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- 1. Four Basic Periods of Computer History
- 2. • Pre-mechanical Age • Mechanical Age • Electromechanical Age • Electronic Age
- 3. Pre-Mechanical Age (3000B.C. - 1450 A.D.)
- 4. Writing and Alphabets • Petroglyths (signs or simple figures carved in rock)
- 5. Petroglyths
- 6. Cave painting from Lascaux, France (15,000-10,000 B.C.)
- 7. •Ideographs (symbols to represent ideas and concept)
- 8. Mayan Ideograph
- 9. • Cuneiform – the first true written language and the first real information system. (coonay-eh-form) • Star – heaven or God
- 10. Cuneiform
- 11. • At around 2000 BC the Phoenicians created symbols that expressed single syllables and consonants (the first true alphabet) • Greek adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels • Romans gave the letters Latin name to create the alphabet we use today.
- 12. Papers and pens • Sumerians – stylus and wet clay • Egyptians – papyrus plants (2600 BC) • Chinese – made paper from rags (100 AD)
- 13. Stylus and wet clay Papyrus Plant
- 14. Chinese
- 15. Books and Libraries (permanent storage device) • Mesopotamia – religious leaders kept the earliest book • Egyptians – kept scrolls • Greeks – (600 BC) fold sheets of Papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.
- 16. First Numbering System • Egyptian – Vertical lines (|)for numbers 1 – 9 - U or O – 10 - coiled rope – 100 - lotus blossom for 1000 • Hindus – (100 – 200 AD) 9 digit numbering • 875 AD the concept of zero was developed.
- 17. The First Calculator • Abacus – was man’s first recorded adding machine. Invented in Babylonia and popularized in China.
- 18. Mechanical Age (1450 – 1840)
- 19. First Information Explosion • Johann Guttenberg – Movable metaltype printing process in 1450.
- 20. The first general purpose computers • John Napier – (1614) a Baron of Merchiston, Scotland invented LOGS (Logarithm). • LOGS – allows multiplication and division to be reduce in addition and subtraction. • 1614 – Arabian Lattice – lays out a special version of the multiplication tables on a set of four-sided wooden rods.(multiply, divide large numbers and find square and cube root)
- 21. Napier’s Bone John Napier
- 22. • Wilhelm Shickard – 1623 - (Professor at University of Tubingen, Germany) – invented the first mechanical calculator that can work with six digits and can carries digits across columns.
- 23. • William Oughtred – (1575 – 1660) invented the slide rule.
- 24. • Blaise Pascal (1642) – invented the Pascaline. (made of clock gears and levers) that could solve mathematical problems like addition and subtraction.
- 25. • Gottfried Leibniz – (1617) invented Stepped Reckoner that could multiply 5 digit and 12 digit numbers yielding up to 16 digit numbers. Stepped Reckoner
- 26. • Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1801) developed the automatic loom (weaving loom) that was controlled by punched cards.
- 27. • Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar -1820 – developed Arithmometer (the first mass produced calculator)
- 28. • Charles Babbage – invented the difference engine (1821) and analytical engine (1832). - Father of modern computer. Difference Engine Analytical Engine
- 29. • Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace Byron – 1842 – the first computer programmer.
- 30. Electromechanical Age (1840 1940)
- 31. The Beginning of Telecommunications • Voltaic Battery – first electric battery known as voltaic pile - invented by Alessandro Volta
- 32. • Telegraph Samuel F.B. Morse – conceived of his version of an Electromagnetic Telegraph (1832)
- 33. Morse Code
- 34. • Telephone and Radio Alexander Graham Bell – 1879 - developed the first working telephone.
- 35. Guglielmo Marconi – 1894 – (RADIO) discovered that electrical waves travel through space and can produce and effect far from the point at which it originated.
- 36. • George Boole – 1852 – developed the binary algebra known as Boolean Algebra
- 37. Electromechanical Computing • Pehr and Edward Scheutz – 1853 completed a Tabulating Machine, capable of processing fifteen digit numbers, printing out result and rounding off to eight digits.
- 38. Dorr Felt – 1885 – devises the comptometer, a key driven adding and subtracting calculator. Comptograph containing a built in printer Comptometer Comptograph
- 39. Herman Hollerith – father of information processing. Punched Card – provided computer programmers with a new way to put information into their machines. He founded the Tabulating Machine Company , later became the Computer Tabulating Recording Company and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
- 40. Herman Hollerith Tabulating Machine
- 41. Otto Shweiger – 1893 – invented the first efficient four function calculator called Millionaire.
- 42. Lee de Forest – 1906 – developed vacuum tubes This is important for it provided electrically controlled switch.
- 43. Electronic Age (1941 – present) Konrad Zuse – 1941 – built the first programmable computer called Z3.
- 44. Howard Aiken – 1942 – developed Mark I the first stored program computer.
- 45. John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry – 1942 – completed the first all electronic computer called ABC or Atanasoff-Berry Computer John Atanasoff Clifford Berry

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