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Chapter 1 introduction to science and biology

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Chapter 1 introduction to science and biology

  1. 1. Chapter 1. The Science of Biology Honors Biology Ms. Watson
  2. 2. Chapter 1.1 What is science? Guide for Reading Key Concept  What is the goal of science? Vocabulary  Science  Observation  Data  Inference  Hypothesis
  3. 3. What science is and is not The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions. Science deals only with the natural world. Collect and organize information in a careful orderly way, looking for patterns and connections. Science – an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
  4. 4. Thinking like a Scientist Scientific thinking usually begins with observation…. Observation – the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful orderly way.  Involves using the senses, especially sight and hearing. Data – the information gathered from observations is called data.
  5. 5. Thinking like a Scientist (cont’d) Quantitative data – expressed as numbers, obtained by counting or measuring. Qualitative data – descriptive and involve characteristics that can’t usually be counted. Scientist may use data to make inferences. Inference – a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
  6. 6. With the Data…. Scientist make inferences! Inference – a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
  7. 7. Statement Observation Inference Object A is round and orange. Object A is a basketball. Object C is round and black and white. Object C is larger than Object B. Object B is smooth. Object B is a table-tennis ball. Each object is used in a different sport. Observation or inference???
  8. 8. Yosemite National Park, www.inetours.com/.../Yosemite_Falls_Mdo.jpg Make an observation….
  9. 9. http://outhouserag.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/212.jpg Make and observation… Then make an inference…
  10. 10. Give an example of qualitative and quantitative data. http://z.about.com/d/gonyc/1/0/8/R/turtles.jpg
  11. 11. Explaining and Interpreting Evidence Scientists try to explain events in the natural world by interpreting evidence logically and analytically. Hypothesis – a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations (use prior knowledge, logical inference, and informed, creative observation). Must be able to be tested. Perform controlled experiments or gathering more data. Some hypotheses can be ruled out. To be valid, a conclusion must be based on logical interpretation of reliable data.
  12. 12. Science as a Way of Knowing Science is an ongoing process – ask questions, observing, making inferences, and testing inferences. Good scientists are skeptics, which means they question both existing ideas and new hypothesis. Science has limits. Focus on living systems, from invisibly small to size of our entire planet.
  13. 13. Chapter 1.2 How Scientists Work Guide for Reading Key Concepts  How do scientists test hypotheses?  How does a scientific theory develop? Vocabulary  Spontaneous generation  Controlled experiment  Manipulated variable  Responding variable  Theory
  14. 14. Designing an Experiment State the Problem Form a Hypothesis Set Up a Controlled Experiment Record Results Analyze Results Draw a Conclusion Publish Results
  15. 15. Designing an Experiment (cont’d) Asking a Question  How do new living things, or organisms, come into being? Forming a Hypothesis  Life could arise from nonliving matter (spontaneous generation)  1668, Francesco Redi formed a new hypothesis – Flies produce maggots.
  16. 16. Designing an Experiment (cont’d) Setting up a controlled experiment  Factors that can change are called variables (equipment used, type of material, amount of material, temperature, light, and time.  Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time.  Controlled experiment – an experiment in which all variables are kept unchanged except for one.  Manipulated variable - the variable that is deliberately changed.  Responding variable – the variable that is changed in response to the manipulated variable
  17. 17. Designing an Experiment (cont’d) Recording and Analyzing Results  Scientists usually keep written records of their observations, or data. Drawing a Conclusion  Use the data from an experiment to evaluate the hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion “Science can be repeated – results should always be the same”
  18. 18. When Experiments are Not Possible Observing animals in the natural habitat Determining the effect on people of a chemical suspected of causing cancer Must design alternative investigations. http://chascreek.blogs.com/local_life/image s/prairie_dog_2.jpg
  19. 19. How a Theory Develops A particular hypothesis may become so well supported that scientists consider it a theory Theory – applies to a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations. Makes accurate predictions http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/D ANPOD/AU01_TAL0002_M~Red-Kangaroos- Joey-New-South-Wales-Australia-Posters.jpg
  20. 20. Chapter 1.3 Studying Life Guide for Reading What are some characteristics of living things? How can life be studied at different levels? Vocabulary  Biology  Cell  Sexual reproduction  Asexual reproduction  Metabolism  Stimulus  Homeostasis  Evolution
  21. 21. Continued Key Concepts  Which measurement system do scientists use?  How are light microscopes similar? How are they different? Vocabulary  Metric system  Microscope  Compound light microscope  Electron microscope  Cell culture  Cell fractionation
  22. 22. Characteristics of Living Things Living things share the following characteristics  Living things are made up of units called cells  Living things reproduce  Living things are based on a universal genetic code  Living things grow and develop  Living things obtain and use materials and energy  Living things respond to their environment  Living things maintain a stable internal environment  Taken as a group, living things change over time
  23. 23. Made up of Cells Cell – collection of living matter enclosed in barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings Smallest unit of an organism that can be considered alive. Complex and highly organized Organisms can be unicellular and multicellular Ex. Human body made up of 85 different cell types
  24. 24. Reproduction All organisms produce new organisms through a process of reproduction. Sexual reproduction – cells from two parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism Asexual reproduction – the new organism has a single parent.
  25. 25. Based on a Genetic Code Asexual reproduction – offspring have the same traits Sexual reproduction – offspring differ from their parents in some ways Directions for inheritance carried by deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
