs PART 1
  2. 2. EGYPT A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia. Civilization lasted roughly 2500-3000 years.
  3. 3. Peoples of the Nile The population itself was uniform, similar languages and culture. Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation (impassable desert on all sides), an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked. Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta.
  4. 4. 5 No one is leaving No one is coming in
  5. 5. The Nile Valley The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa. Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding. Egypt also had precious metals (copper), and stone that was useful both for tools and construction
  6. 6. IRRIGATION 7
  7. 7. Six Cataracts 8
  8. 8. Upper and Lower Egypt Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile Lower Egypt: the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile. Lower in Elevation. Upper Egypt: All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom. Beyond Nubia is Kush and then Punt
  9. 9. Egyptian Chronology Predynastic and Early Dynastic ca. 3500—2686 BCE Old Kingdom ca. 2686 BCE – 2181 BCE Middle Kingdom ca. 2055—1650 BCE New Kingdom ca. 1550—1069 BCE
  10. 10. Manetho Egyptian High Priest of the 3rd Century BCE Chronicled Egyptian history Recorded “Dynasties” in Greek A “Dynasty” is a succession of Pharaohs from the same family Roughly 30 Dynasties total 11
  11. 11. Amun (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun. He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning. 12
  12. 12. Aten the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun) 13
  13. 13. Hathor Mother, wife, daughter of Ra 14
  14. 14. Osiris God of the Underworld 15
  15. 15. Set or Seth God of chaos, storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him 16
  16. 16. Isis Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility 17
  17. 17. Horus Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky. 18
  18. 18. Thoth God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing.
  19. 19. Anubis the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal) 20
  20. 20. Hapi Hapi: the god of the Nile 21
  21. 21. Ma’at Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth She wore an ostrich feather Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead
  22. 22. Theocracy Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests The Pharaoh was a god; god’s will flowed through him. “charismatic authority”
  23. 23. Order vs. Chaos Many authorities, have argued that order was the highest value in Egyptian theology. Egyptians saw order as being in constant tension with the deeply dreaded “chaos.” Horus vs. Seth
  24. 24. Mummification Process “Natron”
  25. 25. Canopic JarsCanopic Jar Chest
  26. 26. Egyptians: Conceptions of Death and the Soul Death was the doorway to a new life..but the body had to be preserved for this to occur. Ka: the dead person’s “vital essence” that it housed, enabled the body to enjoy life in the afterlife as in the earthly life Upraised arms above head symbolized the ka A surrogate could act as substitute for body this could be a sculpture or even a hieroglyph.
  27. 27. Cult of the Dead/Afterlife At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity A detailed and complex ten-week embalming procedure was strictly adhered to in order to ensure safe passage to the afterlife. Pyramids themselves were constructed solely for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose.
  28. 28. Book of the Dead The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment. Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged
  29. 29. wedjat “Eye of Horus” Ward off evil, promote re-birth
  30. 30. Scarab Spells ensured return of the heart to its rightful owner.
  31. 31. The “dung” beetle
  32. 32. Ushabtis “answerers”
  33. 33. Hieroglyphic Writing Writing system in which Pictorial symbols (ideograms) are used to convey particular sound, object, and/or idea.
  34. 34. The Rosetta Stone Disc. 1799- Napoleon Unlocked the mysteries of Egypt 1) Greek 2) Demotic (late Egyptian) 3) Hieroglyphics A decree by priests of Memphis honoring Ptolomey V Ca. 196 BCE
  35. 35. Jean-Francois Champollion Deduced the hieroglyphs were related to spoken Coptic, and broke the code.
  36. 36. Hieroglyphic Writing There is some indication that early hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship than they were for economic transactions Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests
  37. 37. Hieratic A “Cursive” form of Hieroglyph Read up to down/left to right
  38. 38. “Sunken Relief”
  39. 39. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Ca. 3500—2686 BCE
  40. 40. 46 People, boats, and animals, detail of a watercolor copy of a wall painting from tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3500–3200 BCE. Paint on plaster, entire painting 16’ 4” X 3’ 7 3/8”. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  41. 41. 47 Palette of King Narmer (left, back; right, front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate, 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  42. 42. A “palette” for eye makeup
  43. 43. Unification of Egypt After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer,the region was united into one empire Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue; And a White Crown (Upper Egypt) After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypt’s (lower right)
  44. 44. The Symbolism of the Union—And Defeat of Upper Egypt To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name God Horus (protector of all Kings) holds the captive by a feather Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side. There are the decapitated warriors in defeat At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power
  45. 45. egyptian canon It is well known that representations of the human figure in ancient Egyptian art usually conformed to highly stylized principles in which the proportions between the different parts of the human body were determined by a set of fixed laws constituting a Canon of Proportions. Egyptian artists were thereby able to make use of a conventional system of proportion which was found to be aesthetically pleasing, while also rendering their subjects in idealized forms which may or may not have been faithful to the exact proportions of the persons in question. The Egyptian Canon of Proportions was maintained over many centuries through the medium of the artist's grid, in which the different parts of the human body corresponded to different squares in the grid. This grid system was not merely a copying device which made it possible to render a particular scene on any chosen scale, but rather a complete system of proportions by means of which the human figure could in theory be correctly represented.
