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Super quiz ppt

  1. 1. By: Priya Patel Janice Chacko Timothy Lehman Rob Renfrow
  2. 2. The First Age of Imperialism (c. 1500s – 1700s)
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Expansion of Europe: 1492-1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The expansion of Europe began at the end of the 15 th century with the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492 and the arrival of Vasco de Gama in Asia in 1498. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasco de Gama’s voyage was important because he found a new sea route to Asia, but relations between Europe and Asia had existed from long since. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The best example for the connections between Europe and Asia is the land route to the Far East (the Silk Route). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European expansion in Asia began modestly in the form of trading contacts, but it ultimately led to Europe’s colonial domination over nearly all of South and Southeast Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 7 th century, followers of the prophet Mohammed had fanned our across the coasts of Mediterranean. They had subdued North Africa, crossed over to Europe and were stopped in 732 in the Battle of Poitiers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osman I established an independent state on the edge of the Byzantine Empire in the 13 th century. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Turkish expansion culminated in 1453 in the capture of Constantinople, which laid the foundations for the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople’s population at the time made it the largest city in Europe and one of the largest cities in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rise of the Ottoman Empire took place in the 16 th century, when European expansion was getting underway and China’s expansion was coming to an end. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese shipping trade flourished. Chinese ships and navigational techniques were no less advanced than Europe’s, but the junk (a Portuguese term derived from the Javanese word for ship) was a first-rate sailing vessel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the 15 th century, the Chinese undertook no fewer than 7 major voyages of discovery in the Indian Ocean and the Indonesian archipelago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When Vasco de Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope towards the East, Chinese junks had already explored the coasts of East Africa and had take home a giraffe to present to the emperor. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>The costly expeditions had depleted the treasury and a struggle for power had arisen between the mandarins, who were averse to trade, and the eunuchs, who has launched the maritime expeditions. The emperor then decided to put an end to overseas adventure. Shipbuilding was forbidden. Chinese overseas activities thus came to an end just as European expansion was getting underway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The religious excitement, greed, and curiosity that drove Europeans overseas were lacking in China’s case. There was not much in Europe of interest to the Chinese. Europeans coveted the riches of the East (luxury goods and spices); the Chinese had these things at their fingertips. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe, unlike China, had many rulers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles V combined his rule over Austria and his authority of Spain into the largest empire that had ever existed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance of power led to the endless series of wars that were so characteristic of modern European history, but it also resulted in there being no emperor or overlord, as there was in China, who could put an end to European expansion with the stroke of a pen. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Vasco de Gama was a Portuguese explorer and Columbus an Italian navigator in the service of Spain, and it was Spain and Portugal that took the lead in European overseas expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe’s discovery of America and its entry into Asia in the 1490s forced Europeans to make an important decision, choosing in the words of Fernand Braudel, either to make use of Columbus’s discovery and to concentrate on America or to profit from the discovery of the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope and to row itself upon Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal did not have the necessary demographic potential to do this. The Portuguese, concentrating mainly on trade, founded an impressive trading network in Asia. In 1494 this division was officially ratified by the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the world into a Spanish and a Portuguese sphere of influence, establishing the line between the 2 as the meridian running 600 kilometers to the west of the Cape Verde islands. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>17 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The riches of the New World, gold and silver, which the Spanish shipped to Europe, roused jealousy of the Dutch, who were at war with Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extremely profitable Portuguese monopoly of the spice trade was also the object of envy, prompting the Dutch to fit out ships for expeditions to Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1602, e Dutch Long-Distance Companies united to form a larger body, the Dutch East India Company (VOC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This company would grow into the first multinational undertaking in history and the most powerful potentate in Asia. The VOC was financed by shares, which were issued on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, and governed by a 17-member board of directors, known as Heren XVII. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later in 1621, a Dutch West India Company (WIC) was created. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The company system was encouraged because the administrative costs were born not by the state but by those who made the profit, namely the traders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1600, a British East India Company had been created, and in 1657, this company received a charter and became a joint stock company. