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The DIY Future: When
Everyone Is A Designer
Practical Suggestions for Ethical Challenges
Joe Lamantia
•   Involved in user experience / Internet since 1996

•   Creator of the leading freely available tool for c...
Todayʼs Menu
Ethics, conflict, social media: impact on design
Integrated experiences
Design in the DIY future
Suggestions f...
Main Entry: eth·ic
Etymology: Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin ethice, from Greek
EthikE, from...
Ethics & Conflict in Social Media
Spring 2007 - Tagged.com invitations proliferate
YASNS: Yet Another Social
Networking Service




                        ...
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM
Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :)
To: Joe Lamantia...
Yet Another Social Networking Scam




                       BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   8
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM
Subject: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN MY ADDRES...
The experience of being Tagged
“What happened next was nightmarish. My inbox started filling up with auto-responses, since
...
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM
Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :)
To: Joe Lamantia...
Is this ethical…?


      BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   12
Tagged.com Turns Profitable - May Be Fastest Growing Social Network

“Tagged is also   very aggressive with signing up new ...
Rising number of users
To Users / Customers
                                          Rapid growth in registrations
Privac...
“it’s very simple.   what if i have to choose between                                       using this scraping technique
...
“Ethical dilemmas occur when
    values are in conflict.”

Source: American Library Association Code of Ethics - adopted Ju...
Social Software Building Blocks
Identity - a way of uniquely identifying people in the
system

Presence - a way of knowing...
Conflict: Tagged.com
Identity - misrepresentation

Relationships - reductionism or “everyone is a friend”

Reputation - ʻun...
Misplaced Mediation
What Happens to Design(ers)
Business
  vs.
 Users


           BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   20
Design becomes conflict mediator
• Changes role of design
• Distorts design process
• Misdirects design decisions




     ...
3 Shifts
Permeation, Integration, Conflict




                            22
The Walls Are
  Coming
    Down
     BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   23
“...the computer revolution is occurring in two stages.”
                                                                 ...
LONDON (Reuters) - While young people embrace the Web with real or virtual friends and their
cell phone is never far away,...
Social Shift

Spread of social mechanisms and elements
Reification of existing social structures
Products & services acquir...
More Than Networking
Diverse user groups                              FOAF

Self-defined user communities                  ...
Experiences are multi-lateral




             BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   28
Multi-lateral = potential conflicts




               BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   29
Networks Broadcast Conflict




                  BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   30
Are You Getting Quechup Spammed?
“One site thatʼs catching people off guard is Quechup: weʼve got a volley of
complaints a...
Social Network Anti-Patterns
1.       Spam Your Contacts

2.       Enter Your Other Site Log-in

3.       Join to Fix Your...
Rise of the SPIME

Virtual and physical boundaries blur
Objects, spaces, information interact
Products, services & data co...
In the future, an object's life begins on a graphics screen. It
                                                      is b...
BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   35
Data Portability

Data portability is about you, the user, being able to move and
use your data across space and across ti...
Experiences are multi-dimensional




               BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   37
What happens when you can tap into the physical experience
of every person you've ever received a business card from?
How ...
New dimensions = new conflicts




             BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   39
Mediated publics have four properties that are not
   present in unmediated publics:
    • Persistence
    • Searchability...
DIY (Do It Yourself) Shift

Lowered entry barriers to design and create
Creator vs. consumer distinction blurs
Flattened c...
The DIY Shift
• Web 2.0, culture of contribution, self-publishing
• Commoditized design, development & manufacturing
• ʻSh...
Industrial Production Model




                       BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   43
Experiences are co-created




           BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   44
Ecology of Co-creation




                         BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   45
iPad Touch
Product
Concept
Renderings




http://factoryjoe.com


                        BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   46
Co-creation = conflicting agendas




               BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   47
Integrated Experiences
A Conflicted Future
Integrated Experiences & Environments
socially sensitive
legally regulated
contextually ambiguous
physically uncomfortable...
Integration “amplifies” experiences
Social & systemic mechanisms:
  • sharing
  • broadcasting
  • feedback
  • catalysis
 ...
+                       +
Broadcast       Amplification            Co-creation


            = ???
                    Blog...
Integration creates conflicts




            BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   52
Hybrids & Design
DIY, New Roles, Shared Responsibility
“The systems we keep will be hybrid creations. They will have a strong rootstock of
peer-to-peer generation, grafted below...
Design: Then




Scope                         system

                         pattern

                    product / sol...
Platforms and                           Systems


       Frameworks

                                            Network
C...
Design: Now

                                                             standard

                                      ...
Designers create the tools other
people use to create experiences
for themselves, and the world.