  46. 46. Mastaba (bench) The mastaba was the standard type of tomb in pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt for both for the Pharaoh and the social elite. Serdab-room & chapel for effigy (statue or likeness of the deceased)
  47. 47. 55 Section (top), plan (center),and restored view (bottom) of typical Egyptian mastaba tombs.
  48. 48. View from the Serdab
  49. 49. 59 IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
  50. 50. Imhotep First known artist or architect in history Deified as a God after death
  51. 51. 62
  52. 52. 63 Plan (top) and restored view (bottom) of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
  53. 53. Sed Festival “Jubilee” to celebrate continuation of rule.
  54. 54. 69 Detail of the facade of the North Palace of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
  55. 55. 70 “engaged” columns
  56. 56. The Old Kingdom ca. 2686 BCE – 2181 BCE
  57. 57. 73 Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty. From bottom: Pyramids of Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE.
  58. 58. Great Pyramids, Gizeh, 2551- 2472 BCE, Function: Eternal resting place for Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure “Stairway” to sun Axis-Mundi Form: Based on the ben-ben pyramidal shaped stone Pure white limestone casing stones with gold apex (electrum)
  59. 59. benben Benben or Ben-ben, in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled. In the Pyramid Texts, e.g. Atum himself is at times referred to as "mound". It was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Annu, which was the place Atum was said to dwell within.
  60. 60. Great Pyramids, Gizeh, 2551- 2472 BCE, Khufu: Oldest and largest: 775’ long, 480’ high, 13 acre area Location West of the Nile Sides oriented to the cardinal points( NSEW) Temples faced East (rising sun) Structure Solid limestone masonry 2.3 million blocks of stone Each weighs 2.5 tons “Ashlar Masonry”
  61. 61. Khufu
  62. 62. 79 Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2551–2528 BCE.
  63. 63. 81 Model of the Fourth Dynasty pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt. Harvard University Semitic Museum, Cambridge. 1) Pyramid of Menkaure, 2) Pyramid of Khafre, 3) mortuary temple of Khafre, 4) causeway, 5) Great Sphinx, 6) valley temple of Khafre, 7) Pyramid of Khufu, 8) pyramids of the royal family and mastabas of nobles.
  64. 64. 82 Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Sandstone, 65’ X 240’.
  65. 65. Khafre
  66. 66. Menkaure
  67. 67. Construction Relied on seasonal labor force (Nile flooding) Paid workers (average citizens) NOT slaves It took 20,000- 30,000 workers 23 years to build a pyramid. Relief from the tomb of Djehutihotep depicting 172 men pulling a statue of said pharaoh, which is estimated to weigh 58 tons. The large pyramid blocks were probably pulled in a similar manner.
  68. 68. 89 Khafre enthroned, from Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite, 5’ 6” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  69. 69. Function: An abode for the Ka Iconography: Intertwined lotus and papyrus- united Egypt Horus-divine status How is Kingship shown? nemes headdress uraeus cobra flawless body perfect face Formalism: Frontal Rigid bilaterally symmetrical suppression of movement Ideal not Real 90
  70. 70. 91 Menkaure and Khamerernebty(?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2490–2472 BCE. Graywacke, 4’ 6 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  71. 71. Shows the formalism of Egyptian sculpture Clenched fists, rigid stance, left foot forward, and beard and headdress of the Pharaoh Supportive stance of wife; hand around waist and on arm Relief or sculpture in the round? Walking Female behind 92
  72. 72. 93 Seated scribe, from Saqqara, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE. Painted limestone, 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris.
  73. 73. 96 Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450–2350 BCE. Painted limestone, 4’ high.
  74. 74. Goats treading seed and cattle fording a canal, reliefs in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450 – 2350 BCE. Painted limestone. 99