Main reason for exploration Through overseas exploration, merchants ,and traders hoped tobenefit from the trade of spices in Asia Christians introduced to these items during the Crusades After the crusades Europeans still demanded these goods High demand=high prices Muslims and Italians controlled trade of goods from east to west Muslims sold Asian goods to Italian merchants Italians controlled the trade across land routes of theMediterranean Resold to items at increased prices to merchants, severely cuttingmerchants prophets Sought to bypass Italian merchants by finding a sea routedirectly to Asia
Crusades left feeling of hostility between Christiansand Muslims European nations believed they had a sacred duty tocontinue fighting Muslims and to convert non-Christians throughout the world Wanted to Christianize the people of Asia Bartolomeu Dias explained motives “to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do”
Advances in technology made voyages of discoverypossible Shipbuilders designed a new vessel, which was sturdierthan earlier vessels and was able to sail against thewind Earlier boats couldnt sail against the wind To better determine their location, Europeans used theastrolabe Used magnetic compass invented by the Chinese
Used to better determinelocation at sea Perfected by Muslims Brass circle with carefullyadjusted rings marked off indegrees Using the rings to sight thestars, the sea captain could tellhow far north or south of theequator he was
Portuguese sea captain explained motives for converting non-Christians “to serve God and His Majesty, to give light those whowere in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do” sailed down the coast of Africa, until he reached thetip, when he was caught in a storm The storm blew him and his crew to the southeastcoast of Africa, and he considered going to India Exhausted crew and short supply forced him to turnback
“Henry the Navigator” Portugals most enthusiastic supporter of exploration Dreams of oversea exploration began when heconquered the Muslim city of Ceuta First glimpse of the wealth outside of Europe Determined to reach the source of the wealth in theEast Wanted to spread the Christian faith In 1419, he founded a Navigational school in Portugal By time of his death Portugal had many trading postsalong the coast of Africa
Muslim city in North Africa Conquered by Henry theNavigator of Portugal Gave Portuguese, their firstglimpse of the wealth in theeast had exotic stores filled withpepper, cinnamon, cloves, andother spices Contained large supplies ofgold, silver, and jewels
Portuguese explorer Reached the port of Calicut On the southwestern coast of India Amazed by the spices, rare jewels, and precious gemsthat filled Calicut’s shops Filled ships with such items After returning from Calicut, he received a hero’swelcome Voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct searoute to India
Located on thesouthwestern coast ofIndia Filled with spices, raresilks and precious gems Discovered by Vasco daGama Gave Portugal a directsea route to India
Italian sea captain Convince Spain to finance finding a route to Asia bysailing west across the Atlantic Ocean While “sailing to Asia” he reached the shores of anisland in the Caribbean, and believed he had reachedIndia, and claimed it for Spain Open way for European colonization in the Americas Increased tensions between Spain and Portugal Unknown if Columbus’ land he had claimed for Spain hadalready been claimed for Portugal
Stepped in betweenPortugal and Spainto keep the peace ofthe two nations suggested the Lineof Demarcation
Created to keep peace betweenPortugal and Spain Suggested by Pope Alexander VI Imaginary dividing line, drawnnorth to south through theAtlantic Ocean All lands to the west wouldbelong to Portugal All lands to the east wouldbelong to Spain Later line would be movedfarther west to include parts ofmodern-day Brazil for thePortuguese
A 1494 treaty betweenPortugal and Spain Declared newly discoveredlands to the west of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Spain Declared newly discoveredland to the east of the Lineof Demarcation wouldbelong to Portugal
Port city on India’swest coast Captured by thePortuguese Capital ofPortugal’s tradingempire
City on the west coastof the Malay peninsula Attacked by Portuguese Its capture gave thePortuguese control ofthe Strait of Malacca Later captured by theDutch
Captured byPortuguese afterthey capturedMalacca Its capture allowedthe Portuguese gavethem control of theMoluccas
“spice islands” Very rich in spices Captured andcontrolled byPortugal afterthey captured theStrait of Malacca
Portuguese sea captain Stressed country’s intense desireto crush the Muslim-Italiandomination over Asian trade “If we deprive them [Muslims] of this theirancient market there, there does not remainfor them a single port in the whole of theseparts, where they can carry on their trade inthese things. . . . I hold it as very certain thatif we take this trade of Malacca away out oftheir hands, Cairo and Mecca are entirelyruined, and to Venice will no spiceries . . .[be]. . . conveyed except that which her merchantsgo and buy in Portugal”
Spanish seacaptain Claimed thePhilippines forSpain Began settlingin them
Netherlands Small country situated along the North Sea innorthwestern Europe Leading sea power Largest fleet in the world –20,000 vessels Established the Dutch East India Company Began to challenge Portugal’s dominance over theIndian Ocean trade
Companies that established and directedtrade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies
Founded in the early 17th century by the Netherlands Meant to establish and direct trade throughout Asia Had the power to mint money make treaties raise their own armies Richer and more powerful than England’s company Dutch eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the regoin established their trading headquarter at Batavia seized the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands from Portugal increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade so many goods from the East traveling to the Netherlands, the nation’scapital, Amsterdam, became a leading commercial center ruled much of Indonesia and had trading posts in several Asian countries controlled the Cape of Good Hope used as a resupply stop.