              BlogTalk...
Social IA:
“shared design of semi-
structured information
environments”


              BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   59
quot;I created the platform, and
                                                       then I got out of the way.
       ...
“A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer
technology should be used...
“Just as the major ethical theories of Bentham and Kant were developed in response to the printing

            a new ethi...
Design must find effective ways
 to manage conflict, encourage
     the creation of ethical
experiences, and avoid ethically...
Managing Conflict
Practical Suggestions
Professional Codes
• top-down
• costly
• slow to change
• general




...Do not help resolve conflicts

                   ...
UX Design approaches do not address conflict
 Elements of Experience

 Emotional Design

 Forces of User Experience

 Exper...
BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   67
“The Ethical Design Kit”
Strategy
Clear Goals
Simple Process
Neutral Framework
Practical Tools & Techniques




          ...
Treat conflict as a natural part of integrated experiences
Frame conflict as “new layer” of experience model

Adapt common d...
Ethical Fading
 When ethical fading occurs, a person does not realize that the
 decision she is making has ethical implica...
3 Goals for Design

                  1
  Create ethical experiences
                                                     ...
Conflict Resolution Process
1.   Discover: When a conflict arises, identify the sources of the conflict in terms of ethical o...
In Conflict, Frameworks Are Your Friend




                      BlogTalk 2008      Joe Lamantia   73
Frameworks
Addresses direct concerns of
stakeholders
Neutral
Serves as mediator
Guides resolution activities
Stable langua...
Structural                   Qualitative




             BlogTalk 2008          Joe Lamantia   75
Ethical Principals for UX in Ubiquitous Computing
1. Default to harmlessness.

Ubiquitous systems must default to a mode t...
September 5, 2007
A Bill of Rights for Users of the Social Web
Filed under: Open Social Web — jsmarr @ 5:31 am
Preamble:
T...
Bills of Rights




                  BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   78
Tools & Techniques
Practical Suggestions
Conflict-Aware Design Artifacts
Agnostic: fits most processes, methods and teams

Changes what is documented, not how, when,...
“In ethical dilemmas, we should envision two choices before us – the ethical choice and the
unethical choice.”


         ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps

Vision Themes    ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps

Stakeholder and B...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps

Map conflicts to ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps
                  ...
Vision Themes     Stakeholder       Personas       User Goals          Scenarios      Functional        Concept         Si...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps
                  ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps
                  ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps
                an...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps
                  ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps

Concept Models   ...
Vision Themes    Stakeholder   Personas   User Goals     Scenarios    Functional    Concept   Site Maps

Site Maps        ...
As we sit here and think about the spells that we're casting, let's not forget that some spells are
made accidentally and ...
Full version: www.slideshare.net/MoJoe




         Questions?




                         Go raibh maith agaibh!




   ...
Appendix
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: September 13, 2007 10:34:28 AM EDT
To: Joe Lamantia <joe@joelamantia.com>
Subj...
this antipattern is kryptonite to the open social web04jan08

We keep wagging our collective fingers about this antipattern...
Design works to understand people
• who they are
• how they think
• what they value
• how they feel


Build empathy
Create...
Want                                                                   Should
 The want self reflects actual               ...
“Social software” is turning out to be the monster that ate
everything. Which only makes sense. The Web is inherently soci...
Designing Web Applications for Use

      By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006

             ...
The most important thing to know about Spimes is that they are precisely
                                                 ...
quot;Privacy and ownership of information are at the core of the social graph
issues.

Much like there is a conflict      o...
How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free
By MARIA ASPAN
Published: February 11, 2008


While the Web s...
This is quite different from the society that you and i were used
to growing up.
We were used to having walls.
We assumed ...
“Improving our ethical behavior thus requires us to
 direct our attention toward aligning our want and
 should selves.”


...
Architecture of Participation




                        BlogTalk 2008   Joe Lamantia   107
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When Everyone Is A Designer: Practical Techniques for Ethical Design in the DIY Future

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Broad cultural and technological shifts are rapidly erasing the distinctions that separate the creators and users of social media. In this DIY future, when everyone is a designer, greater ethical challenges arise for all involved.

These ethical dilemmas come increasingly from three directions. First, from conflicts between ever larger and more diverse groups of social media stakeholders. Second, from new hybrids of product, service, and information blended into new forms such as smart objects and the SPIME, constructs which bridge the physical and virtual environments into transmedia contexts for creation and use. Third, the from the emergence of broadly available DIY (Do It Yourself) tools, infrastructure, and methods which hint at changes in the basic economic and production models underlying the origins of social media, software, and content.

In addition to throwing open the gates of the design citadel, these shifts change the role of designers from authors of point solutions to the creators of broad systems and frameworks used by others for their own expressive and functional goals. Both traditional design professionals, and the growing ranks of DIY designers, must be prepared to address the increased ethical complexity of the integrated experiences of the future.

This presentation will share practical suggestions for supporting the design and architecture of ethically sound social media by using familiar experience design methods and techniques.

Published in: Technology, Business

Transcript of "When Everyone Is A Designer: Practical Techniques for Ethical Design in the DIY Future"

