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Age of European Exploration


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Age of European Exploration

  1. 1. The Age of Exploration
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><ul><li>During the 1400s and 1500s European explorers—inspired by greed, curiosity, and the desire for glory, and aided by new technologies—sailed to many previously unknown lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>God, Glory and Gold </li></ul>
  3. 3. Marco Polo (1254-1324) <ul><li>Marco Polo was an Italian merchant, trader and explorer. </li></ul><ul><li>At a young age, Marco accompanied his father on his voyages. They traveled far and wide and even reached as far east as China, meeting Kublai Khan. </li></ul><ul><li>China had been isolated from Europeans for centuries until Marco Polo and his father arrived. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chinese and Japanese Isolation <ul><li>After years of invasions by foreigners (Mongols), both China and Japan withdrew into isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Both limited foreign trade and followed a policy of self-sufficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese severely restrict foreign ideas by even banning Christianity! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marco Polo’s Travels
  6. 6. Marco Polo (1254-1324) <ul><li>After 24 years and travelling over 15,000 miles, Marco returned home. </li></ul><ul><li>Marco saw many great things like the Great Wall of China and brought home Chinese discoveries including spices, fireworks, eye glasses, ice cream, spaghetti, glass and silk. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote books and told many amazing stories which intrigued the people of Europe. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Did You Know? <ul><li>On Marco Polo’s deathbed, a priest asked him if his stories of the Far East were true. </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo’s dying words were, “I did not tell half of what I saw.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
  9. 9. Motives for European Exploration <ul><li>Europeans had long been attracted to Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people, including Christopher Columbus, were fascinated by Marco Polo’s account of his travels to the court of Kublai Khan and the exotic East. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteenth-century conquests by the Ottoman Empire made traveling to the East by land difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans wanted a route by sea. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Motives for European Exploration <ul><li>The desire for wealth was a large part of European expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, adventurers, and government officials hoped to find precious metals in and expand trade with the East, especially trade in spices and gold. </li></ul><ul><li>Another motive was religious, the desire to spread the Catholic faith to native peoples. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Motives for European Exploration <ul><li>Adventure and glory comprised another motive for European expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it can be said that “ God, glory, and gold ,” were the main motives for exploration. </li></ul>
  12. 12. New Maritime Technologies <ul><li>Europeans had also reached a level of technology that made a series of regular, long voyages possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in Shipbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans learned to build ships that were faster, more maneuverable, and rode lower in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Mapmaking </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500, cartography–the art and science of mapmaking–had developed to where Europeans had fairly accurate maps of where they wanted to explore. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular for Exploratory Voyages </li></ul><ul><li>The compass showed the ship’s direction, and the astrolabe showed its latitude, information needed for such long voyages. </li></ul>
  13. 13. New Maritime Technologies <ul><li>New Exploration Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravel : stronger, sturdier ship with triangular sails (adopted from Arabs); made it possible to sail against the wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe : brass circle w/ carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees; used to calculate latitude (perfected by Muslims) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compass: magnetically tracked direction (Chinese invention) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. New Maritime Technologies <ul><ul><li>Hartman Astrolabe (1532) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Maps [Cartography] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sextant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariner’s Compass </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Caravel This type of ship made long distance sea voyages possible. It could sail with and against the wind, had a deeper draft to take on large ocean waves and was more maneuverable than ships in the past.
  16. 16. Prince Henry, the Navigator <ul><li>Portugal was first country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Begun largely due to efforts of Prince Henry, son of King John I of Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Often called Henry the Navigator , not himself explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Patron, supporter of those who wished to explore </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1400s, Henry established court to which he brought sailors, mapmakers, astronomers and others </li></ul><ul><li>Sent out many expeditions </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese settled Azores, Madeira Islands, learned more about Africa’s coast </li></ul>Prince Henry of Portugal
  17. 17. Beyond Darkest Africa The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to thwart Arab “middlemen” who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low. Glory, God or Gold?
  18. 18. Bartholomeu Dias Portuguese explorer commissioned by King John II of Portugal to find a trade route to India by sea. Dias revisited African ports that had been discovered along the way. A fierce, 13 day storm blew his ship off course rounding the tip of Africa. He only realized how far he had gone when the skies cleared.
  19. 19. Bartholomeu Dias He had actually rounded the tip of Africa. Dias wanted to keep sailing all the way to India, but his crew refused. The discovery of the passage around Africa was significant because, for the first time, Europeans could trade directly with India and the other parts of Asia, bypassing the overland route through the Middle East, with its expensive middlemen.
  20. 20. Did You Know? Dias originally named the Cape of Good Hope the &quot;Cape of Storms“. It was later renamed by King John II of Portugal to the Cape of Good Hope because it represented the opening of a route to the east.
  21. 21. Vasco da Gama <ul><li>Portuguese explorer </li></ul><ul><li>First successful voyage around the tip of Africa and reaching India </li></ul>
  22. 23. Did You Know? <ul><li>Da Gama was not welcome in the Muslim port of Calicut. </li></ul><ul><li>He went home empty handed. </li></ul><ul><li>However, he would return years later and was more prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>He had 14 well armed ships instead of 2. </li></ul><ul><li>He first came across a ship with 400 Muslim pilgrims. He demanded gold then burned the ship with everyone on it. </li></ul><ul><li>In Calicut, he captured fisherman in the harbor. He cut of their hands, feet and heads and sent them to the leader until he was allowed access to the city. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Vasco da Gama -In Calicut, da Gama was amazed by spices, rare silks and precious gems. -they filled their boats up with the goods and returned to Portugal where they sold them for 60x what the voyage had cost them! - The 27,000 mile trip was not just a profitable success, it was significant as the Portuguese had found the trade route to Asia.
  24. 25. Christofo Colombo [1451-1506]
  25. 26. Christopher Columbus <ul><li>Italian explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Was inspired by the books of Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed he could find a faster route the Indies and Asia by sailing westward. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people thought he was crazy. (Thought he would sail off the edge of the world or be eaten by sea monsters.) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Did You Know? <ul><li>Columbus was not well liked by his crew. </li></ul><ul><li>He was very strict and pushed them very hard. </li></ul><ul><li>As the journey continued for months, his crew became tired, wary and wanted to return home. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, there was a plot to mutiny and throw Columbus overboard. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to convince them to continue just a bit further. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Columbus’ Discovery <ul><li>On October 12, 1492 Christopher Columbus landed on the island of San Salvador (in modern day Bahamas.) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Columbus’ Four Voyages
  29. 30. Other Voyages of Exploration
  30. 31. Did you know? <ul><li>Christopher Columbus nicknamed the islands he discovered the “West Indies”, for he had truly thought he had landed in the Pacific islands such as Indonesia near India or China. </li></ul><ul><li>He thought he would soon find the trade route to Asia which would make him rich and famous. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he is praised today for discovering the Americas; Christopher Columbus was actually seen as a complete failure in his day for not achieving his goal. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, he was imprisoned, lost most of his fortune, and had to battle to keep his reputation as an explorer. </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Treaty of Tordesillas <ul><li>The new claim of land put much tension between the Spanish and the Portuguese. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to devise a way to split their claims. </li></ul><ul><li>They reached out to the Pope and he negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas . </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Treaty of Tordesillas <ul><ul><li>He drew the Line of Demarcation : imaginary North/South line that gave lands on the east to Portugal (light green) and the lands on the west to Spain </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Conflict over Trade <ul><li>With new trade routes came conflict. European nations scrambled to establish profitable trading posts as they battle natives and each other </li></ul>
  34. 35. European Nations <ul><li>The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English and French all fought for dominance. </li></ul>