On island of Java Location where Dutchestablished their traininghead quarters From their the Dutchconquered several nearbyislands. Batavia
Controlled byDutch On southern tipof AfricaCape of GoodHope
Less powerful than the Dutch East IndiaCompany Focused much of its energy on establishingoutposts in India Built up a successful business trading finecloth
It struggled at first it faced continual attacks by the Dutch Eventually established an outpost in India in the1720s. never showed much of a profit.
1368—1644 (276 years) Caused China to become the dominant power in Asia rulers were not going to allow outsiders from distantlands into their country in fear of them threating thepeace and prosperity they had brought to China whenthey ended Mongol rule
Son of a peasant Commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of china in 1368 First emperor of Ming Dynasty Began reforms Agricultural reforms Increased rice production Improved irrigation Introduced farm fishing and the growing of commercial crops (cotton and sugar cane) Erase traces of Mongol past Promote China’s power and prosperity Used respected traditions to bring stability to China Encouraged a return to Confucian moral standards Improved imperial administration Restoring the merit-based civil service Became a ruthless tyrant, later on in his rule, when problems began to develop Suspecting plots against his rule, he conducted purges Thousands of government officials were killed After his death, there was a struggle for power Father of Yonglo
Located in southernChina Capital city under theYuan Dynasty Hongwu’s place of rule
Son of Hongwu Became ruler of China, after a struggle for power, after hisfather’s death Continued many of his father’s policies Moved the royal court to Beijing Had a far-ranging curiosity about the outside world 1405 , before Europeans began to explore, he launched 7voyages of expedition All led by Zhang He Hoped to impress the world with the power of Ming China Acomplished by voyages
led Yonglo’s sevenvoyages of expedition Distributed gifts, suchas gold, silver, silk and scented outs to everyone, to showChinese superiority As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribunes to China Many envoys traveled to China Chinese scholar-officials opposed this idea, saying that it was a wasteof valuable resources
To keep influence of outsiders down, only the government wasable to conduct foreign trade In reality, trade flourished up and down the coast Prophet-oriented merchants sold goods such as spices and silk toEuropeans, for much less than what they were used to paying Demand for Chinese goods had a large effect on the economy Silk and ceramic making industries grew rapidly Manufacturing and commerce increased China did NOT become industrialized Idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian belief Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture Taxes on agriculture lowered Taxes on manufacturing skyrocketed
First missionary, under Mingrule, to have an impact Italian Jesuit Gained special favor at the Mingcourt Able to speak and write Chinese Still opposed by many of theeducated Chinese opposedChristianity
Extravagant palace complex at the capital city, Beijing Monument to China’s isolationism Built by Yonglo between 1404 and 1420 Known as foreign city because it was forbidden to allcommoners and foreigners Inside emperors conducted business of China and lived inluxury Only emperor and his court lived in the palace Expensive to maintain 6, 000 cooks to make meals for 10,000-15,000 people 1949 converted into a museum and open to the public
Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, and a governmentout of money, all weakened Ming China Higher taxes and poor harvests pushed millions ofpeasants to starvation Civil strife and rebellion followed Manchus invaded China The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynastycollapsed
From Manchuria Located beyond the northeast end of the Great Wall In 1644, they invaded China The Ming couldn’t hold them back and the dynastycollapsed Took a Chinese name for their dynasty, like theMongols, naming it the Qing Dynasty 1644—1911 Bring Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, andTibet under Chinese rule
1644—1911 Resisted by many of the Chinese Forced Chinese to wear hat in a ponytail as a sign ofsubmission Slowly earned respect of people Upheld traditional Chinese systems Made frontier safe
Became emperor in 1661 and ruled for about 60 years Reduced government expenses and lowered taxes Gained support of Chinese intellectuals by offeringthem government positions Enjoyed company of the Jesuits at court Informed him of the latest developments in science,medicine, and mathematics in Europe
Kangxi’s grandson Ruled from 1763—1795 Helped China reach its greatest size and prosterity Often rose at dawn to work on the problems of hisempire Armed namads on its borders Christian missionaries European merchants Refused to make better trade arrangements with KingGeorge III/England
If foreign states wished to trade with China, theywould have to follow Chinese rules Dutch accepted these restrictions Diplomats paid tribute to China’s emperors Performing “kowtow” ritual As a result, dutch returned with many fine Chinesegoods, like porcelein, silk, and tea
Ritual that merchants whowanted to trade with Chinawere required to do Involved merchantskneeling in front of theemperor and touching theirheads to the ground ninetimes