  1. 1. The DIY Future: When Everyone Is A Designer Practical Suggestions for Ethical Challenges
  2. 2. Joe Lamantia • Involved in user experience / Internet since 1996 • Creator of the leading freely available tool for card sorting • Creator of the Building Blocks design framework for portals and user experiences • Designed early social sharing / networking site ʼ99 (efavorites.com) • Currently based in New York - but enjoys Europe a great deal… More: JoeLamantia.com BoxesandArrows UXMatters Tagsonomy.com BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 2
  3. 3. Todayʼs Menu Ethics, conflict, social media: impact on design Integrated experiences Design in the DIY future Suggestions for managing conflicts BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 3
  4. 4. Main Entry: eth·ic Etymology: Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin ethice, from Greek EthikE, from Ethikos 1. the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation 2. a : a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values b : the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group c : a guiding philosophy d : a consciousness of moral importance BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 4
  5. 5. Ethics & Conflict in Social Media
  6. 6. Spring 2007 - Tagged.com invitations proliferate YASNS: Yet Another Social Networking Service BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 6
  7. 7. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :) To: Joe Lamantia <joe.lamantia@gmail.com > Hi Joe - Sorry about this email - it was not sent intentionally by me and you should ignore it.  *Definitely do not visit tagged.com* -Anonymous BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 7
  8. 8. Yet Another Social Networking Scam BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 8
  9. 9. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM Subject: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN MY ADDRESS BOOK!!!!! To: customer service <support@tagged.com> Hi - when I signed up for tagged.com you fooled me into giving you all all 783 the email addresses in my gmail address book.  Now contacts appear to be getting emails even though I canceled my tagged.com account. PLEASE MAKE THIS STOP IMMEDIATELY! -Anonymous BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 9
  10. 10. The experience of being Tagged “What happened next was nightmarish. My inbox started filling up with auto-responses, since tagged was basically emailing everyone and everything in my inbox. Emails were sent to prospective employers, jeopardizing my job prospects with them. Emails were also sent to old girlfriends, some of who responded quite angrily. Emails were sent to professional colleagues, some of whom will be listening to the very presentation you are giving. I must've sent over a 100 personal responses to people apologizing profusely and explaining that the email was not sent intentionally.” -Anonymous BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 10
  11. 11. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :) To: Joe Lamantia <joe@joelamantia.com> Ouch. I'm really sorry about that. I got an invite from someone and then went through the registration process which checks your contacts from GMail list as part of the registration funnel and allows you to add users in your contacts. Little did I know that below the fold, it included every email recipient from my GMail, so when I clicked submit, it sent to every contact in my GMail account including all my email lists. How embarrassing for me.  :(  I should have read the copy on the page first. Sorry again. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 11
  12. 12. Is this ethical…? BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 12
  13. 13. Tagged.com Turns Profitable - May Be Fastest Growing Social Network “Tagged is also very aggressive with signing up new users. At registration users are strongly encouraged to invite their entire address book as friends. Itʼs a highly viral, albeit controversial, way to quickly add lots of new users.” Michael Arrington (of TechCrunch) http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/09/tagged-turns-profitable-may-be-fastest-growing- social-network/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 13
  14. 14. Rising number of users To Users / Customers Rapid growth in registrations Privacy violated Leveraging network strategy Identity hijacked Traffic increase Publicly embarrassed Lower customer acquisition costs Personal data harvested Potential profitability Damage to social fabric Unknown future costs To the Business BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 14
  15. 15. “it’s very simple. what if i have to choose between using this scraping technique in order to promote my service in order to achieve the network effects that every good social system aspires to cultivate, thereby succeeding in business but violating the spirit and potential of the open web; or not doing that, not realizing those gains, and quite possibly allowing someone else to overtake us who is willing to implement such a shortcut or just going out of business because i can’t get the traction required to make my service a success and so nobody wants to fund me because i can’t prove out my growth model?” Lane Becker, GetSatisfaction comment on Like It Matters http://www.brianoberkirch.com/2008/01/04/this-antipattern-is-kryptonite-to-the-open-social-web/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 15
  16. 16. “Ethical dilemmas occur when values are in conflict.” Source: American Library Association Code of Ethics - adopted June 28, 1995 BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 16
  17. 17. Social Software Building Blocks Identity - a way of uniquely identifying people in the system Presence - a way of knowing who is online, available or otherwise nearby Relationships - a way of describing how two users in the system are related (e.g. in Flickr, people can be contacts, friends of family) Conversations - a way of talking to other people through the system Groups - a way of forming communities of interest Reputation - a way of knowing the status of other people in the system (who's a good citizen? who can be trusted?) Sharing - a way of sharing things that are meaningful to participants (like photos or videos) “Social Software Building Blocks” by Gene Smith BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 17
  18. 18. Conflict: Tagged.com Identity - misrepresentation Relationships - reductionism or “everyone is a friend” Reputation - ʻunfair useʼ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 18
  19. 19. Misplaced Mediation What Happens to Design(ers)
  20. 20. Business vs. Users BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 20
  21. 21. Design becomes conflict mediator • Changes role of design • Distorts design process • Misdirects design decisions BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 21
  22. 22. 3 Shifts Permeation, Integration, Conflict 22
  23. 23. The Walls Are Coming Down BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 23
  24. 24. “...the computer revolution is occurring in two stages.” Permeation Introduction The second stage -- one that the industrialized world has only recently entered The first stage was that of -- is that of quot;technological quot;technological introductionquot; in permeationquot; in which technology which computer technology was developed and refined. gets integrated into everyday This already occurred in America during the human activities and into first forty years after the Second World War. social institutions, changing the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as quot;moneyquot;, quot;educationquot;, quot;workquot;, and quot;fair electionsquot;. James H. Moor Computer Ethics http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 24
