Ladies and gentlemen, today´s performing….<br />“ the self “<br />
What is happening in these situations?<br />Performing the self…<br />
What is happening in these situations?<br />People are giving a performance, <br />showing one of their fronts <br />in a ...
Dramaturgicalapproach<br /><ul><li>Aristotle or Goethe
More systematic work: Kenneth Burke
Idea of dramatism, “terministic screens”
Distinction of action and motion (things move, men act)
Men are “symbol using animals”. They build symbolic structures adding art to life.</li></li></ul><li>Dramaturgicalapproach...
Examples: politics, mass communications, leadership, social movements, rituals, ceremonies
Erving Goffman:  What is going on in social interaction?</li></li></ul><li>Its position in research<br />Epistemology:Cons...
About Erving Goffman<br />Born in 1922 in Alberta, Canada<br />University of Toronto, University of Chicago<br />Most inci...
About Erving Goffman<br />Veryconcernedwiththemicrosociology<br />Everything people did on face to face interactions<br />...
About Erving Goffman<br />His mayor publications<br />The presentation of self in everyday life‎, 1959<br />Asylums: essay...
About Erving Goffman<br />His basic categories of themes are:<br />Social order<br />Social structure<br />Organization<br...
The self
Social order
He shows a very subversive writing
Authors of:  gender, madness, politics, communication, and society have written about Goffman, and there is a wide range o...
Where individuals present themselves to one another?
Dramaturgy is a way of understanding social encounters using the analogy of a stage, or theatrical performance
All social relationships are drama; people are masks in their relations to other. </li></li></ul><li>What exactly Goffman ...
Impression management</li></ul>	The manipulation of cues to control and organize the impression we give to others <br />Fo...
Small scale interactions more than a bigger stage
More in the individual, rather than in the situation</li></li></ul><li>The  presentation of the self in every day<br />Rul...
The  presentation of the self in every day<br /><ul><li>Front
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Erving Goffman - Dramaturgical Approach Presentation

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Presentation of Erving Goffman`s dramaturgical approach.
SEMINAR FOR FIRST-YEAR PHD/EDD STUDENTS - FALL 2009 & WINTER 2010 University of Calgary

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Erving Goffman - Dramaturgical Approach Presentation

  1. 1. Ladies and gentlemen, today´s performing….<br />“ the self “<br />
  2. 2. What is happening in these situations?<br />Performing the self…<br />
  3. 3. What is happening in these situations?<br />People are giving a performance, <br />showing one of their fronts <br />in a face to face encounter. <br />
  4. 4. Dramaturgicalapproach<br /><ul><li>Aristotle or Goethe
  5. 5. More systematic work: Kenneth Burke
  6. 6. Idea of dramatism, “terministic screens”
  7. 7. Distinction of action and motion (things move, men act)
  8. 8. Men are “symbol using animals”. They build symbolic structures adding art to life.</li></li></ul><li>Dramaturgicalapproach<br /><ul><li>Society is a drama in which actions, in terms of social symbols, are the crucial events.