British wanted to trade withChina, but didn’t like China’strade restrictions In 1793, King George IIIasked for a better trade tradearrangement , which Quian-long refused
Delivered letter from KingGeorge III (England) toQuian-long (China) Letter asked for a better tradearrangement between Englandand China Refused to “kowtow” theemperor, although he bowed onone knee
Sent Lord GeorgeMacartney with aletter to Quian-long, asking for abetter tradearrangement
Conquered by the Manchus in 1636 and turned unto avassal state Existed in Korea’s shadow Organized their government according to Confucianprinciples Adopted Chinese technology and culture, especially theirits policy of isolation When the Manchus established the Qing dynasty thepolitical relationship with China did not change. ButKorea’s attitude did. The Manchu invasion, combined with a Japanese attack inthe 1590s, provoked strong feelings of nationalism most evident in their art—of traditional Chinese subjects,many artists chose to show popular Korean scenes
Most Chinese families had farmed the land the sameway their ancestors had. during the Qing dynasty, irrigation and fertilizer useincreased Farmers grew rice and new crops, such as corn andsweet potatoes, brought by Europeans from theAmericas. As food production increased, nutrition improved andfamilies expanded and the population exploded
Sons Only a son was allowed toperform vital religiousrituals. A son also would raise hisown family under hisparents’ roof assuring aging parents ofhelp with the farming Men dominated thehousehold and their wives females were not valued, andmany female infants were killed. Although men dominated thehousehold and theirwives, women had significantresponsibilities. working in the fields supervised the children’seducation managed the family’sfinances most women were forced toremain secluded in theirhomes, but some found outsidejobs such as working asmidwives or textile workers.Daughters
The culture of early modern China was based mainly ontraditional forms The great masterpiece of traditional Chinese fiction was writtenduring this period Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines upper classManchu society in the 1700s. Most artists of the time painted in traditional styles, whichvalued technique over creativity. In pottery, technical skill as well as experimentation led to theproduction of high-quality ceramics, including porcelain. Drama was a popular entertainment, especially in rural China where literacy rates were low. Plays that presented Chinese history and cultural heroesentertained and also helped unify Chinese society by creating anational culture.
“Warring States,” period Powerful samurai seized control of old feudal estates. They offered peasants and others protection in return fortheir loyalty. Under this system, security came from a group of powerfulwarlords. The emperor at Kyoto became a figurehead, having aleadership title but no actual power. resembled European feudalism in many ways. The daimyo built fortified castles and created small armiesof samurai on horses Rival daimyo often fought each other for territory. This led to disorder throughout the land.
became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism. meant “great name.” built fortified castles and created small armies ofsamurai on horses. Later they added foot soldiers with muskets (guns) totheir ranks. Rivals often fought each other for territory. This led to disorder throughout the land. hoped to gather enough power to take control of theentire country
defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capitalKyoto in 1568. sought to eliminate his remaining enemies. These included rival daimyo as well as wealthy Buddhistmonasteries aligned with them. In 1575, his 3,000 soldiers armed with muskets crushedan enemy force of samurai cavalry. first time firearms had been used effectively in battle inJapan. was not able to unify Japan. He committed seppuku,
the ritual suicide of asamurai Nobunaga committedseppuku in 1582, when oneof his own generals turnedon him.
Nobunaga’s best general continued Nobunaga’s mission. set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile. By 1590, he controlled most of the country. did not stop with Japan. With the idea of eventually conquering China, heinvaded Korea in 1592 and began a long campaignagainst the Koreans and their Ming Chinese allies. With his death in 1598, his troops withdrew from Korea.
One of Hideyoshi’s strongest daimyo allies, completed the unification of Japan. In 1600 defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan. became the sole ruler, or shogun. moved Japan’s capital to his power base at Edo To keep the daimyo from rebelling, required that they follow the “alternateattendance policy” and other restrictions tamed the daimyo. a major step toward restoring centralized government to Japan. As a result, Ieyasu founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would holdpower until 1867. On his deathbed in 1616, Ieyasu advised his son, Hidetada, “Take care of thepeople. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” Most Tokugawa shoguns followed that advice. Their rule brought a welcomeorder to Japan.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, completed the unification ofJapan. Ieyasu defeated his rivals. His victory earned him the loyalty of daimyothroughout Japan
a small fishing village that would later become the city ofTokyo.