  25. 25. LONDON (Reuters) - While young people embrace the Web with real or virtual friends and their cell phone is never far away, relatively few like technology and those that do tend to be in Brazil, India and China, according to a survey. Only a handful think of technology as a concept, and just 16 percent use terms like quot;social networkingquot;, said two combined surveys covering 8- to 24-year-olds published on Tuesday by Microsoft and Viacom units MTV Networks and Nickelodeon. quot;Young people don't see quot;techquot; as a separate entity - it's an organic part of their lives,quot; said Andrew Davidson, vice president of MTV's VBS International Insight unit. quot;Talking to them about the role of technology in their lifestyle would be like talking to kids in the 1980s about the role the park swing or the telephone played in their social lives -- it's invisible.quot; The surveys involved 18,000 young people in 16 countries including the UK, U.S., China, Japan, Canada and Mexico. Young keep it simple in high-tech world: survey http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSL236796320070724 BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 25
  26. 26. Social Shift Spread of social mechanisms and elements Reification of existing social structures Products & services acquire social layer New socially based offerings (SNS) Designing social systems & experiences BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 26
  27. 27. More Than Networking Diverse user groups FOAF Self-defined user communities OpenID Overlapping identities OpenSocial Group and community dynamics Enterprise 2.0 Social memory Knowledge markets Social identity mechanisms Tagging / folksonomies Reputation banking Influence trading Cultural differences Power distance indexes White-label social networks Relationship markups BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 27
  28. 28. Experiences are multi-lateral BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 28
  29. 29. Multi-lateral = potential conflicts BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 29
  30. 30. Networks Broadcast Conflict BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 30
  31. 31. Are You Getting Quechup Spammed? “One site thatʼs catching people off guard is Quechup: weʼve got a volley of complaints about them in the mailbox this weekend, and a quick Google reveals that others were caught out too. The issue lies with their “check for friends” form: during signup youʼre asked to enter your email address and password to see whether any of your friends are already on the service. Enter the password, however, and it will proceed to mail all your contacts without asking permission. This has led to many users issuing apologies to their friends for “spamming” them inadvertently. Hopefully the bad PR on this one will force them to change the system.” September 2, 2007 Pete Cashmore http://mashable.com/2007/09/02/quechup/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 31
  32. 32. Social Network Anti-Patterns 1. Spam Your Contacts 2. Enter Your Other Site Log-in 3. Join to Fix Your Profile 4. One Unified Social Network 5. I Heard You the First Time 6. Wonʼt Take No For An Answer 7. ?? http://microformats.org/wiki/snpantipatterns BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 32
  33. 33. Rise of the SPIME Virtual and physical boundaries blur Objects, spaces, information interact Products, services & data connected IPv6 & RFID GIS & geo-location Ubiquitous connectivity Smart Objects Product Life Cycle Management BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 33
  34. 34. In the future, an object's life begins on a graphics screen. It is born digital. Its design specs accompany it throughout its life. It is inseparable from that original digital blueprint, which rules the material world. This object is going to tell you -- if you ask -- everything that an expert would tell you about it. Because it WANTS you to become an expert. When Blobjects Rule the Earth by Bruce Sterling SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 2004 BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 34
  35. 35. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 35
  36. 36. Data Portability Data portability is about you, the user, being able to move and use your data across space and across time. your data - whether you created it or purchased it across space - different websites, different devices, different media, different applications, space-shifting in general across time - archiving at one point in time, retrieving at another point in time, time-shifting in general http://microformats.org/wiki/data-portability BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 36
  37. 37. Experiences are multi-dimensional BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 37
  38. 38. What happens when you can tap into the physical experience of every person you've ever received a business card from? How are we going to handle the social boundaries then? boyd, danah. 2007. quot;Incantations for Muggles: The Role of Ubiquitous Web 2.0 Technologies in Everyday Life.quot; O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, San Diego, CA. March 28. http://www.danah.org/papers/Etech2007.html BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 38
  39. 39. New dimensions = new conflicts BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 39
  40. 40. Mediated publics have four properties that are not present in unmediated publics: • Persistence • Searchability • Replicability • Invisible Audiences boyd, danah. 2007. quot;Incantations for Muggles: The Role of Ubiquitous Web 2.0 Technologies in Everyday Life.quot; O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, San Diego, CA. March 28. http://www.danah.org/papers/Etech2007.html BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 40
  41. 41. DIY (Do It Yourself) Shift Lowered entry barriers to design and create Creator vs. consumer distinction blurs Flattened control & management structures Fluid economic and cultural models BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 41
  42. 42. The DIY Shift • Web 2.0, culture of contribution, self-publishing • Commoditized design, development & manufacturing • ʻShadow ITʼ • Open Source & public data sets • APIs, Web Services, SOA • Mashup infrastructure: Yahoo Pipes, Google Gadgets • Physical goods: fab, ReadyMade, Make BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 42
  43. 43. Industrial Production Model BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 43
  44. 44. Experiences are co-created BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 44
  45. 45. Ecology of Co-creation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 45
  46. 46. iPad Touch Product Concept Renderings http://factoryjoe.com BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 46
  47. 47. Co-creation = conflicting agendas BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 47
  48. 48. Integrated Experiences A Conflicted Future
  49. 49. Integrated Experiences & Environments socially sensitive legally regulated contextually ambiguous physically uncomfortable cognitively stressful erratically connected biologically / medically sensitive ecologically constrained culturally diverse BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 49
