EGYPT-Study Guide de Beaufort
WORKS:
Fragmentary head of Senuret III.
Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court ...
The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river every spring
and summer from the rainy sea...
Cult of the Dead/Afterlife
At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity
A detailed and complex ten-week embal...
A decorative “palette” for eye makeup
Unification of Egypt
After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer,the region wa...
Each weighs 2.5 tons
“Ashlar Masonry”
Function:
Eternal resting place for Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
“Stairway” to sun
Ax...
After the reigns of Userkaf and Sahure, civil wars arose as the powerful nomarchs
(regional governors) no longer belonged ...
New weapons
NEW KINGDOM
Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state
Egypt attempts to create a buffer between the Leva...
Ramses II1279 BC – 1213 BC
Warrior pharaoh
He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharao...
One of the best-known 18th Dynasty pharaohs is Amenhotep IV, who changed his name
to Akhenaten in honor of the Aten and wh...
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EGYPT Test REVIEW

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EGYPT Test REVIEW

  1. 1. EGYPT-Study Guide de Beaufort WORKS: Fragmentary head of Senuret III. Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir el-Bahri. Temple of Horus, Edfu. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri. Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel. Interior of the temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel. Senmut with Princess Nefrua, from Thebes. Seated scribe, from Saqqara. Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes. Interior hall of the rock-cut tomb of Amenemhet, Beni Hasan,. Akhenaton, from the temple of Aton, Karnak. THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Amarna. Palette of King Narmer, from Hierakonpolis. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Amarna. Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes. IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara. Menkaure and Khamerernebty(?), from Gizeh. Great Pyramids, Gizeh. Egypt: A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia. Civilization lasted roughly 2500-3000 years. Egyptian Chronology Predynastic and Early Dynastic ca. 3500—2686 BCE Old Kingdom ca. 2686 BCE – 2181 BCE Middle Kingdom ca. 2055—1650 BCE New Kingdom ca. 1550—1069 BCE Manetho Egyptian High Priest of the 3rd Century BCE Chronicled Egyptian history Recorded “Dynasties” in Greek A “Dynasty” is a succession of Pharaohs from the same family Roughly 30 Dynasties total Upper and Lower Egypt Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile Lower Egypt: the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile. Lower in Elevation. Upper Egypt: All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom. Beyond Nubia is Kush and then Punt The Nile Valley
  2. 2. The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa.Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding. Egypt also had precious metals (copper), and stone that was useful both for tools and construction Six Cataracts IRRIGATION Aswan High Dam-1970 Peoples of the Nile The population itself was uniform, similar languages and culture. Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation (impassable desert on all sides), an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked. Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta. Gods of Egypt Amun (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun. He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning. Aten the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun) Hathor Mother, wife, daughter of Ra Osiris God of the Underworld Set or Seth God of chaos, storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him Isis Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility Horus Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky. Thoth God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing. Anubis the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal) Hapi the god of the Nile Ma’at Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth She wore an ostrich feather Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead Theocracy Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests The Pharaoh was a god; god’s will flowed through him. “charismatic authority” Order vs. Chaos Many authorities, have argued that order was the highest value in Egyptian theology. Egyptians saw order as being in constant tension with the deeply dreaded “chaos.” Horus vs. Seth
  3. 3. Cult of the Dead/Afterlife At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity A detailed and complex ten-week embalming procedure was strictly adhered to in order to ensure safe passage to the afterlife. Pyramids themselves were constructed solely for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose. Conceptions of Death and the Soul Death was the doorway to a new life..but the body had to be preserved for this to occur. Ka: the dead person’s “vital essence” that it housed, enabled the body to enjoy l ife in the afterlife as in the earthly life Upraised arms above head symbolized the ka A surrogate could act as substitute for body this could be a sculpture or even a hieroglyph. Book of the Dead The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment. Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged Ushabtis “answerers” wedjat “Eye of Horus” Ward off evil, promote re-birth Scarab Spells ensured return of the heart to its rightful owner. The “dung” beetle Hieroglyphic Writing Writing system in which Pictorial symbols (ideograms) are used to convey particular sound, object, and/or idea. The Rosetta Stone Disc. 1799- Napoleon Unlocked the mysteries of Egypt 1) Greek 2) Demotic (late Egyptian) 3) Hieroglyphics A decree by priests of Memphis honoring Ptolomey V Ca. 196 BCE Jean-Francois Champollion Deduced the hieroglyphs were related to spoken Coptic, and broke the code. There is some indication that early hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship than they were for economic transactions Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests Hieratic A “Cursive” form of Hieroglyph Read up to down/left to right Predynastic and Early Dynastic Palette of Narmer Ca. 3500—2686 BCE