Japan was unified, but the daimyo still governed atthe local level. To keep them from rebelling, Ieyasu required thatthey spend every other year in the capital. Even when they returned to their lands, they had toleave their families behind as hostages in Edo.Through this and other restrictions, Ieyasu tamed thedaimyo. major step toward restoring centralized government toJapan.
A dynasty of shoguns that ruled unified Japan from1603 to 1867 Their rule brought a welcome order to Japan’s poweruntil 1867 Japan enjoyed more than two and a halfcenturies of stability, prosperity, and isolation underthe Tokugawa shoguns
Confucius the ideal societydepended onagriculture, notcommerce. Farmers, notmerchants, made idealcitizens peasant farmers bore themain tax burden and facedmore difficulties than anyother class. Many of them abandonedfarm life and headed forthe expanding towns andcities. There, they mixedwith samurai, artisans,and merchants. Industrial, not agriculturalReality
The rise of large commercial centers also increasedemployment opportunities for women. Women found jobs in entertainment, textilemanufacturing, and publishing. the majority of Japanese women led sheltered andrestricted lives as peasant wives. They worked in the fields, managed thehousehold, cared for the children, and obeyed theirhusband without question
Samurai attended ceremonial noh dramas, were based on tragic themes. read tales of ancient warriors and their courage in battle. In their homes, they hung paintings that showed scenesfrom classical literature. traditional entertainment faced competition in the citiesfrom new styles of literature, drama, and art. Townspeople read a new type of fiction, realistic storiesabout self-made merchants or the hardships of life. The people also read haiku Townspeople also attended kabuki theater. The paintings the people enjoyed were often woodblockprints showing city life.
Attended by townspeople Actors in elaboratecostumes, using music,dance, and mime,performed skits aboutmodern life.
3-line verse poetry presents images rather than ideas.On a journey, ailingMy dreams roam aboutOver a withered moor.MATSUO BASHO, from MatsuoBashoTabi ni yandeYume wa Kareno oKakemeguruMATSUO BASHO, in Japanese
The Japanese first encountered Europeans in 1543, when shipwreckedPortuguese sailors washed up on the shores of southern Japan.Portuguese merchants soon followed. They hoped to involve themselves in Japan’s trade with China andSoutheast Asia. The Portuguese brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, andother unfamiliar items from Europe. Japanese merchants were happy to receive the newcomers and theirgoods. The daimyo, too, welcomed the strangers. interested in the Portuguese muskets and cannons, because everydaimyo sought an advantage over his rivals The Japanese purchased weapons from the Portuguese and soon begantheir own production. Firearms forever changed the time-honored tradition of the Japanesewarrior, whose principal weapon had been the sword.
Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan in 1549 The Japanese accepted the missionaries in part they associated them with the muskets and otherEuropean goods that they wanted to purchase. the religious orders of Jesuits, Franciscans, andDominicans came to convert the Japanese. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit, led the first mission to Japan. baptized about a hundred converts before he left Japan. By 1600, other European missionaries had convertedabout 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
Jesuit led the first mission to Japan. baptized about a hundredconverts before he left Japan.
The success of the missionaries upset TokugawaIeyasu. He found aspects of the Christian invasiontroublesome. Missionaries, actively seeking converts, scornedtraditional Japanese beliefs and sometimes involvedthemselves in local politics. At first, Ieyasu did not take any action. He feared driving off the Portuguese, English, Spanish, andDutch traders who spurred Japan’s economy. 1612 the shogun had come to fear religious uprisingsmore. He banned Christianity and focused on ridding his country ofall Christians.
Ieyasu died in 1616, but repression of Christianity continued offand on for the next two decades under his successors. In 1637, the issue came to a head. An uprising in southern Japanof some 30,000 peasants, led by dissatisfied samurai, shook theTokugawa shogunate. Because so many of the rebels were Christian, the shogun decided thatChristianity was at the root of the rebellion. After that, the shoguns ruthlessly persecuted Christians. European missionaries were killed or driven out of Japan. All Japanese were forced to demonstrate faithfulness to some branch ofBuddhism. These policies eventually eliminated Christianity in Japan andled to the formation of an exclusion policy
remained open to foreign traders only Dutch and Chinese merchants were allowed intothe port the English had left Japan voluntarily the Spanish and the Portuguese had been expelled. Since the Tokugawa shoguns controlled Nagasaki, theynow had a monopoly on foreign trade, whichcontinued to be profitable
The form of Buddhism that had the greatest impact onJapanese culture especially influenced the samurai. sought spiritual enlightenment through meditation. Strict discipline of mind and body was the Zen path towisdom. Zen monks would sit in meditation for hours If monks showed signs of losing concentration, a Zenmaster might shout at them or hit them with a stick.