  50. 50. Integration “amplifies” experiences Social & systemic mechanisms: • sharing • broadcasting • feedback • catalysis • synchronization increases ethical impact of design decisions BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 50
  51. 51. + + Broadcast Amplification Co-creation = ??? BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 51
  52. 52. Integration creates conflicts BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 52
  53. 53. Hybrids & Design DIY, New Roles, Shared Responsibility
  54. 54. “The systems we keep will be hybrid creations. They will have a strong rootstock of peer-to-peer generation, grafted below highly refined strains of controlling functions. Sturdy, robust foundations of user-made content and crowd-sourced innovation will feed very small slivers of leadership agility. Pure plays of 100% smart mobs or 100% smart elites will be rare. The real art of business and organizations in the network economy will not be in harnessing the crowd of quot;everybodyquot; (simple!) but in finding the appropriate hybrid mix of bottom and top for each niche, at the right time. The mix of control/no-control will shift as a system grows and matures.” Kevin Kelly The Bottom is Not Enough http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/02/the_bottom_is_n.php BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 54
  55. 55. Design: Then Scope system pattern product / solution template component Persistence BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 88 55
  56. 56. Platforms and Systems Frameworks Network Communities s The New Designer Games and Self-Teaching Systems Processes and Services Physical and Emotional Environments BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 56
  57. 57. Design: Now standard environment / framework network Designers process / service Scope system pattern product / solution template Co-creators / DIY component Persistence BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 57
  58. 58. Designers create the tools other people use to create experiences for themselves, and the world. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 58
  59. 59. Social IA: “shared design of semi- structured information environments” BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 59
  60. 60. quot;I created the platform, and then I got out of the way. Sometimes the best thing you can do is get out of the way.'' Craig Newmark http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/10/10/LVGU693SFD1.DTL BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 60
  61. 61. “A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used. Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of computer ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, that is, formulate policies to guide our actions.... One difficulty is that along with a policy vacuum there is often a conceptual vacuum. Although a problem in computer ethics may seem clear initially, a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle.” Moor, James H. (1985) quot;What Is Computer Ethics?quot; In Bynum, Terrell Ward, ed. (1985) Computers and Ethics, Blackwell, 266-75. [Published as the October 1985 issue of Metaphilosophy.] BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 61
  62. 62. “Just as the major ethical theories of Bentham and Kant were developed in response to the printing a new ethical theory is likely to emerge from press revolution, so computer ethics in response to the computer revolution.” Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska, quot;The Computer Revolution and the Problem of Global Ethicsquot; 1996, BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 62
  63. 63. Design must find effective ways to manage conflict, encourage the creation of ethical experiences, and avoid ethically unsatisfactory compromises. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 63
  64. 64. Managing Conflict Practical Suggestions
  65. 65. Professional Codes • top-down • costly • slow to change • general ...Do not help resolve conflicts BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 65
  66. 66. UX Design approaches do not address conflict Elements of Experience Emotional Design Forces of User Experience Experience Design Design Maturity Model Making Meaning User Centered Design User Experience Honeycomb User Centric Design Contextual Design Activity Centered Design Participatory Design BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 66
  67. 67. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 67
  68. 68. “The Ethical Design Kit” Strategy Clear Goals Simple Process Neutral Framework Practical Tools & Techniques BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 68
  69. 69. Treat conflict as a natural part of integrated experiences Frame conflict as “new layer” of experience model Adapt common design methods and tools Include conflict as a subject from the start Address conflicts as they arise Insist on resolution BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 69
  70. 70. Ethical Fading When ethical fading occurs, a person does not realize that the decision she is making has ethical implications, and ethical criteria do not enter into her decision. When the ethical dimensions of the decision are hidden, the should self has no reason to be activated, the want self is allowed to freely dominate the decision and unethical behavior ensues. Why We Aren’t as Ethical as We Think We Are: A Temporal Explanation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 70
  71. 71. 3 Goals for Design 1 Create ethical experiences 2 Focus on Design, 3 Use Design compromises not mediation for Design problems Our most important goal in this effort is A second goal is to remove design A third goal is to eliminate (reduce) to ensure the user experiences we from the uncomfortable position of ad- design compromises made to satisfy create are ethical in every aspect. hoc mediator for unresolved conflicts external conflicts: Design between other perspectives and compromises should resolve design stakeholders, conflicts that get ʻpassed problems, not ethical dilemmas or downʼ to design for resolution conflicts between stakeholders. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 71
  72. 72. Conflict Resolution Process 1. Discover: When a conflict arises, identify the sources of the conflict in terms of ethical or other values (for example, privacy laws and preferences) affected, as well as all affected parties. 2. Understand: Explore the implications of conflicts (ethical, legal, experiential, business, design, etc.), as well as the tradeoffs and costs vs. benefits of likely compromises. 3. Educate: Share insights and understanding with all relevant stakeholders. 4. Resolve: Identify resolution strategies and possible compromises. Using agreed on resolution mechanisms, resolve the identified conflict before making design decisions. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 72
  73. 73. In Conflict, Frameworks Are Your Friend BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 73
  74. 74. Frameworks Addresses direct concerns of stakeholders Neutral Serves as mediator Guides resolution activities Stable language Allows assessment and comparison of alternatives Sell once, use often BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 74
  75. 75. Structural Qualitative BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 75
