Nature of science and evolution

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Nature of science and evolution

  1. 1. Warm up Classroom clean up. Your tasks are written on your tables. Create a Venn Diagram on your own sheet of scratch paper. Compare and contrast similarities between mitosis and meiosis. Use your notes to help you. FYI: I‟m still getting my voice back. 
  2. 2. Nature of ScienceWe will now start our section on evolution. Before wedo, we need to understand how science works (natureof science).What would your definition of science be. Think about itfor a minute and then share with your neighbor. Beready to share out with the class.Hopefully by the end we will talk about all of yourdefinitions.
  3. 3. Nature of ScienceComplete the Nature of Science Survey in the Beforecolumn.
  4. 4. Nature of Science Science can only answer questions that address natural phenomena (things we can see and measure) not questions that are subjective, political, religious, ethical etc. Science is evidence based: uses standards of evidence and logical ways to answer questions, all of which are based on observations, tests, or other types of data (CAN use the scientific method but not always!)
  5. 5. Nature of ScienceTestable and Falsifiable: Can be tested over and overagain and can be proven false by evidenceConsistent: A scientific explanation must fit all of theobservable facts or it is proved to be untrue.Practical: The scientific explanation has work in the realworld outside of the lab setting.
  6. 6. Nature of Science Making Explanations: must show a pattern of cause and effect based on observable evidence Reviewed by Peers: must be open to criticism by other people. Usually other scientists Self-correcting: Statements are made with caution and scientists always note possible sources of error and degrees of error
  7. 7. Nature of ScienceLimitations of ScienceScience is not absolute truth: scientific statements arebest approximations based on available evidence Note!: This doesn‟t mean it‟s not reliable. Take gravity for example.Science is not Democratic: you cannot vote on science.Science policy and laws may be voted on but science isbased only on evidence.
  8. 8. Nature of ScienceLimitations of Science:Confirmation Bias: bad science starts with a belief andthen looks for evidence to confirm that belief. Scienceshould start with facts and the beliefs follow after.
  9. 9. Nature of ScienceA video: A video of a physics teacher explaining thenature of science. He will probably make more sensethan all these notes….Terms used to Describe Nature of Science Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and for all practical purposes assumed to be true. (Ex: Right now we can see the sun If we walk outside)
  10. 10. Do you feel like your perceptionof science is changing? How so?
  11. 11. Nature of ScienceTerms used to Describe Nature of ScienceHypothesis: a temporary statement about the natural world thatcan be tested. Used to build more complex inferences andexplanationsLaw: A descriptive generalization about how the natural worldbehaves (Ex: objects tend to fall towards the center of theearth.)Theory: A well-substantiated (well-tested) explanation of thenatural world and can incorporate facts, laws, inferences andtested hypotheses.
  12. 12. Nature of Science 3 Things Scientists DO  Acknowledge and estimate possible errors  Identify their own assumptions  Publicize work and ask for criticisms
  13. 13. Nature of Science It sometimes can be difficult determining what is a scientific claim and what is not. Let‟s have a little practice by taking this survey.
  14. 14. Nature of Science The Nature of Science – You can’t handle the truth! Directions: Work in groups of 2-3 Go to the class website (hthbio2012.weebly.com) Under Assignments is a Nature of Science Assignment Page. Pick 5 of the sites and determine whether the sites are stating true facts or not. Find at least one site that is stating true data. After you determine whether the sites are true or not support your statement with 3 different reasons. List 1 to 2 reasons why this site can be deceptive or make a reader uncertain if the content in the website is true or not.
  15. 15. Discussion RulesAs we get into evolution, we might be getting into some sensitivesubjects. In order to maintain a safe class environment, we will all abideby the following rules: Listen and give your full attention to the person who is speaking Only one person speaks at a time Raise your hand to be recognized if you want to say something When you disagree with someone, make sure that you make a difference between criticizing someone‟s ideas and the person themselves Be respectful of everyone in the classroom Encourage everyone to participate Any other rules we decide at agree on
  16. 16. NaturalSelection/Evolution SurveyComplete the evolution survey
  17. 17. Nature of Science“Everything you‟ve learned in school as „obvious‟ becomesless and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. Forexample, there are no solids in the universe. There‟s noteven a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolutecontinuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straightlines”- R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983)“The truth can sometimes be deceptive.”- - Galileo
  18. 18. Warm UpFinish the Nature of Science website activity.When you are done, browse through the other websiteyou haven‟t visited yet. We will also go over thosewebsites later.Honors: Take out SAT Book Page 224-245/Video Notes
  19. 19. Nature of ScienceLet‟s go over the Nature of Science Survey Again. (Aftercolumn)
