High middle ages


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  • Too many armed warbands pillaging, churches and abbeys treasure houses Truce of God – holy days Lent and Advent “no Christian should kill another Christian since whoever kills a Christian doubtless sheds the blood of Christ” The only combat pleasing to God is to defend Christendom Pope Gregory VII - War of Investitures, clergy celibate, codified canon (church) law Innocent III – Dominicans and Franciscans Inquisition, papal permission to canonize, Jews segregated ID, marriage now a sacrament
  • Pope Urban II announces first in 1095 Help the Byzantines drive Seljuk Turks out of Palestine Primogeniture – lots of available disinherited younger sons, promised indulgence – forgiven all sins and go straight to heaven Captured Jerusalem 1099, 3 kingdoms, short lived 1291, surrendered Acre and went home Founding of orders of knights – Templars, Teutonic, Hospitallers Numerals, zero etc.
  • Manorial system Crossroads, manor house, mill, church, peasants, common pasture Fields - 2 planted, 1 fallow – regenerate soil Demesne – land worked by serfs, product owed to lord Glebe – land owned by church, worked by serfs Serfs had to work lord's land first before own Could become free in a chartered town if lived there a year and a day.
  • Vassals had to provide military service, attend courts, pay dues, accept judgments on inheritance Led to many disputes OR Three Classes Oratores – worshippers, clergy Bellatores – warriors, nobles Laboratores – workers, peasants
  • Population increase warming climate, longer growing season = better fertility Towns rise to feed and lodge crusaders and pilgrims, demand for Asian goods Letters of exchange not sacks of silver (cheques) Banks develop in Northern Italy Public notaries draw up int'l trade agreements Paris and Rome 100 000 people each Walls for protection = borough Bishop's cathedral = city Guilds develop – apprenticeships to masters, selling at market, some powerful, regulate quality
  • Outcome Factors in Battle of Hastings Harold's army exhausted from fighting Vikings at Stamford bridge William stays in tight formation Harold charges down hill loses advantage Normans have crossbows Language legacy – pork – pig, etc. Bayeux tapestry 50 cm high, 69 m long Becket refused to make clergy go along with King B. canonized, Henry had to do public penance John 5 th son of Henry, extortion and high taxes MC – king subject to law, judged by peers
  • Primogeniture led to less dispute, more disinherited younger sons (crusades, puss in boots) Local lords still had lots of power over people Many did not attend estates general English held many lands still
  • Aristotle, Galen, Ptolemy preserved and translated by Islamic scholars Trivium – grammar, rhetoric, logic Quadrivium – arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy Education always in Latin, lecture Aquinas also proved existence of God through reason and said state laws should align with laws of reason
  • Romanesque – dim, round arches Gothic – way higher, more window, stained glass Flying Buttresses Piers – internal columns Vaulted Roofs – ribs dist weight to piers Stained glass – huge windows magic of light and colour Colser to god Sculpture
  • Motte and Bailey construction used by Normans after initial conquest of England Fast to build, allows for protection Wooden – fires and defensive problems Motte – mound or hill Timber palisade around motte Ditch around motte Second palisade around bailey (yard) Bridge across ditch Some ditches dry, others wet Later built of stone – fortified for power and defense
  • High middle ages

    1. 1. High Middle Ages Coming out of the Dark 1100 – 1300 CE
    2. 2. Peace and Prosperity Factors Revitalization of the Church (Crusades) Agricultural revolution and rise of Feudalism Revival of trade and the urban centres Rise of National Monarchies Development of Universities Architecture – Cathedrals and Castles (Brown 2009) Flying Buttress King John England
    3. 3. The Church Takes Charge Peace of God - 989 CE No stealing from church No assaulting clerics, women, peasants Excommunication Truce of God - 1027 CE No fighting Thurs. - Mon, feast days, holy days No killing Christians Led to justification for Crusades Church Schism – 1054 CE Pope and Patriarch excommunicate each other Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic Fontenay Abbey, France Monastic Reform War of Investitures 1075 CE Who gets to invest bishops? Pope or King? 50 years of bloodshed Concordat of Worms 1112 CE King invests as vassal of empire Pope then gives staff and ring Henry IV of England
    4. 4. The Crusades 1095-1291 CE Effects Reduced internal warring in Europe Papacy gains prestige Rise of trade in Italy Contact with Muslims New foods, bathing, fine Asian goods Scientific and cultural knowledge Islamic learning schools established in France and Spain
    5. 5. Agricultural Revolution Three-field rotation Heavy plow & horse collar Windmills and water power Led to population growth & urban renewal
    6. 6. Feudalism Mutual obligation from serf to noble Key Terms Fief – land given by a king to vassal Vassal – Knight or lord owning fief Serfs – villeins or peasants who work land Tithe – Tax or rent paid by serfs to church or knight
    7. 7. Trade and Urbanization Walled City of Carcassone, France Rise of Guilds Increased Trade Medieval Market Street from Gouvernement des Princes
    8. 8. England William the Conquerer (Norman) invades England 1066 Defeats Harold at Battle of Hastings Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury murdered in Cathedral 1170 by followers of King Henry II King John forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 Bayeux Tapestry depicting battle Norman Legacies: Castles, language, Domesday book
    9. 9. France Capetian Dynasty 987 - 1328 CE Centralized control Primogeniture Began building Notre Dame Cathedral
    10. 10. Universities 12 th C. Renaissance Greek and Roman classics rediscovered Universities est. in Bologna, Paris, Oxford Trivium and Quadrivium St. Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274 Summa Theologica Reconciled reason and faith
    11. 11. Architecture Romanesque Gothic San Pantaleo Italy Flying Buttress Chartres Cathedral France Last Judgment at Conques, France
    12. 12. Castles Motte and Bailey Stone Castles Bamburgh Castle England Troubadours
    13. 13. Further Reading Monasticism and Spirituality p. 545-546 Monastic Women p. 546-547 Knighthood and chivalry p. 547-550 Apprenticeship of a knight p. 548-549 Daily Life in a Castle – p. 551 Birth, Marriage, Death – p. 554 Women p. 554-556