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An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800
 

An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800

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World History Patterns of Interaction

World History Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 19

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    An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800 An Age of Exploration and Isolation, 1400—1800 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 19Pgs 460—479
    • Section 1Pgs 463—468
    •  Main reason for exploration Through overseas exploration, merchants ,and traders hoped tobenefit from the trade of spices in Asia Christians introduced to these items during the Crusades After the crusades Europeans still demanded these goods High demand=high prices Muslims and Italians controlled trade of goods from east to west Muslims sold Asian goods to Italian merchants Italians controlled the trade across land routes of theMediterranean Resold to items at increased prices to merchants, severely cuttingmerchants prophets Sought to bypass Italian merchants by finding a sea routedirectly to Asia
    •  Crusades left feeling of hostility between Christiansand Muslims European nations believed they had a sacred duty tocontinue fighting Muslims and to convert non-Christians throughout the world Wanted to Christianize the people of Asia Bartolomeu Dias explained motives “to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do”
    •  Advances in technology made voyages of discoverypossible Shipbuilders designed a new vessel, which was sturdierthan earlier vessels and was able to sail against thewind Earlier boats couldnt sail against the wind To better determine their location, Europeans used theastrolabe Used magnetic compass invented by the Chinese
    •  Used to better determinelocation at sea Perfected by Muslims Brass circle with carefullyadjusted rings marked off indegrees Using the rings to sight thestars, the sea captain could tellhow far north or south of theequator he was
    •  Portuguese sea captain explained motives for converting non-Christians “to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do” sailed down the coast of Africa, until he reached thetip, when he was caught in a storm The storm blew him and his crew to the southeastcoast of Africa, and he considered going to India Exhausted crew and short supply forced him to turnback
    •  “Henry the Navigator” Portugals most enthusiastic supporter of exploration Dreams of oversea exploration began when heconquered the Muslim city of Ceuta First glimpse of the wealth outside of Europe Determined to reach the source of the wealth in theEast Wanted to spread the Christian faith In 1419, he founded a Navigational school in Portugal By time of his death Portugal had many trading postsalong the coast of Africa
    •  Muslim city in North Africa Conquered by Henry theNavigator of Portugal Gave Portuguese, their firstglimpse of the wealth in theeast had exotic stores filled withpepper, cinnamon, cloves, andother spices Contained large supplies ofgold, silver, and jewels
    •  Portuguese explorer Reached the port of Calicut On the southwestern coast of India Amazed by the spices, rare jewels, and precious gemsthat filled Calicut’s shops Filled ships with such items After returning from Calicut, he received a hero’swelcome Voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct searoute to India
    •  Located on thesouthwestern coast ofIndia Filled with spices, raresilks and precious gems Discovered by Vasco daGama Gave Portugal a directsea route to India
    •  Italian sea captain Convince Spain to finance finding a route to Asia bysailing west across the Atlantic Ocean While “sailing to Asia” he reached the shores of anisland in the Caribbean, and believed he had reachedIndia, and claimed it for Spain Open way for European colonization in the Americas Increased tensions between Spain and Portugal Unknown if Columbus’ land he had claimed for Spain hadalready been claimed for Portugal
    •  Stepped in betweenPortugal and Spainto keep the peace ofthe two nations suggested the Lineof Demarcation
    •  Created to keep peace betweenPortugal and Spain Suggested by Pope Alexander VI Imaginary dividing line, drawnnorth to south through theAtlantic Ocean All lands to the west wouldbelong to Portugal All lands to the east wouldbelong to Spain Later line would be movedfarther west to include parts ofmodern-day Brazil for thePortuguese
    •  A 1494 treaty betweenPortugal and Spain Declared newly discoveredlands to the west of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Spain Declared newly discoveredland to the east of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Portugal
    •  Port city on India’swest coast Captured by thePortuguese Capital ofPortugal’s tradingempire
    •  City on the west coastof the Malay peninsula Attacked by Portuguese Its capture gave thePortuguese control ofthe Strait of Malacca Later captured by theDutch