  4. 4. A decorative “palette” for eye makeup Unification of Egypt After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer,the region was united into one empire Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue; And a White Crown (Upper Egypt) After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypt’s (lower right) The Symbolism of the Union—And Defeat of Upper Egypt To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name God Horus (protector of all Kings) holds the captive by a feather Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side. There are the decapitated warriors in defeat At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power Mastaba (bench) The mastaba was the standard type of tomb in pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt for both for the Pharaoh and the social elite. Serdab-room & chapel for effigy (statue or likeness of the deceased) Section (top), plan (center),and restored view (bottom) of typical Egyptian mastaba tombs. Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser Sed Festival “Jubilee” to celebrate continuation of rule. Imhotep First known artist or architect in history Deified as a God after death. “engaged” columns The Old Kingdom ca. 2686 BCE – 2181 BCE Snefru (father of Khufu) Bent Pyramid As the name suggests, the angle of the inclination changes from 55° to about 43° in the upper levels of the pyramid. It is likely that the pyramid initially was not designed to be built this way, but was modified during construction due to unstable accretion layers. As a means of stabilising the monolith, the top layers were laid horizontally, marking the abandonment of the step pyramid concept Red Pyramid Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt. Pyramids of Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE. Khufu: Oldest and largest: 775’ long, 480’ high, 13 acre area Location West of the Nile Sides oriented to the cardinal points( NSEW) Temples faced East (rising sun) Structure Solid limestone masonry 2.3 million blocks of stone
  5. 5. Each weighs 2.5 tons “Ashlar Masonry” Function: Eternal resting place for Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure “Stairway” to sun Axis-Mundi Form: Based on the ben-ben pyramidal shaped stone Pure white limestone casing stones with gold apex (electrum) Benben or Ben-ben, in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled. In the Pyramid Texts, e.g. Atum himself is at times referred to as "mound". It was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Annu, which was the place Atum was said to dwell within. Construction Relied on seasonal labor force (Nile flooding) Paid workers (average citizens) NOT slaves It took 20,000- 30,000 workers 23 years to build a pyramid. Khafre enthroned Function: An abode for the Ka Iconography: Intertwined lotus and papyrus- united Egypt Horus-divine status How is Kingship shown? nemes headdress uraeus cobra flawless body perfect face Formalism: Frontal Rigid bilaterally symmetrical suppression of movement Ideal not Real Menkaure and Khamerernebty(?), Shows the formalism of Egyptian sculpture Clenched fists, rigid stance, left foot forward, and beard and headdress of the Pharaoh Supportive stance of wife; hand around waist and on arm Relief or sculpture in the round? Walking Female behind egyptian canon The Egyptian Canon of Proportions was maintained over many centuries through the medium of the artist's grid, in which the different parts of the human body corresponded to different squares in the grid. This grid system was not merely a copying device which made it possible to render a particular scene on any chosen scale, but rather a complete system of proportions by means of which the human figure could in theory be correctly represented. COLLAPSE OF THE OLD KINGDOM
  6. 6. After the reigns of Userkaf and Sahure, civil wars arose as the powerful nomarchs (regional governors) no longer belonged to the royal family. The worsening civil conflict undermined unity and energetic government and also caused famines. Additionally, massive building projects of the Fourth Dynasty had exceeded the capacity of the treasury and populace. The final blow was a severe drought in the region that resulted in a drastic drop in precipitation between 2200 and 2150 BCE, which in turn prevented the normal flooding of the Nile The result was the collapse of the Old Kingdom followed by decades of famine and strife. An important inscription on the tomb of Ankhtifi, a nomarch during the early First Intermediate Period, describes the pitiful state of the country when famine stalked the land. "The whole of Upper Egypt died of hunger and each individual had reached such a state of hunger that he ate his own children. But I refused to see anyone die of hunger and gave to the north grain of Upper Egypt. And I do not think that anything like this has been done by the provincial governors who came before me....I brought life to the provinces of Hierakonpolis and Edfu, Elephantine and Ombos!" FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD The First Intermediate Period, often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-2055 BCE. The end of the First Intermediate Period is placed at the time when Mentuhotep II of the eleventh dynasty defeats the kings of Lower Egypt and reunites Egypt under a single ruler. This act helps usher in a period of great wealth and prosperity, known as the Middle Kingdom. MIDDLE KINGDOM • Thebes of Upper Egypt rises in prominence • Pharaohs made fewer claims to divinity, more “approachable” than past pharaohs and less despotic • Increased efficiency • Expanded irrigation systems • Stockpiled granaries • Expanded overseas trade • Secured Egypt’s borders • Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes • Also no more Pyramids Statue head of Senusret III Unprecedented realism-heavy eyes and brooding expression Large ears in other works show a king who is “listening to the people” Beni Hasan There are 39 ancient tombs here of Middle Kingdom nomarchs Two distinct cemeteries here: the upper range and the lower necropolis- each associated with the different levels of resources available to the deceased. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD Succession disputes erupted Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs Upper Egypt under Hyksos Hyksos introduced new technology : Bronze Horse-drawn chariots
