19.1 europeans explore the east (1st period)


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19.1 europeans explore the east (1st period)

  1. 1. Europeans Explore the East 19.1 By: Meher, Samantha and Daniela
  2. 2. Essential Question How did trade influence European countries, like Portugal, to explore?
  3. 3. Causes for the Exploration ❖ Desire for Wealth ❖ Spread Christianity ❖ Advances in Technology ■ New vessels, astrolabe, compass ❖ Merchants and Traders wanted to benefit from business ■ Spices that Europe wanted was nutmeg, cinnamon,ginger, and pepper. ■ Merchants could charge high prices for these. ❖ New monarchs of England, Spain, Portugal and France wanted to bypass merchants to get the goods.
  4. 4. Portugal Leads the Way ❖ Prince Henry (Son of Portugal’s King) or Henry the Navigator lead the way to Exploration because of strong government support. ❖ Portugal lead trade throughout the Atlantic Ocean and then spread into the Indian Ocean. ❖ Portugal created trading posts on the coast of Africa ■ they traded with africans for gold and ivory. Later on they traded for captives to be slaves.
  5. 5. Sailors reach Asia ❖ The Portuguese people believed that if they wanted to reach Asia they would have to sail on the tip of Africa ■ Portuguese captain Bartolomeu Dias was the one that explored down the tip of Africa, later he encountered a huge storm that put of his exploration for days. ■ All of Dias ships were blown away so he considered exploring India but they were low on food supplies so he went home ❖ Vasco Da Gama continued Dias’ voyage to India ■ He reached the southwest coast of india and found spices, rare silks and gems; he came home and was considered a hero.
  6. 6. Spanish Exploration ❖ Christopher Columbus convinced spain to finance a plan to sail west across the Atlantic to reach Asia. ❖ He reached an island in the Caribbean in 1492, thinking he had reached Asia. ❖ This lead to the European Colonization of the Americas. ❖ There were tensions between Spain and Portugal so in 1493 Pope Alexander VI suggested an imaginary dividing line (line of Demarcation). ❖ All lands to the east of line would belong to Portugal and all land west would belong to Spain.
  7. 7. Portuguese Trading Empire ❖ The portuguese built a huge trading route throughout the Indian Ocean ■ As they took control over the Indian oceans they started to take control of the spices from the Muslim merchants. ■ Later on in 1509 they took over the Indian ocean fully and they made the muslims leave. ❖ The building of the Fort Hormuz in 1514 helped strengthen the hold the Portuguese had on the Indian Ocean ■ It connected the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea so the Muslims had no way of reaching the Indian Ocean ❖ Later on 1510 the Portuguese captured Goa a port located on India’s west coast. It was made into the new capital for the trading empire ❖ The Portuguese sailed farther down to Indonesia(East Indies)
  8. 8. Cont. ❖ On their way to Goa a portuguese fleet attacked malacca and they accomplished seizing malacca ■ Malacca was very rich in spices so they became known as the Spice Islands ❖ Captain Afonso de albuquerque strived to crush the Muslims chance of participating in Asian trades ■ Portuguese accomplished breaking that tie ❖ Merchants brought back goods from Asia ■ The goods cost half the price of what they were sold from the Arabs and Italians, more europeans could afford it. ❖ This influenced the rest of Europe to create trade routes
  9. 9. Netherlands Dominates the Sea ❖ The Dutch Republic is also called the Netherlands. ❖ Netherlands became a seapower. ■ had the largest fleet of ships in the world (20,000 vessels) ❖ The Dutch and English broke Portuguese control of Asia. ❖ Each nation formed an East India Company to establish trade ■ These companies had the power to mint money, make treaties and raise their own armies. ■ The Dutch East India Company drove out England dominated the region.
  10. 10. European Trade Outposts ❖ In 1619 the dutch made their own headquarters at Batavia on the island of Java ■ expanded west to conquer more islands ■ While conquering the islands they conquered malacca and the Spice island from the Portuguese ❖ Throughout the 1600 the Netherlands started to gain control of the Indian Ocean ■ Since there were many goods on the island, Netherland’s nation capital Amsterdam, became the center of commercial. ■ They ruled most of Indonesia and Southwest Asia.
  11. 11. Cont. ❖ Britain and France also had gained control in the region. ■ They failed to get the larger areas so English East India company focused more on establishing India. ■ they built a business on cloths in the European market ❖ France tried to do the same thing but the Duchess kept attacking them ■ They were successful but they weren't making profits like England ❖ Europeans continued to gain numerous port cities