  76. 76. Ethical Principals for UX in Ubiquitous Computing 1. Default to harmlessness. Ubiquitous systems must default to a mode that ensures their usersʼ (physical, psychic and financial) safety. 2. Be self-disclosing. Ubiquitous systems must contain provisions for immediate and transparent querying of their ownership, use, capabilities, etc., such that human beings encountering them are empowered to make informed decisions regarding exposure to same. 3. Be conservative of face. Ubiquitous systems are always already social systems, and must contain provisions such that wherever possible they not unnecessarily embarrass, humiliate, or shame their users. 4. Be conservative of time. Ubiquitous systems must not introduce undue complications into ordinary operations. 5. Be deniable. Ubiquitous systems must offer users the ability to opt out, always and at any point. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/all_watched_over_by_machines_of_loving_grace_some_ethical_guidelines_for_user_experience_in_ubiquitous_computing_settings_1_ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 76
  77. 77. September 5, 2007 A Bill of Rights for Users of the Social Web Filed under: Open Social Web — jsmarr @ 5:31 am Preamble: There are already many who support the ideas laid out in this Bill of Rights, but we are actively seeking to grow the roster of those publicly backing the principles and approaches it outlines. That said, this Bill of Rights is not a document “carved in stone” (or written on paper). It is a blog post, and it is intended to spur conversation and debate, which will naturally lead to tweaks of the language. So, let’s get the dialogue going and get as many of the major stakeholders on board as we can! A Bill of Rights for Users of the Social Web Authored by Joseph Smarr, Marc Canter, Robert Scoble, and Michael Arrington September 4, 2007 We publicly assert that all users of the social web are entitled to certain fundamental rights, specifically: • Ownership of their own personal information, including: ◦ their own profile data ◦ the list of people they are connected to ◦ the activity stream of content they create; • Control of whether and how such personal information is shared with others; and • Freedom to grant persistent access to their personal information to trusted external sites. Sites supporting these rights shall: • Allow their users to syndicate their own profile data, their friends list, and the data that’s shared with them via the service, using a persistent URL or API token and open data formats; • Allow their users to syndicate their own stream of activity outside the site; • Allow their users to link from their profile pages to external identifiers in a public way; and • Allow their users to discover who else they know is also on their site, using the same external identifiers made available for lookup within the service. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 77
  78. 78. Bills of Rights BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 78
  79. 79. Tools & Techniques Practical Suggestions
  80. 80. Conflict-Aware Design Artifacts Agnostic: fits most processes, methods and teams Changes what is documented, not how, when, where BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 80
  81. 81. “In ethical dilemmas, we should envision two choices before us – the ethical choice and the unethical choice.” Unethical Ethical “Not doing so allows the ethical choice to hide in the “Doing so allows us to see background and helps to that in choosing the fade just how unethical the unethical action, we are not unethical choice is.” choosing the ethical act.” Why We Aren’t as Ethical as We Think We Are: A Temporal Explanation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 81
  82. 82. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Vision Themes and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models How To Address Conflict: • Prioritize all elements for their importance to the overall vision, ranking them or scoring them using simple criteria. Do not score or rank conflicted items • Identify conflicting elements and set them aside. • When two items conflict directly, require stakeholders to choose only one. • When multiple items conflict, require stakeholders to choose only one. • Treat conflicting instances as optional. Set all conflicting items aside for consideration in the future. • Use a Delphi process to redefine conflicting items. • Require unanimous consent from all stakeholders to include any individual items. • Require unanimous consent from all stakeholders that the collected vision items are those needed and adequate. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 82
  83. 83. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Stakeholder and Business and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models Requirements How To Address Conflict: • Map conflicts back to defined business strategies and goals. • Set aside any requirements that contain or inspire conflict as tentative / potential / non-material for design purposes. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 83
  84. 84. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Map conflicts to business strategy and goals and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 84
  85. 85. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps and Business and Needs Requirements Models Personas Requirements How To Address Conflict: • Prioritize all personas based on business goals • Identify and call out conflicts for each persona • Identify any personas associated with conflicts. Set them aside, and then prioritize the remaining personas relative to each other. • Compare the priorities before and after. Large differences indicate personas that may not be essential • Enumerate any individual attributes that conflict. When personas share a conflicted attribute, strike the attribute from further consideration in the design • Map the persona landscape as a family tree or circle, identifying relationships and conflicts with other personas. • Remove all personas with more than a maximum number of conflicted relationships • Set a threshold for how many personas associate with conflicts may remain • Remove personas associated with conflicts one at a time, beginning with the lowest priority, until the threshold is met. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 85
  86. 86. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Identify conflicts relevant to individual personas and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models Chen Xiang Surveyor: Emerging Market Development > Corporate User Investment Banker, Shanghai, China Subsidiary Seeker “I’m looking for a ratings agency I can partner with.” Critical User Needs  Learn about Client.com and their operations in China  Select the agency he feels will be best for his General Description clients Chen is a recent graduate and a new employee of the Key Job Functions Bank of China. In his role as an investment banker he will be helping to structure debt offerings and sell them in  Assist corporations in raising funds in China’s China’s emerging capital markets. He knows that a emerging capital markets respected and authoritative third party assessment of the  Provides strategic advisory services for mergers, debt will increase its liquidity and improve its price in the acquisitions and other types of corporate marketplace. financial transactions As such he is working to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of using the emerging local ratings Conflicts and Opportunities agencies versus the internationally established agencies  Highlight the breadth and depth of information such as Client.com. He is looking to find the highest offered in each country / region levels of transparency, so that he can be confident in whom he chooses to work with moving forward.  Support localization, allowing content, search parameters, currency, reference indices, and formatting styles to be targeted to user’s preferred region and language BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 86