  7. 7. New weapons NEW KINGDOM Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state Egypt attempts to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt, and attained its greatest territorial extent. They also expanded far south into Nubia and hold wide territories in the Near East where Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. Hatshepsut 1473-1458 BCE From Regent for Thutmose III (too young) to Pharaoh. Thutmose III never forgave. “Foremost of Noble Ladies” was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs. Punt Hatshepsut re-established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period and oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. Egyptians returned from the voyage bearing thirty-one live myrrh trees, the roots of which were carefully kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. She had the expedition commemorated in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which also is famous for its realistic depiction of the Queen of the Land of Punt, Queen Iti, who appears to have had a genetic trait called steatopygia. Morturary Temple Designed by Senemut (possible lover), the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon, and it was the first complex built on the site she chose, which would become the Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, that were grander and more numerous than those of any of her Middle Kingdom predecessors. Later pharaohs attempted to claim some of her projects as theirs. Pharaoh as Woman/Man To deal with the problem of being a female king, she emphasized that she was daughter of Thutmose I. She also traced her lineage to Mut, a primal mother goddess of the Egyptian pantheon, which gave her another ancestor who was a deity as well as her father and grandfathers. While Hatshepsut was depicted in official art wearing regalia of a pharaoh, such as the false beard that male pharaohs also wore, it is most unlikely that she ever wore such ceremonial decorations, just as it is unlikely that the male pharaohs did. Statues depicting her seated wearing a tight-fitting dress and the nemes crown, are thought to be a more accurate representation of how she would have presented herself at court. Erased by Thutmose III Toward the end of the reign of Thutmose III and into the reign of his son, an attempt was made to remove Hatshepsut from certain historical and pharaonic records. This elimination was carried out in the most literal way possible. Her cartouches and images were chiselled off some stone walls, leaving very obvious Hatshepsut-shaped gaps in the artwork.
  8. 8. Ramses II1279 BC – 1213 BC Warrior pharaoh He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh 66 year rule, very tall (for Egyptian), lived to age 90 Ramses II was also famed for the huge number of children he sired by his various wives and concubines; the tomb he built for his sons, many of whom he outlived, in the Valley of the Kings has proven to be the largest funerary complex in Egypt. The Battle of Kadesh. Rameses sought to recover territories in the Levant that had been held by the 18th Dynasty. His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II and was caught in history's first recorded military ambush but Ramses was able to rally his troops and turn the tide of battle against the Hittites thanks to the arrival of the re-enforcements The outcome of the battle was undecided with both sides claiming victory at their home front, ultimately resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. Abu Simbel Ramses x 4 65 feet high Queen Nefertari at his feet Commemorate battle of Kadesh and intimidate the Nubians Interior Temple Ramses as Osiris 1st day of summer rays of light enter the deepest part of the tomb Atlantid: Male statue used as a column No load-bearing function, 32 feet tall New Kingdom Pylon Temples Pylon=gateway Karnak, Temple of Amen Re Tomb of Nebamun • Nebamun: scribe and counter of grain • Recreation in eternal afterlife • Fresco Secco: dry fresco wet pant on a dry surface Musicians and Dancers Funeral banquet Profile view=lesser status Composite view=power Frontal view=rare Nude Belly dancers: sensual: meaning? Fertility, Rebirth and regeneration Conquest of death Amarna Period During the New Kingdom the priesthood of Amen had become more powerful than the Pharaoh Monotheism: Aton the sun God represented as a sun disk not human or animal form Akhenaton forms new religious order, he is the sun and sole prophet of God Changes in politics were reflected by changes in artistic style
  9. 9. One of the best-known 18th Dynasty pharaohs is Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Aten and whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as history's first instance of monotheism. Akhenaten's religious fervor is cited as the reason why he was subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art flourished and attained an unprecedented level of realism. Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically. Aided by Akhenaten's apparent lack of interest in international affairs, the Hittites had gradually extended their influence into Phoenicia and Canaan to become a major power in international politics—a power that both Seti I and his son Ramses II would need to deal with during the 19th dynasty. [edit]Nineteenth Dynasty Ramses was the pharaoh most responsible for erasing the Amarna Period from history He, more than any other pharaoh, sought deliberately to deface the Amarna monuments and change the nature of the religious structure and the structure of the priesthood, in order to try to bring it back to where it had been prior to the reign of Akhenaten Akenaten Formerly Amenhotep IV Starts new religion with ONE god Moves capital to Amarna, builds brand new city (Akhetaten) ART Androgynous: (having male and female qualities) Sexless sun disk-a manifestation of ATON OR a product of geneology? Frontal pose, Curving contours Long face, full lips, heavy eyelids, dreamy expression Misshapen body, Narrow waist, Protruding belly, Wide hips, fat thighs Unusual familial intimacy LATE PERIOD (1070 BC-30 BC) A period of political weakness Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8th Century BC Invasions by Assyrians and Persians Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors Roman conquest in 30 BC

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