  26. 26. Growth and Development All living things grow for at least part of their lives Some increase in size, others undergo development Development – a single fertilized egg divides again and again to produce the many cells of mature organisms (differentiation)
  27. 27. Need for Materials and Energy Metabolism – the combination of chemical reactions though which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes Some organisms can make their own food from the sun – photosynthesis Other organisms get their food by eating other organisms.
  28. 28. Response to the Environment Stimulus – a signal to which an organism responds. Ex. Light, temperature
  29. 29. Maintaining Internal Balance Homeostasis – keeping internal conditions, such as temperature and water content, fairly constant to survive Involves internal feedback Ex. Shivering, sweating, feelings of thirst
  30. 30. Evolution As a group any given kind of organism can evolve, or change over time. Over a few generations, the changes in a group may not seem significant
  31. 31. Test Yourself…Do you know??? Characteristic Examples Living things are made up of units called cells. Living things reproduce. Living things are based on a universal genetic code. Living things grow and develop. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Living things respond to their environment. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. Taken as a group, living things change over time. Many microorganisms consist of only a single cell. Animals and trees are multicellular. Maple trees reproduce sexually. A hydra can reproduce asexually by budding. Flies produce flies. Dogs produce dogs. Seeds from maple trees produce maple trees. Flies begin life as eggs, then become maggots, and then become adult flies. Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat. Leaves and stems of plants grow toward light. Despite changes in the temperature of the environment, a robin maintains a constant body temperature. Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert.
  32. 32. Branches of Biology No single biologist could study all this diversity, so biology is divided into different fields. Ex. Zoologists (animals), botanists (plants), paleontologists (ancient life)
  33. 33. Branches of Biology Biosphere – The part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems Ecosystem – Community and its nonliving surroundings Community – Populations that live together in a defined area Population – group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Organism – Individual living thing Groups of Cells – tissues, organs, and organ systems Cells – smallest functional unit of life Molecules – Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds
  34. 34. Biology in Everyday Life Helps you understand your pets. Dinosaurs The food you need and methods for sustaining the world’s food supply. Condition of good health Behaviors of the diseases that can harm you. Identifies environmental factors that might threaten you. Understand what affects the quality of your life. Help understand that humans are capable of predicting and trying to control their future and that of the planet.
  35. 35. A Common Measurement System Most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performing experiments. Metric system – a decimal system of measurement whole units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of 10. International System of Units, or SI
  36. 36. A Common Measurement System
  37. 37. Common Metric Units – Appendix C Length  1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)  1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm)  1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km) Mass  1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g)  1 gram = 1000 milligrams (mg)  1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (t) Volume  1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)  1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm3) Temperature  0oC = freezing point of water  100oC = boiling point of water
  38. 38. A Common Measurement System Can you remember????? King Kilo Henry Hecta Died Deca By (Base) Drinking Deci Chocolate Centi Milk Milli
  39. 39. A Common Measurement System
  40. 40. A Common Measurement System If you convert from a larger unit to a smaller unit the number increases by the correct factor of 10 Ex. 10 decameters to meters Move the decimal place one space to the right and 10 decameters becomes 100 meters
  41. 41. A Common Measurement System If you convert from a smaller unit to a larger unit the number decreases by the correct factor of 10 Ex. 100 deciliters to liters Move the decimal place one space to the left and 100 deciliters becomes 10 meters
  42. 42. Let’s Practice… If meter (m) is the base unit then how many centimeters are in one meter? Convert 60.4 decameters to meters. Convert 5 centimeters to hectameters.
  43. 43. 1.4 Studying Life Analyzing Biological Data Record data in a table and then make a graph. Graph of data makes recognizing patterns easier. Scientists use computers to sort data. Water Released and Absorbed by Tree Time Absorbed by Roots (g/h) Released by Leaves (g/h) 8 AM 10 AM 12 PM 2 PM 4 PM 6 PM 8 PM 5 2 10 14 9 6 4 1 1 12 17 16 10 3 Water released by leaves Water released by leaves RelativeRates(g/h) 20 Time 0 15 10 5 8 AM 10 AM 12 PM 2 PM 4 PM 6 PM 8 PM
  44. 44. Microscopes Microscope – a device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye Light Microscopes  Focus visible light rays  Magnification about 1000x  Compound Light Microscope – allow light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image  study dead organisms and their parts and also when they are alive
  45. 45. Microscopes Electron Microscopes  Focuses a beam of electrons, rather than light, to produce images.  1000x more detail than light microscopes  Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) – through the specimen, detailed information inside the specimen  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) – across the surface of the specimen, produces a 3-D image  Specimens are non-living
  46. 46. Scanning Electron Microscope Images Blood Cells Beetle
  47. 47. Transmission Electron Microscope Images Plant Cell 22,500X Muscle Cells
  48. 48. Laboratory Techniques Cell Cultures  Used to obtain additional culture  The cell is able to reproduce so a that a group of cells develop from the original cell Cell Fractionation  Separates one part of the cell from the others  Separates cell parts  Cells are broken apart, placed in a centrifuge, and then specific part is selected
  49. 49. Laboratory Techniques – Cell Fractionation
  50. 50. Working Safely in Biology Scientists must be careful Working with flames or heating, elements, electricity, chemicals, hot liquids, sharp instruments, and breakable glassware. Always follow your teacher’s instructions and the textbook directions exactly YOU are responsible for your own safety as well as your teacher and classmates. Safety rules – Appendix B (pg 1068)

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