  87. 87. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps and Business and Needs Requirements Models User Goals and Requirements Needs How To Address Conflict: • Identify instances of direct conflict between individual goals – some will conflict across all types of users • Identify instances of conflict between types of users based on conflicts in their unique goals. • Score the severity of any conflicts on a simple scale (1-5) to highlight trouble spots. Set thresholds for how much conflict is acceptable. • Total the number of conflicts associated with each goal; above a certain threshold, set the goal aside, and consider addressing it with another design solution • Total the number of conflicts associated with each user type; above a certain threshold, set the user type aside, and consider addressing it with another design solution • Total the degree of conflict associated with each goal. If a goal scores high enough, set it aside; problematic goals may be better met by another design solution • Total the degree of conflict associated with each user type. If a user type scores high enough, set it aside; problematic user types might be better served by another design solution • Compare the conflict associated with each user type to their relative priority. Remove user types with high conflict scores and lower priorities. For user types with high priorities and high conflict scores, set them aside and consider providing another design solution. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 87
  88. 88. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps and Business and Needs Requirements Models Scenarios Requirements How To Address Conflict: • Identify scenarios that contain internal conflicts; eg. between the personas mentioned, the goals and needs of a single persona, the environment and the personas mentioned, or otherwise. • When conflicts across several scenarios are rooted in a single business process, experience, goal, or other element, remove it from the pool of items, and rewrite the scenarios to reflect its absence. If the gestalt is still coherent, set the element. • Identify and cross reference all scenarios that conflict with any other scenarios in terms of outcome (end state) or starting conditions. Heavily conflicted scenarios point to overlapping intersections of unbalanced needs and goals, concepts, mental models, or other motivators. • Create scenarios that focus on and relate the root causes of conflicts in terms of values or experiences for the affected personas, instead of framing from the business point of view. • When conflicts across several scenarios are rooted in a single persona, consider removing the common persona from the expected audience for the design solution • Compare scenarios that depict or describe a future state for an envisioned solution, product, process, etc. When these scenarios conflict, use a Delphi process to recreate them and resolve conflicts. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 88
  89. 89. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps and Business and Needs Requirements Models Requirements BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 89
  90. 90. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps and Business and Needs Requirements Models Functional Requirements Requirements How To Address Conflict: • Cross-reference conflicting requirements by owner or sponsor. Require owners or sponsors to negotiate conflicts independently. • ʻNarrow the funnelʼ: reduce the number of allowed conflicts at successive revisions of the collected requirements • Auction a (very) limited set of conflict slots, allowing owners to bid on requirements with a fixed number of points. Reduce the number of conflict slots available in each succeeding version of the functional requirements. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 90
  91. 91. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Concept Models and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models How To Address Conflict: • Begin with a simplified single conceptual model. Set aside any objects that inspire conflict in their definition or relationships • Create additional models to capture different views. • Compare the amount of conflict in each, and choose a single model to move forward with. • List contested objects / concepts, and rank them in order of priority. Set aside all conflicted objects below a certain threshold. • Remove all conflicted objects. Set a threshold for the number of conflicted objects the design will accommodate. • Replace conflicted objects one a time, in order of priority, beginning with the highest ranking, until the threshold is met. • Remove all instances of a conflicted relationship. Assign each a priority. • Replace conflicted relationships one a time, in order of priority, beginning with the highest ranking, until the threshold is met. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 91
  92. 92. Vision Themes Stakeholder Personas User Goals Scenarios Functional Concept Site Maps Site Maps and Business Requirements and Needs Requirements Models How To Address Conflict: • Compare / contrast conflicting high-level structures • Build modularly, highlight areas of conflict • Document conflicts in navigation model separately • Flag conflicts in content structure and detailed information discussed in other artifacts - topic maps, taxonomies, etc. • Cross-reference to alternative functional interactions and flows (use cases and process flows) BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 92
  93. 93. As we sit here and think about the spells that we're casting, let's not forget that some spells are made accidentally and some magic has unintended consequences. Technology is soaking into the woodwork of society. But we, as technologists, have a responsibility to keep people in mind at all times. Their practices inform us but our unintended consequences affect them. It is ubiquitous, but ubiquitous is not always positive. As you build technologies that allow the magic of everyday people to manifest, i ask you to consider the good, the bad, and the ugly. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 93
  94. 94. Full version: www.slideshare.net/MoJoe Questions? Go raibh maith agaibh! BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 94
  95. 95. Appendix
  96. 96. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: September 13, 2007 10:34:28 AM EDT To: Joe Lamantia <joe@joelamantia.com> Subject: Re: Tagged.com email address harvesting Ugh. Don't make me relive that experience. The funny things is that most of the facebook apps that I'm installing these days feature the opt out method of inviting your friends, e.g. the flixter quiz. If you Anyway, here's the apology I wrote to all my contacts. publish anything about this, I would appreciate if you not mention me by name, for obvious reasons. -Anonymous BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 96