  9. 9. Examples: politics, mass communications, leadership, social movements, rituals, ceremonies
  10. 10. Erving Goffman: What is going on in social interaction?</li></li></ul><li>Its position in research<br />Epistemology:Constructionism- Meanings are constructed by human beings as they engage with the world they are interpreting. <br />Theoretical perspective:Interpretivism- looks for culturally derived and historic situated situations of social world.<br />Symbolic interaction: Explores the understandings of the culture as the meaningful matrix of our life.<br />Methodology: Ethnography- documenting the culture of people in social settings, getting inside the way each group of people sees the world.<br />Dramaturgical approach: analogy between life and theater<br />
  11. 11. About Erving Goffman<br />Born in 1922 in Alberta, Canada<br />University of Toronto, University of Chicago<br />Most incisive contributions to social psychology <br />Interested in exploring the borders: writing on total institutions, stigma, gender relations, role distance and frames<br />
  12. 12. About Erving Goffman<br />Veryconcernedwiththemicrosociology<br />Everything people did on face to face interactions<br />The self is the central organizing feature of all social encounters<br />Giddens and Habermas -very influenced by Goffman<br />
  13. 13. About Erving Goffman<br />His mayor publications<br />The presentation of self in everyday life‎, 1959<br />Asylums: essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates, 1961<br />Encounters: two essays in the sociology of interaction‎, 1961<br />Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity‎, 1963<br />Behavior in public places: Notes on the social organization of gatherings, 1963<br />Interaction ritual: essays in face-to-face behavior‎, 1967<br />Strategic interaction, 1969<br />Relations in public: microstudies of the public order, 1971<br />Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience, 1974<br />Gender advertisements: 1979<br />Forms of talk, 1981<br />Articles, Essays, Monographs published as books<br />
  14. 14. About Erving Goffman<br />His basic categories of themes are:<br />Social order<br />Social structure<br />Organization<br /><ul><li>Social interaction
  15. 15. The self
  16. 16. Social order
  17. 17. He shows a very subversive writing
  18. 18. Authors of: gender, madness, politics, communication, and society have written about Goffman, and there is a wide range of interest in his writings. </li></li></ul><li>What exactly Goffman tells us about his view of the world?<br /><ul><li>What is going on in social interaction?
  19. 19. Where individuals present themselves to one another?
  20. 20. Dramaturgy is a way of understanding social encounters using the analogy of a stage, or theatrical performance
  21. 21. All social relationships are drama; people are masks in their relations to other. </li></li></ul><li>What exactly Goffman tells us about his view of the world?<br /><ul><li>All we can know about a person´s self is what the person show us
  22. 22. Impression management</li></ul> The manipulation of cues to control and organize the impression we give to others <br />Focus: <br /><ul><li>Interactions with a high level of performance
  23. 23. Small scale interactions more than a bigger stage
  24. 24. More in the individual, rather than in the situation</li></li></ul><li>The presentation of the self in every day<br />Rules of social interaction and modes of self presentation<br />When an individual presents himself before others, they commonly seek to acquire information about him. <br />They will be interested in their status, his conception of self, his attitude toward them, and his trustworthiness… <br />Information about the individual helps to define the situation, enabling others to know what expect of him.<br />
  25. 25. The presentation of the self in every day<br /><ul><li>Front
  26. 26. Setting - Physical layout and backgrounds
  27. 27. Appearance - Everything we can do to our bodies
  28. 28. Manner - What we do with our bodies
  29. 29. Front stage
  30. 30. Back stage
  31. 31. Face to face interaction – influence upon another´s actions
  32. 32. Encounter – interaction that occurs one occasion
  33. 33. Performance – activity of a given participant on any occasion
  34. 34. Part or routine – the pre-established pattern of action</li></li></ul><li>The presentation of the self in every day<br />“What is accepted as reality will have some characteristics of celebration. To stay in one room apart from the party is to stay away from where reality is being performed. People must follow what it is being performed.” <br /><ul><li>Role- bundles of activities laced together
  35. 35. Dramatic realization - individual must express what he wishes to convey
  36. 36. Role embracement- Idealized roles incorporate officially accredited values of society. E.g. Teacher, priests, parenthood, students.