    •  Captured byPortuguese afterthey capturedMalacca Its capture allowedthe Portuguese gavethem control of theMoluccas
    •  “spice islands” Very rich in spices Captured andcontrolled byPortugal afterthey captured theStrait of Malacca
    •  Portuguese sea captain Stressed country’s intense desireto crush the Muslim-Italiandomination over Asian trade “If we deprive them [Muslims] of this theirancient market there, there does not remainfor them a single port in the whole of theseparts, where they can carry on their trade inthese things. . . . I hold it as very certain thatif we take this trade of Malacca away out oftheir hands, Cairo and Mecca are entirelyruined, and to Venice will no spiceries . . .[be]. . . conveyed except that which her merchantsgo and buy in Portugal”
    •  Spanish seacaptain Claimed thePhilippines forSpain Began settlingin them
    •  Netherlands Small country situated along the North Sea innorthwestern Europe Leading sea power Largest fleet in the world –20,000 vessels Established the Dutch East India Company Began to challenge Portugal’s dominance over theIndian Ocean trade
    •  Companies that established and directedtrade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies
    •  Founded in the early 17th century by the Netherlands Meant to establish and direct trade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies Richer and more powerful than England’s company Dutch eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the regoin established their trading headquarter at Batavia seized the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands from Portugal increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade so many goods from the East traveling to the Netherlands, the nation’scapital, Amsterdam, became a leading commercial center ruled much of Indonesia and had trading posts in several Asian countries controlled the Cape of Good Hope used as a resupply stop.
    •  On island of Java Location where Dutchestablished their traininghead quarters From their the Dutchconquered several nearbyislands. Batavia
    •  Controlled byDutch On southern tipof AfricaCape of GoodHope
    •  Less powerful than the Dutch East IndiaCompany Focused much of its energy on establishingoutposts in India Built up a successful business trading finecloth
    •  It struggled at first it faced continual attacks by the Dutch Eventually established an outpost in India in the1720s. never showed much of a profit.
    • Section 2Pgs 469—473
    •  1368—1644 (276 years) Caused China to become the dominant power in Asia rulers were not going to allow outsiders from distantlands into their country in fear of them threating thepeace and prosperity they had brought to China whenthey ended Mongol rule
    •  Son of a peasant Commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of china in 1368 First emperor of Ming Dynasty Began reforms Agricultural reforms Increased rice production Improved irrigation Introduced farm fishing and the growing of commercial crops (cotton and sugar cane) Erase traces of Mongol past Promote China’s power and prosperity Used respected traditions to bring stability to China Encouraged a return to Confucian moral standards Improved imperial administration Restoring the merit-based civil service Became a ruthless tyrant, later on in his rule, when problems began to develop Suspecting plots against his rule, he conducted purges Thousands of government officials were killed After his death, there was a struggle for power Father of Yonglo
    •  Located in southernChina Capital city under theYuan Dynasty Hongwu’s place of rule
    •  Son of Hongwu Became ruler of China, after a struggle for power, after hisfather’s death Continued many of his father’s policies Moved the royal court to Beijing Had a far-ranging curiosity about the outside world 1405 , before Europeans began to explore, he launched 7voyages of expedition All led by Zhang He Hoped to impress the world with the power of Ming China Acomplished by voyages
    •  led Yonglo’s sevenvoyages of expedition Distributed gifts, suchas gold, silver, silk and scented outs to everyone, to showChinese superiority As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribunes to China Many envoys traveled to China Chinese scholar-officials opposed this idea, saying that it was a wasteof valuable resources
    •  To keep influence of outsiders down, only the government wasable to conduct foreign trade In reality, trade flourished up and down the coast Prophet-oriented merchants sold goods such as spices and silk toEuropeans, for much less than what they were used to paying Demand for Chinese goods had a large effect on the economy Silk and ceramic making industries grew rapidly Manufacturing and commerce increased China did NOT become industrialized Idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian belief Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture Taxes on agriculture lowered Taxes on manufacturing skyrocketed
    •  First missionary, under Mingrule, to have an impact Italian Jesuit Gained special favor at the Mingcourt Able to speak and write Chinese Still opposed by many of theeducated Chinese opposedChristianity
