-The discovery of ways to harness
electricity was the key advance made
during this period. Knowledge and
information could now be converted into
The beginning of telecommunication
Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile which is considered to be the first source of stored electricity in the 8th
The battery made by Volta is credited as the first electrochemical cell. It consists of two electrodes: one made of zinc, the
other of copper. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid or a brine mixture of salt and water. The electrolyte exists in the form 2H+
and SO4 2-. The zinc, which is higher than both copper and hydrogen in the electrochemical series, reacts with the
negatively charged sulphate. ( SO4 ) The positively charged hydrogen bubbles start depositing around the copper and take
away some of its electrons. This makes the zinc rod the negative electrode and the copper rod the positive electrode.
Samuel F.J. Morse invented the first
magnetic telegraph in the year 1832 and
made an experiment version in 1815.
The first successful bi-directional
transmission of clear speech by Bell and
Watson was made on 10 March 1876
when Bell spoke into his device, “Mr.
Watson, come here, I want to see you.”
and Watson answered. Bell used Gray's
liquid transmitter design in his
famous 10 March 1876 experiment, but
avoided describing the liquid transmitter
in his public demonstrations. The liquid
transmitter had the problem that waves
formed on the surface of the liquid,
resulting in interference.
Marchese Guglielmo Marconi,(25 April
1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian
inventor, best known for his
development of a radiotelegraph system,
which served as the foundation for the
establishment of numerous affiliated
Pehr and Advard Scheutz
(1853) complete their
tabulating Machine, capable of
numbers, printing out results
and rounding off to eight digits
A Comptometer (1885) is a type
of mechanical (or electro-
mechanical) adding machine.
The comptometer invented by
Dorr Felt , was the first adding
device to be driven solely by the
action of pressing keys, which
are arranged in an array of
vertical and horizontal columns.
A punch card or punched card (or punch card or Hollerith card or IBM card), is a piece of
stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes
in predefined positions. Now almost an obsolete recording medium, punched cards were
widely used throughout the 19th century for controlling textile looms and in the late 19th
and early 20th century for operating fairground organs and related instruments. It was used
through the 20th century in unit record machines for input, processing, and data storage.
Early digital computers used punched cards as the primary medium for input of both
computer programs and data, with offline data entry key punch machines. Some voting
machines use punched cards.
The company which became IBM was
founded in 1896 as the Tabulating
Machine Company by Herman
Hollerith, in Broome County, New York
(Endicott, New York, Where it still
maintains very limited operations). It
was incorporated as Computing
Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR)
on June 16, 1911, and was listed on the
New York Stock Exchange in 1916. IBM
adopted its current name in 1924, when
it became a Fortune 500 company.
The Millionaire (1893), the
first efficient four-function
calculator invented by Otto
shweiger, a Swiss Engineer.