  97. 97. this antipattern is kryptonite to the open social web04jan08 We keep wagging our collective fingers about this antipattern of asking users to input their credentials for another service but evidently no one is listening. As I see using your Facebook credentials to scrape your Plaxo trumpeting a new ’service’ that consists of just this: friends’ contact information and import it into Plaxo Pulse, in direct violation of Facebook TOS and in indirect violation of the ethical agreement ‘friends’ make when they offer access to their profiles within the bounds of Facebook. designing the open social Web has nothing to do with encouraging Let’s be clear about this: users to violate the TOS of another Web service. [See this? Don’t do this.] Putting users in control of (and teaching them to take responsibility for) their own data and giving them the tools and contextual prompts to do the right thing has nothing to do with duping them into letting you run a scraping script for your own benefit. It’s time to stop looking the other way when it comes to this practice and note that your short term gains (in terms of new users, better meshed users, etc.) come with some high prices in the long run. Brian Oberkirch http://www.brianoberkirch.com/2008/01/04/this-antipattern-is-kryptonite-to-the-open-social-web/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 97
  98. 98. Design works to understand people • who they are • how they think • what they value • how they feel Build empathy Create relationships BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 98
  99. 99. Want Should The want self reflects actual The should self behavior that is encompasses ethical characterized more by self- intentions and the belief that interest and by a relative we should behave disregard for ethical according to ethical considerations. principles. “we know we should behave ethically when “...our desire to close the sale causes us to negotiating with our client” make misleading statements” Why We Aren’t as Ethical as We Think We Are: A Temporal Explanation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 99
  100. 100. “Social software” is turning out to be the monster that ate everything. Which only makes sense. The Web is inherently social, and so are human beings. Anything that better enables the flow of natural social behaviors (rather than more artificial broadcast/consume behaviors) is going to grow like kudzu in Georgia. Anybody thinking of social software as a special category of software design needs to wake up and smell the friends list. Everything from eBay to Plaxo is integrating social networking tools into their services, and Google is looking to connect them all together (or at least change the game so that all must comply or die of irrelevance). Andrew Hinton, Information Architect Seven Years, and How Social Software eats everything http://www.inkblurt.com/archives/520 BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 100
  101. 101. Designing Web Applications for Use By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006 And they are all “A third problem with users is that there are so many of them. different. They want different things and like different things and react differently. I have watched teams run in circles as they redesign for each new user who gives them feedback on a paper prototype or each new group passing through the usability lab. The genuine diversity of real people can distract designers from the commonality of their needs and interests.” http://www.uie.com/articles/designing_web_applications_for_use/ BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 101
  102. 102. The most important thing to know about Spimes is that they are precisely located in space and time. They have histories. They are recorded, tracked, inventoried, and always associated with a story. Spimes have identities, they are protagonists of a documented process. When Blobjects Rule the Earth by Bruce Sterling SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 2004 BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 102
  103. 103. quot;Privacy and ownership of information are at the core of the social graph issues. Much like there is a conflict of interest around attention information between online retailers and users, there is a mismatch between what individuals and companies want from social networks. When any social network starts, it is hungry to leverage other networks… But as individuals, we do not care about either young or old networks. We care about ease of use and privacy.quot; Social Graph: Concepts and Issues, by Alex Iskold BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 103
  104. 104. How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free By MARIA ASPAN Published: February 11, 2008 While the Web site offers users the option to deactivate their accounts, Facebook servers keep copies of the information in those accounts indefinitely. Indeed, many users who have contacted Facebook to request that their accounts be deleted have not succeeded in erasing their records from the network. “It’s like the Hotel California,” said Nipon Das, 34, a director at a biotechnology consulting firm in Manhattan, who tried unsuccessfully to delete his account this fall. “You can check out any time you like, but you can never leave.” The technological hurdles set by Facebook have a business rationale: they allow ex-Facebookers who choose to return the ability to resurrect their accounts effortlessly. According to an e-mail message from Amy Sezak, a spokeswoman for Facebook, “Deactivated accounts mean that a user can reactivate at any time and their information will be available again just as they left it.” But it also means that disenchanted users cannot disappear from the site without leaving footprints. Facebook’s terms of use state that “you may remove your user content from the site at any time,” but also that “you acknowledge that the company may retain archived copies of your user content.” Its privacy policy says that after someone deactivates an account, “removed information may persist in backup copies for a reasonable period of time.” Facebook’s Web site does not inform departing users that they must delete information from their account in order to close it fully — meaning that they may unwittingly leave anything from e-mail addresses to credit card numbers sitting on Facebook servers. BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 104
  105. 105. This is quite different from the society that you and i were used to growing up. We were used to having walls. We assumed that the norms were set by the environment and that you behaved differently in synagogue than in the pub and that was AOK. Context was key but context depends on there being walls. Online, there are no walls. The walls have come crumbling down. boyd, danah. 2007. quot;Incantations for Muggles: The Role of Ubiquitous Web 2.0 Technologies in Everyday Life.quot; O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, San Diego, CA. March 28. http://www.danah.org/papers/Etech2007.html BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 105
  106. 106. “Improving our ethical behavior thus requires us to direct our attention toward aligning our want and should selves.” 1. Recognizing our multiple selves 2. Listen to and incorporate the needs of the want self 3. Increase the influence of the should self 4. decrease the influence of the want self Why We Aren’t as Ethical as We Think We Are: A Temporal Explanation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 106
  107. 107. Architecture of Participation BlogTalk 2008 Joe Lamantia 107
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