    •  Extravagant palace complex at the capital city, Beijing Monument to China’s isolationism Built by Yonglo between 1404 and 1420 Known as foreign city because it was forbidden to allcommoners and foreigners Inside emperors conducted business of China and lived inluxury Only emperor and his court lived in the palace Expensive to maintain 6, 000 cooks to make meals for 10,000-15,000 people 1949 converted into a museum and open to the public
    •  Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, and a governmentout of money, all weakened Ming China Higher taxes and poor harvests pushed millions ofpeasants to starvation Civil strife and rebellion followed Manchus invaded China The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynastycollapsed
    •  From Manchuria Located beyond the northeast end of the Great Wall In 1644, they invaded China The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynastycollapsed Took a Chinese name for their dynasty, like theMongols, naming it the Qing Dynasty 1644—1911 Bring Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, andTibet under Chinese rule
    •  1644—1911 Resisted by many of the Chinese Forced Chinese to wear hat in a ponytail as a sign ofsubmission Slowly earned respect of people Upheld traditional Chinese systems Made frontier safe
    •  Became emperor in 1661 and ruled for about 60 years Reduced government expenses and lowered taxes Gained support of Chinese intellectuals by offeringthem government positions Enjoyed company of the Jesuits at court Informed him of the latest developments in science,medicine, and mathematics in Europe
    •  Kangxi’s grandson Ruled from 1763—1795 Helped China reach its greatest size and prosterity Often rose at dawn to work on the problems of hisempire Armed namads on its borders Christian missionaries European merchants Refused to make better trade arrangements with KingGeorge III/England
    •  If foreign states wished to trade with China, theywould have to follow Chinese rules Dutch accepted these restrictions Diplomats paid tribute to China’s emperors Performing “kowtow” ritual As a result, dutch returned with many fine Chinesegoods, like porcelein, silk, and tea
    •  Ritual that merchants whowanted to trade with Chinawere required to do Involved merchantskneeling in front of theemperor and touching theirheads to the ground ninetimes
    •  British wanted to trade withChina, but didn’t like China’strade restrictions In 1793, King George IIIasked for a better trade tradearrangement , which Quian-long refused
    •  Delivered letter from KingGeorge III (England) toQuian-long (China) Letter asked for a better tradearrangement between Englandand China Refused to “kowtow” theemperor, although he bowed onone knee
    • Sent Lord GeorgeMacartney with aletter to Quian-long, asking for abetter tradearrangement
    •  Conquered by the Manchus in 1636 and turned unto avassal state Existed in Korea’s shadow Organized their government according to Confucianprinciples Adopted Chinese technology and culture, especially theirits policy of isolation When the Manchus established the Qing dynasty thepolitical relationship with China did not change. ButKorea’s attitude did. The Manchu invasion, combined with a Japanese attack inthe 1590s, provoked strong feelings of nationalism most evident in their art—of traditional Chinese subjects,many artists chose to show popular Korean scenes
    •  Most Chinese families had farmed the land the sameway their ancestors had. during the Qing dynasty, irrigation and fertilizer useincreased Farmers grew rice and new crops, such as corn andsweet potatoes, brought by Europeans from theAmericas. As food production increased, nutrition improved andfamilies expanded and the population exploded
    • Sons Only a son was allowed toperform vital religiousrituals. A son also would raise hisown family under hisparents’ roof assuring aging parents ofhelp with the farming Men dominated thehousehold and their wives females were not valued, andmany female infants were killed. Although men dominated thehousehold and theirwives, women had significantresponsibilities. working in the fields supervised the children’seducation managed the family’sfinances most women were forced toremain secluded in theirhomes, but some found outsidejobs such as working asmidwives or textile workers.Daughters
    •  The culture of early modern China was based mainly ontraditional forms The great masterpiece of traditional Chinese fiction was writtenduring this period Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines upper classManchu society in the 1700s. Most artists of the time painted in traditional styles, whichvalued technique over creativity. In pottery, technical skill as well as experimentation led to theproduction of high-quality ceramics, including porcelain. Drama was a popular entertainment, especially in rural China where literacy rates were low. Plays that presented Chinese history and cultural heroesentertained and also helped unify Chinese society by creating anational culture.
