Gamma Camera
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presentation contain information about gamma camera machine, how works the machine,what are the components and its working

presentation contain information about gamma camera machine, how works the machine,what are the components and its working

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Gamma Camera Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Muhammad Musaddiq
  • 2. GAMMA CAMERA
    Dual Head Gamma Camera
    Manufacturer: Toshiba
    Model: GCA-7200A
    Department: Nuclear Medicine.
    Specific feature is
    Scan whole body anterior and posterior view simultaneously.
  • 3. GAMMA CAMERA
    Developed by Hal Anger at Berkeley in 1957 therefore also called Anger camera
    An electronic device that detects gamma rays emitted by radio pharmaceautical (e.gtechnetium 99m (Tc-99m)that have been introduced into the body as tracers. The position of the source of the radioactivity can be plotted and displayed on a TV monitor or photographic film.
  • 4. COMPONENTS OF GAMMA CAMERA
    Collimator
    NaI(Tl) crystal.
    Photomultiplier Tubes(PMT)
    Pre-amplifier
    Position logic circuits
    Amplifier
    Pulse height analyzer
    Data Analysis Computer
    Display (Cathode Ray Tube etc).
    Gantry
  • 5. FLOW DIAGRAM OF GAMMA CAMERA
  • 6. COLLIMATOR
    Collimator is made from lead.
    Maintains the quality of image
    Spaces between holes known as septa
    Collimator consisting of a series of holes in a lead plate can be used to select the direction of the rays falling on the crystal. There are 4 types of collimator.
    Parallel-hole collimator
    Pin-hole collimator
    Diverging
    Converging
    Most collimators in use are parallel hole collimators. A parallel hole collimator is shown schematically in Figure.
  • 7. COLLIMATOR(cont)
  • 8. SCINTILLATOR (CRYSTAL)
    Sodium iodide with thallium NaI( Tl )
    The main function of crystal is convert gamma ray to photons of visible light process called scintillation.
    Amount of light proportional to deposited energy.
  • 9. CRYSTAL (cont)
  • 10. PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT)
    • The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is an instrument that converts light to electrical signals.
    • 11. Gamma Camera contains 37 -91 PMT.
    • 12. It detects and amplifies the electrons that are produced by the photocathode.  The photocathode, when stimulated by light photons, ejects electrons. The PMT is attached to the back of the crystal.   
  • PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT)
    Only a very small amount of light is given off from the scintillation detector. Only one electron is generated for every 7 to 10 photons incident on the photocathode.This electron is focused on a dynode that absorbs it and re-emits many more electrons (usually 6 to 10).These new electrons are focused on the next dynode and the process is repeated over and over in an array of dynodes. 
    At the base of the PMT is an anode that attracts the final large cluster of electrons and converts them into an electrical pulse.
  • 13. PRE AMPLIFIER AND AMPLIFIER
    Preamps attach above the PMT.
    The amount of charge given by PMT is very small. Even though we have used a sophisticated photodetector like a PMT we still end up with quite a small electrical signal.
    A very sensitive amplifier is therefore needed to amplify this signal. This type of amplifier is generally called a pre-amplifier.
    Afte that use amlifier to amlify the signal as need.
  • 14. POSITION CIRCUITARY & PULSE HEIGHT ANALYSER
    Position circuitary receive the electrical impulses from the tubes in the summing matrix circuit (SMC). 
    This allows the position circuits to determine where each scintillation event occurred in the detector crystal.
    The amplitude of each electrical pulse from the amplifiers is measured in the electrical circuits of the pulse-height analyzer
    Peak height analyzer and a computer convert the light into a useful anatomical image
  • 15. DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER
    Finally, a processing computer is used to deal with the incoming projection data and processes it into a readable image of the 3D spatial distribution of activity within the patient. 
    The computer may use various methods to reconstruct an image, such as filtered back projection or iterative reconstruction.
  • 16. GANTRY
    A gamma camera system attached with gantry.
    All circuits and motors related to movement ( longitudnal,rotational,up & down)of gamma camera placed in gantry.
    gantry
  • 17. GAMMA CAMERA SCAN
    The scan of whole body.
  • 18. APPLICATION OF GAMMA CAMERA
    GAMMA CAMERA used to locate cancerous tumours,minor bone fractures,abnormal functioning of organs and other medical problems .
    Iodine-131 is used to detect thyroid (a gland that absorbs Iodine) problems.
    Technetium-99 is used to find tumours in the body.
    Gamma camera give structural and functional image of body organs.
    Bone scan.
    Myocardial Perfusion
    Lungs scan.
    Kidney function.
    Thyroid uptake
    Whole body scan.
  • 19. THANKS