  37. 37. Role distance </li></li></ul><li>Interaction ritual: essays in face to face behavior<br /><ul><li>Face: the social value a person claims to himself in an interactionpositive
  38. 38. Face-work: so he will not put himself at risk, or won’t be stigmatized or marked
  39. 39. Some of this face work is our responsibility, but there are other works that show up as established by society</li></li></ul><li>Stigma<br /><ul><li>When we present a front, we put ourselves at risk
  40. 40. When a person violates moral demands of society
  41. 41. When is different from the assumed categories
  42. 42. When he posses an attribute that makes him different</li></ul>When someone does not live to those expectations others become morally offended. <br />Therest: Normals<br />Stigma <br />Discredited: people with apparent stigmas: Handicapped <br />Discreditable: well known but not apparent stigmas: rigid beliefs, unemployed, homosexuals, homeless, alcoholism, suicidal attempts, radical political behavior<br />Tribal stigma: race, nation, religion<br />
  43. 43. On cooling the mark down: some aspects of adaptation to failure” <br /><ul><li>Certain fronts are universally acceptable/unacceptable
  44. 44. Being productive, being successful, not being a criminal
  45. 45. Society is dominated by individualism and competition
  46. 46. We live in a society were failure is common
  47. 47. Mark- a person who has compromised himself, in his own eyes if not in the eyes of others.
  48. 48. Leaving a role maybeinterpreted as a mark
  49. 49. Eg: when a woman voluntarily gives up a profession in order to become a wife and a mother
  50. 50. People have to be cooled out. </li></li></ul><li>Goffman in education<br />
  51. 51. Goffman in education <br />The &quot;Cooling-Out&quot; Function in Higher Education <br /> adaptation to failure<br />gives “solutions” or cooling-out strategies for students who do not fulfill schools requirements<br />Using Goffman&apos;s concepts to explore collaborative interaction processes in elementary school mathematic<br />the different roles that emerge in the process of collaborative interaction<br />the influence of these roles on group achievement and individual learning possibilities <br />
  52. 52. Goffman in education <br />Lives in 2 languages: An exploration of identity and culture <br />discussion about the American identity <br />common misperceptions about immigrants as students<br />Addressing the baseline: Erving Goffman and ethics in a postgraduate degree for practicing teachers.<br />Problem: Students generally experience great difficulty with conceptual thinking<br />Findings: Students research changed to go beyond simple description to observations guided by theoretical ideas<br />Showed how context relates to the forms of behavior in public and to the situation of observing these forms.<br />Provided insights into an ordinary situation and was a valid way to study characters in that setting<br />Observation can be focused on looking for specific things rather than trying to note everything<br />
  53. 53. Face - work in facebook<br />Sel-f presentation theories - internet was not invented or in use<br />Face to face interaction <br />Online? <br />A Study of Self-Presentation in Light of Facebook<br />‘Screw Blackboard... do it on Facebook!’: an investigation of students’ educational use of Facebook<br />
  54. 54. Face - work in facebook<br />A Study of Self-Presentation in Light of Facebook<br />How Goffman´s approach may be transported to online social networks <br />How Facebook contributes to our understanding of self-presentation.<br />Self-presentation is an especially significant element of Facebook. <br />Facebook is different from face-to-face interactions in that very little is done spontaneously<br />This means that the self-presentation I under control…. Or not?<br />
  55. 55. Face - work in facebook<br />‘Screw Blackboard... do it on Facebook!’: an investigation of students’ educational use of Facebook<br />To observe the social significance of Facebook in the lives of undergraduate university students in the UK<br />Micro-management of their social lives<br />Its combination of self-presentation, viewing of others’ personal information and situational relevance to campus life proved attractive to students<br />They use it for the informal aspects of their education<br />Education and university-related exchanges - a minor constituent of student postings<br />Facebook appear to be an important arena within which the ‘behind the scenes work’ are performed<br />“Raises important questions about how universities will articulate their teaching relationships with internal student cohorts”<br />
  56. 56. Conclusions <br />Clear to understand <br />Simple to apply for a highly qualitative interpretivist perspective<br />Online self presentation, social networks, e-learning platforms, environments - new theories/amendments<br />Applied:<br />Societies: rigid beliefs, image as an important issue<br />Education: students behavior, counseling, academic, stake holders roles in policy implementation, etc.<br />Medical field: Doctor-patient relationship, ethics.<br />Political field: leadership personalities, scandals (Watergate)<br />No one can stay out of performing different roles in their life…<br />“The world is a wedding”<br />

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