    • Section 3Pgs 474—477
    •  “Warring States,” period Powerful samurai seized control of old feudal estates. They offered peasants and others protection in return fortheir loyalty. Under this system, security came from a group of powerfulwarlords. The emperor at Kyoto became a figurehead, having aleadership title but no actual power. resembled European feudalism in many ways. The daimyo built fortified castles and created small armiesof samurai on horses Rival daimyo often fought each other for territory. This led to disorder throughout the land.
    •  became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism. meant “great name.” built fortified castles and created small armies ofsamurai on horses. Later they added foot soldiers with muskets (guns) totheir ranks. Rivals often fought each other for territory. This led to disorder throughout the land. hoped to gather enough power to take control of theentire country
    •  defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capitalKyoto in 1568. sought to eliminate his remaining enemies. These included rival daimyo as well as wealthy Buddhistmonasteries aligned with them. In 1575, his 3,000 soldiers armed with muskets crushedan enemy force of samurai cavalry. first time firearms had been used effectively in battle inJapan. was not able to unify Japan. He committed seppuku,
    •  the ritual suicide of asamurai Nobunaga committedseppuku in 1582, when oneof his own generals turnedon him.
    •  Nobunaga’s best general continued Nobunaga’s mission. set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile. By 1590, he controlled most of the country. did not stop with Japan. With the idea of eventually conquering China, heinvaded Korea in 1592 and began a long campaignagainst the Koreans and their Ming Chinese allies. With his death in 1598, his troops withdrew from Korea.
    •  One of Hideyoshi’s strongest daimyo allies, completed the unification of Japan. In 1600 defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan. became the sole ruler, or shogun. moved Japan’s capital to his power base at Edo To keep the daimyo from rebelling, required that they follow the “alternateattendance policy” and other restrictions tamed the daimyo. a major step toward restoring centralized government to Japan. As a result, Ieyasu founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would holdpower until 1867. On his deathbed in 1616, Ieyasu advised his son, Hidetada, “Take care of thepeople. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” Most Tokugawa shoguns followed that advice. Their rule brought a welcomeorder to Japan.
    •  Tokugawa Ieyasu, completed the unification ofJapan. Ieyasu defeated his rivals. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyothroughout Japan
    • a small fishing village that would later become the city ofTokyo.
    •  Japan was unified, but the daimyo still governed atthe local level. To keep them from rebelling, Ieyasu required thatthey spend every other year in the capital. Even when they returned to their lands, they had toleave their families behind as hostages in Edo.Through this and other restrictions, Ieyasu tamed thedaimyo. major step toward restoring centralized government toJapan.
