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Survey of sciences chapter 1


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Powerpoint of Lecture over Unit 1: Intro to Scientific Method

Chapter 1 of your text

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Survey of sciences chapter 1

  1. 1. SCIENCE• What is Science?• Different kinds of science – Physics – Biology – Chemistry – Make your definition broad!
  2. 2. Science: A Way of Knowing Chapter 1 Great Idea: Science is a way of asking and answering questions about the physical universe
  3. 3. The Role of Science• Making Choices – Ask questions, make observations, form conclusions – Applied in a more formal, quantitative way equals science – Science is a process
  4. 4. Choosing Gasoline
  5. 5. Why Study Science?• Most powerful tool for understanding• Incorporates basic ideas and theories• Provides framework for new questions• Provides unparalleled view of order and symmetry of the universe and its workings
  6. 6. The Scientific Method
  7. 7. Observation• History – Greek Philosophers – Middle Ages• Observation – no manipulation• Experiment – manipulation
  8. 8. Plato and Aristotle with Students
  9. 9. Observation: Identifying Patterns• First step in scientific method• Regularity• Recognize patterns
  10. 10. Development of a Hypothesis• Second step of Scientific method• Establish regularity – Why is this happening? – Hypothesis is an explanation, educated guess • “If I drop my keys, they will fall”
  11. 11. Prediction• Predictions – Hypothesis, Theory, Law – Must be quantitatively testable
  12. 12. Testing• Final step of Scientific Method• Testing – Do not prove or disprove – Define range of validity• Every law and theory of nature is subject to change, based on new observations
  13. 13. Testing: Collecting data• Measurement-better description• Data-table or graph• Patterns emerge• Describe: – In words – In equation form – In symbols
  14. 14. Measurements PresentedVisually in the Form of a Graph
  15. 15. Measurements of Falling Objects
  16. 16. Predicting the Behavior of Falling Objects
  17. 17. The Scientific Method in Operation• Cycle – Not rigid• Results must be reproducible• Cycle is continuous – Test one hypothesis at a time
  18. 18. Fig. 1-15-2
  19. 19. Facts, Hypotheses, Laws, and Theories• Test many hypotheses, can lead to theory or law – Hypothesis: educated guess• Theory – Well-substantiated description or explanation – Broad• Law – Numerous tests point to pattern – Statement
  20. 20. Organize
  21. 21. The Scientific Method observationsTesting
  22. 22. How does science relate to me?• Make a list of 10 different thingsyou have done in last 24 hours Describe each item (Briefly)● Circle items related to science
  23. 23. Science in daily life• Chemistry: chemicals to clean clothes• Physics: electricity, cars (automotive engine), television, computers• Biology: medicine
  24. 24. Unit 1. Exercise 1: Solving a Real-Life Problem• Your task this week is to identify a problem in your field that we can tackle using the scientific method.• Do internet search – Current problems in your field
  25. 25. Unit 1. Exercise 1: Solving a Real-Life Problem• What is the problem/question?• What have you observed that gives you clues as to what might be happening?• What is a feasible hypothesis to explain what you have observed?• How could you test this hypothesis? What is your prediction about the outcome of the test?
  26. 26. Unit 1. Exercise 1: Solving a Real-Life Problem• 1-2 page report• Describe the problem and• How the scientific method could be applied to come up with a solution.• Answer the questions• Due 12/17/12
  27. 27. The Ongoing Process of Science Dynamic process of scientific research
  28. 28. Science is ongoing• There are still many questions to be answered by science• Why scientists still conduct science• Advancements in modern medicine – Vaccines, prosthetic limbs –
  29. 29. Science in daily life• Take those items you circled• Brief explanation on how those itemswork in relation to science Are there other things in daily lifethat science could solve?
  30. 30. Other Ways of Knowing
  31. 31. Different Kinds of Questions• Cannot always use scientific method• Art – Use to address age of painting – Not for beauty, etc.• Religion – No conflict between science and religion – Faith vs. experiment
  32. 32. Pseudoscience• Pseudoscience – Belief, dogma – Ideas not testable• Evaluation of a claim 1. Are the ‘facts’ true as stated? 2. Is there an alternative explanation? 3. Is the claim falsifiable? 4. Have claims been tested? 5. Do claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas?
  33. 33. Writing Assignment 1• Science in the Media• List of TV and movies that portray science• Is the work of the scientists glorified? Are the results of experiments realistic or exaggerated?
  34. 34. Science in the Media• Do the TV/movie characters follow the steps of the scientific method?• How does the science you see on TV and movies compare to the science you read about in the news?•
  35. 35. Writing assignment 1: Due 12/17• Look at the website of a newspaper 2-3 news articles• controversial scientific issues like climate change, stem cell research, or evolution.• Summarize how each article demonstrates that science makes a difference in our lives.• Discuss how news articles differ from scientific articles.
  36. 36. Language Barrier• Technical language versus ‘everyday’ speech• Climate change – Scientists focus on future – Public wants to know in relation to present day –
  37. 37. The Organization of Science
  38. 38. Divisions of Science• What does a scientist do?• Imagine what a scientist would look like• Approach – Field researcher – Experimentalists – Theorists
  39. 39. Scientists Work at Many Different Tasks
  40. 40. The Branches of Science• Physics – Fundamental aspects of nature• Chemistry – Atoms in combination• Biology – Living systems• Astronomy – Objects in space• Geology – Earth
  41. 41. The Web of Knowledge• Center – Laws of nature – Apply to all areas• Areas Interconnected – All branches integrated
  42. 42. The Interconnected Web of Scientific Knowledge
  43. 43. Funding for Science• US Government – $130 billion – NSF, NIH, DOE, DOD, EPA, NASA, NOAA• Apply for funds – Grant proposal • Ranked by independent scientists • Highly competitive
  44. 44. Major Research Laboratories
  45. 45. 2008: Federal Science Funding
  46. 46. Communication Among Scientists• Collaboration• Scientific Meetings• Peer reviewed Journals – Cornerstone of science
  47. 47. Writing Assignment 2• Process of science• Find article on scientific research found on the ITT Tech Virtual Library• Read the abstract and pay attention to figures as you skim the rest of the article.• Identify the general area of science that is being studied (biology, chemistry, physics, earth science, astronomy)
  48. 48. Writing Assignment 2• Summarize and explain in your own words how/why the researchers working on this project are “doing science “?• Due 1/7/13
  49. 49. Writing Assignment 2• Does this article make sense to you?• Is it easy or difficult to understand?• Can you identify the steps of the scientific method in this article,• and can you get a good idea of what the scientist did?• Discuss the importance of communication in science and difficulties of conveying scientific content to the general public.
  50. 50. Virtual Library• ITT Virtual Library – EBSCO host, citations (APA) • Earth Science • Chemistry • Biology
  51. 51. Scientific Articles• Peer reviewed• Introduction – Observations and Hypotheses – Predictions• Methods/Materials – Testing, experiments, data• Results• Discussion – Summarize your findings and what others have found