  20. 20. Natural Selection Natural Selection is theory that explains how evolution works. Rather than take notes on natural selection, we are going to do an activity and you will try to come up with a theory for natural selection. Take out Your Lab Notebooks  Title: Modeling Natural Selection  Purpose: To model and define how natural selection works
  21. 21. Natural SelectionPopcorn Reading: As a field scientist…Procedure: Popcorn Reading- Cut and Paste the front page into Lab Notebook as the procedure.- Practice using your feeding apparatus. Create a section called pre-lab questions and answer the questions on page 2 of your modeling natural selection handout in your lab notebook.
  22. 22. Warm-UP Clear the tables of everything except a writing utensil and your lab notebook or data sheet. Practice using your feeding apparatus. Answer the questions on page 2 of your modeling natural selection handout in your lab notebook.
  23. 23. ResultsCreate a graph of your data that best shows which typeof pretendie was best suited for the environment overtime.
  24. 24. ConclusionAnswer the post-lab questions as your conclusion.
  25. 25. Warm UpTake out your annotations and PDDiscuss the evolution reading packet and take theevolution survey. Use the survey as points ofdiscussion. Be ready to share out.Turn in the list of things you did for engineering in theinbox
  26. 26. Back to Natural SelectionCreate a Graph in your lab notebook that shows howthe number of different pretendies changed over time.Then answer the post lab questions. Be ready todiscuss answers.
  27. 27. Natural Selection NotesTake out a sheet of paper.Natural Selection: The gradual process where biological traits become more orless common.Facts:1. Overproduction and competition: the population of species has to produce lots of offspring. Offspring compete with each other for food 1. Fitness: How many babies you can have that can have babies2. Individual Variation: Individuals in a population vary (Ex: People look different)
  28. 28. Warm-UpHow would you define fitness? In other words, whenyou think of someone who is fit, what comes to mind?Any questions about evolution?If evolution is about survival of the fittest, do you thinkthere can ever really be true altruism?
  29. 29. Natural Selection Notes Species organisms that have similar physical features (traits), DNA, and can reproduce to make a fertile offspring.  Mules and Ligers are not a species. Why?
  30. 30. Natural Selection Notes Population a group of the same species living in the same location at the same time
  31. 31. Natural Selection Notes Fitness the ability of an organism to produce offspring that survive and can reproduce
  32. 32. What is Evolution Evolution is a change in population overtime and a change in gene pool in a population over generations Gene pool: all the genes/DNA in the population
  33. 33. Natural Selection Notes Darwin made two points in the Origin of Species 1 found evidence that new species had evolved from ancestral populations 2 Natural Selection – explains how evolution works
  34. 34. Natural Selection Notes Darwin‟s Theory of Natural Selection  1 Overproduction: organisms produce more offspring than are able to survive  2 there are difference in appearance of traits found in individuals of the species or organisms of the same species look different from each other  3 Natural Selection is the mechanism for how evolution works.
  35. 35. Natural Selection Notes Darwin‟s Theory of Natural Selection  4 In a specific environment, some traits will help with survival and reproduction (fitness) more than others  5 Over generations, the population will change to have more traits that help survival and reproduction
  36. 36. Natural Selection Notes Jean-Baptiste Lamarck – contemporary of Darwin who proposed an alternate theory of evolution. Thought that organisms strived to be more perfectly suited to their environment
  37. 37. Natural Selection NotesRemember (aka Key Points) A population is the smallest unit that can evolve. Individuals CAN NOT evolve Natural Selection diminishes (decreases) or amplifies (increases) existing traits Natural Selection depends on environment
  38. 38. Natural Selection NotesWhy is diversity important in a population?Increases the likelihood of a species surviving duringenvironmental changes.
  39. 39. Natural Selection Darwin‟s experiment on Natural Selection with Asparagus
  40. 40. Natural SelectionComplete the worksheet to practice explaining hownatural selection works in each situation
  41. 41. Warm upTurn in Introduction to inbox or email the assignment tome. If you already turned it in, that‟s fine. Take out a sheet of paper and title it evidence forevolution. This will be your notes for evidence forevolution.ANNOUNCEMENT: Treekiller ran out of toner. Pleaseprint out work on Chainsaw
  42. 42. Evolution Choice Evidence for Evolution  Watch Darwin‟s Dangerous Idea Video: List the evidence he provides for evolution.
  43. 43. Lab You can work alone or in groups of 2-3 Finding Homologous Structures Lab  Title: Homologous Structures Lab  Purpose: To find homologous structures in the same phylum  Method: Compare 2 organisms from the same phylum. Sketch the organisms you are comparing. Label the phylum and the name of the organisms. Look for homologous structures and different structure and list them. (You only need to compare organisms from 6 phylums out of the 9)  Results  Conclusion: Are organism in the same phylum more similar that those from a different phylum? Why or why not?

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