    •  A dynasty of shoguns that ruled unified Japan from1603 to 1867 Their rule brought a welcome order to Japan’s poweruntil 1867 Japan enjoyed more than two and a halfcenturies of stability, prosperity, and isolation underthe Tokugawa shoguns
    • Confucius the ideal societydepended onagriculture, notcommerce. Farmers, notmerchants, made idealcitizens peasant farmers bore themain tax burden and facedmore difficulties than anyother class. Many of them abandonedfarm life and headed forthe expanding towns andcities. There, they mixedwith samurai, artisans,and merchants. Industrial, not agriculturalReality
    •  The rise of large commercial centers also increasedemployment opportunities for women. Women found jobs in entertainment, textilemanufacturing, and publishing. the majority of Japanese women led sheltered andrestricted lives as peasant wives. They worked in the fields, managed thehousehold, cared for the children, and obeyed theirhusband without question
    •  Samurai attended ceremonial noh dramas, were based on tragic themes. read tales of ancient warriors and their courage in battle. In their homes, they hung paintings that showed scenesfrom classical literature. traditional entertainment faced competition in the citiesfrom new styles of literature, drama, and art. Townspeople read a new type of fiction, realistic storiesabout self-made merchants or the hardships of life. The people also read haiku Townspeople also attended kabuki theater. The paintings the people enjoyed were often woodblockprints showing city life.
    •  Attended by townspeople Actors in elaboratecostumes, using music,dance, and mime,performed skits aboutmodern life.
    •  3-line verse poetry presents images rather than ideas.On a journey, ailingMy dreams roam aboutOver a withered moor.MATSUO BASHO, from MatsuoBashoTabi ni yandeYume wa Kareno oKakemeguruMATSUO BASHO, in Japanese
    •  The Japanese first encountered Europeans in 1543, when shipwreckedPortuguese sailors washed up on the shores of southern Japan.Portuguese merchants soon followed. They hoped to involve themselves in Japan’s trade with China andSoutheast Asia. The Portuguese brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, andother unfamiliar items from Europe. Japanese merchants were happy to receive the newcomers and theirgoods. The daimyo, too, welcomed the strangers. interested in the Portuguese muskets and cannons, because everydaimyo sought an advantage over his rivals The Japanese purchased weapons from the Portuguese and soon begantheir own production. Firearms forever changed the time-honored tradition of the Japanesewarrior, whose principal weapon had been the sword.
    •  Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan in 1549 The Japanese accepted the missionaries in part they associated them with the muskets and otherEuropean goods that they wanted to purchase. the religious orders of Jesuits, Franciscans, andDominicans came to convert the Japanese. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit, led the first mission to Japan. baptized about a hundred converts before he left Japan. By 1600, other European missionaries had convertedabout 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
    •  Jesuit led the first mission to Japan. baptized about a hundredconverts before he left Japan.
    •  The success of the missionaries upset TokugawaIeyasu. He found aspects of the Christian invasiontroublesome. Missionaries, actively seeking converts, scornedtraditional Japanese beliefs and sometimes involvedthemselves in local politics. At first, Ieyasu did not take any action. He feared driving off the Portuguese, English, Spanish, andDutch traders who spurred Japan’s economy. 1612 the shogun had come to fear religious uprisingsmore. He banned Christianity and focused on ridding his country ofall Christians.
    •  Ieyasu died in 1616, but repression of Christianity continued offand on for the next two decades under his successors. In 1637, the issue came to a head. An uprising in southern Japanof some 30,000 peasants, led by dissatisfied samurai, shook theTokugawa shogunate. Because so many of the rebels were Christian, the shogun decided thatChristianity was at the root of the rebellion. After that, the shoguns ruthlessly persecuted Christians. European missionaries were killed or driven out of Japan. All Japanese were forced to demonstrate faithfulness to some branch ofBuddhism. These policies eventually eliminated Christianity in Japan andled to the formation of an exclusion policy
    •  remained open to foreign traders only Dutch and Chinese merchants were allowed intothe port the English had left Japan voluntarily the Spanish and the Portuguese had been expelled. Since the Tokugawa shoguns controlled Nagasaki, theynow had a monopoly on foreign trade, whichcontinued to be profitable
    •  The form of Buddhism that had the greatest impact onJapanese culture especially influenced the samurai. sought spiritual enlightenment through meditation. Strict discipline of mind and body was the Zen path towisdom. Zen monks would sit in meditation for hours If monks showed signs of losing concentration, a Zenmaster might shout at them or hit them with a stick.