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>In 1604, a French East India Company received a royal charter. This enterprise was not a success, and its activities were soon discontinued. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1642 the Company of the East was founded, which never really got off the ground either. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Colbert assumed the post of Minister of Finance in 1661 started a new period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colbert’s name remains linked to Mercantilist policies associated with ‘Colbertism’, which stands for state intervention in trade and economy. The role he played in establishment of overseas trading companies exemplified his interventionist principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1664, two companies based on the Dutch model were founded on Colbert’s initiative: a new East India Company and a West India Company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The west coast of Africa fell under he charter of the Dutch company WIC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The WIC engaged in trade in North America and was the acquisition of Manhattan from the Indians for $60. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Caribbean is one of the most colonized parts of the world. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>All the islands in the Caribbean Sea were subjected to European rule of one form or another. It went further than government, however, for the whole of society changed in character. The Caribbean was set up for the production of tropical cash crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy was based on the Atlantic trade triangle: European ships sailed from Europe to West Africa to pick up slaves, took them to the Americas, and then sailed back to Europe, only to turn around and repeat the trip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans were enticed to Asia by a desire for Asian goods: spices, textiles, silk, and other luxury goods. To engage in trade, one must have something to offer and Europe had no goods that were in demand in Asia. The only way for Europe to get Asian products was to pay for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gold and silver mines in America supplied the precious metals that enabled Europeans to acquire Asian products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French were also active. They concentrated mainly on the coast of India. The British East India Company (EIC) became the dominant power, first in India and later in all of Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British supremacy was confirmed by the Seven Years’ War. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>18 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Seven Years’ War (1756-63) had extremely important consequences, not only for Europe but for the overseas world as well. This war put an end to the first French colonial empire. The British defeated the French in Canada and India, thereby bringing to a temporary end the role of France in Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No European settlements of any importance flourished in Asia, even though there were Europeans who settled in Asia for good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the second half of the 18 th century, Britain was experiencing its Industrial Revolution. Watt’s steam engine, Arkwright’s water-powered spinning frame and Cartwright’s power loom led to a huge rise in productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution of the 18 th century provided the basis for a new power structure in Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Before the British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese and Spanish Imperialism in the 15 th and 16 th Centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans had increasingly coveted spices and sugar, luxuries that had to be imported from the Middle East and Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European traders were keen to bypass the middlemen in this commerce and trade directly at the source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Portuguese and the Spanish had been Europe’s principal importers and distributors or sugar and spices, and it was they who initiated European exploration and colonization. They also had the advantage of extensive Atlantic and Mediterranean seaboards, ports with merchant communities that possessed the willingness and the capital to finance overseas ventures, and the seamen with the skills to carry them out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain captured the Canary Islands from Portugal in 1475 and like the Portuguese, the Spanish quickly turned to slave-based plantation agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1492, Christopher Columbus dropped anchor at an island he called San Salvador, in the Bahamas, while searching for a western route to the east. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Even after 4 voyages over 11 years, Columbus believed that he had been to Asia and refused to acknowledge that he had encountered a New World. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Columbus’s failed attempt to found a settlement, Spain established its first permanent colony in the Americas. The first colonists hoped to strike gold, but instead found tobacco, sugar, and cattle worked by enslaved Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divided the New World along a notional north-south line that ran 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balbao explored the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herman Cortes’ expedition into Mexico and conquering of Montezuma’s Aztec Empire was the most awful incursion (raid). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain claimed much of North America under the Treaty of Tordesillas. Cabeza de Vaca sailed the gulfs of Mexico and California in 1528-36. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians repelled the first attempted colonization of Florida by Juan Ponce de Leon in 1521. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>French and Dutch Imperialism in the 16 th and Early 17 th Centuries </li></ul><ul><li>·     In 1524, a Giovanni de Verrazzano, a Florentine mariner sponsored by Francis , explored North America’s coast from South Carolina to Newfoundland and thereby established long-lasting French territorial claims. </li></ul><ul><li>·     The most influential early French explorer was Jacques Cartier of St. Malo, who sailed the St. Lawrence River as far as modern-day Montreal. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Colonialism: An Empire of Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>·     Henry VII, England’s king at the time of the Columbian encounter, was too concerned with securing the Tudor dynasty after the Wars of the Roses and with asserting monarchial authority over his nobles to pay much attention to New World Imperialism . </li></ul><ul><li>·     The Act in Restraint Appeals of 1533 eliminated papal judicial authority in England. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon King Athelstan proclaimed himself &quot;Imperator&quot; over the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>·     In The Faerie Queen and View of the Present State of Ireland , Edmund Spenser cited Merlin’s prophecy of Arthur’s Britain being reconstituted by a “royall virgin.” </li></ul><ul><li>·     Scotland retained its own parliament, rose against the English during the civil wars, and gave up its own legislature only with reluctance. </li></ul><ul><li>·     In 1541, the Irish Parliament declared that Henry VIII was not just lord but “King of Ireland.” </li></ul><ul><li>·     Oliver Cromwell famously conquered vast reaches of Ireland, as did William of Orange. </li></ul><ul><li>·     In the 1630s Great Migration, Britons migrated to Ireland at a rate of more than 8000 a year in the second half of the 7 th century. Ireland was eventually incorporated into the English polity through the 1800 Act of Union. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Sir Humphrey Gilbert became convinced that England should colonize North America. He declared Newfoundland English, but soon he was lost at sea and nothing came of his colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon wrote of an Ireland “reclaimed from desolation…and from savage and barbarous customs, to humanity and civility.” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. English Atlantic Exploration, Trade and Plunder in the 16 th Century ·     John Cabot, a Venetian citizen, made the first verifiable English-sponsored contact with the North American continent. Like Columbus, he thought he could locate a western route to the east. ·     In 1519-20, Ferdinand Magellan rounded Cape Horn and proved that there was a south-west passage to Asia at the bottom of South America. ·     In 1562, John Hawkins began carrying human cargo and other merchandise between Africa and the Spanish Caribbean. ·      Francis Drake and a fleet of six ships led by the Golden Hind attacked Spanish ships and settlements near the Isthmus of Panama and encourage slaves to destabilize the Spanish Empire. ·     In 1570, Martin Frobisher set out on the first series of voyages to find a north-west passage.
  16. 16. The Lost Colonies of Roanoke ·     In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh dispatched captains Arthur Barlow and Philips Amadas to explore and claim the region and islands from Chesapeake Bay to the Carolinas. ·     When Armada got to Roanoke in 1590, the colonists of Roanoke had disappeared, leaving behind only the word “CROATOAN” carved in a doorpost and “CRO” carved in a nearby tree. 18 th Century Empires ·     Plantation economies in the Atlantic world, fueled by the West African slave trade, provided sugar, tobacco, and cotton for consumer demand. The Decline of the Dutch ·     Dutch Netherlands had been Europe’s greatest maritime power, but it now suffered from demographic and political stagnation. ·     The Dutch economy suffered when French and English merchants sought to eliminate them as middlemen of maritime commerce and when their industry failed to compete effectively. The Dutch Netherlands was the first to perfect the uses of paper currency, a stock market, and a central bank.
  17. 17. The British and French Commercial Empires ·         Great Britain now began its rise to domination of the seas. ·         British colonies each had a royal governor but also a local assembly of sorts, and most developed traditions of self-government. Mercantilism ·         Mercantilist doctrine supported the regulation of trade by the state in order to increase the state’s power against its neighbors. ·         Mercantilism helped create trade patterns such as the triangular trade in the North Atlantic. The transatlantic slave trade shipped slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean, or American colonies, and the European colonial powers. ·         Colonies could promote a favorable balance of trade by producing valuable raw materials or staple crops for the parent country and by providing protected markets for the parent country’s manufactured goods.
  18. 18. The Profits of Global Commerce ·         The West Indies seemed to be ideal colonies. ·         The islands produced valuable crops difficult to raise elsewhere: tobacco, cotton, indigo, and sugar. ·         The islands could produce little else and therefore depended on exports from Europe. Triangular Trade ·         A triangular trade is trade between the home country and two oversea areas. ·         After the 1780s, participation in the Atlantic slave trade tapered off, and the supply of slaves was replenished, mainly from children born to slaves already in the New World. Mounting Colonial Conflicts ·         As French fishermen and fur traders prospered in Canada, French soldiers established a series of strongholds to support them, including the bastion of Fort Louisbourg at the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and a string of forts near the Great Lakes.
  19. 19. Conflict on the Frontier ·         A large land investment company, the Ohio Company of Virginia, attempted to break the French and Indian hold on the Ohio Valley by sending an expedition against Fort Duquesne. Led by George Washington, the raid failed. The Great War for Empire ·         The Seven Years’ War was Europe’s last large-scale war before the French Revolution. ·         The Seven Years’ War centered on the bitter rivalry between Austria and Prussia, but included Russia, France, and Britain as well. This protracted war ended in 1763 with a peace treaty that essentially restored the status quo. Pitt’s Strategy ·         William Pitt became Britain’s prime minister in 1758. ·         He had the chance to lead Clive to oust the French and to suppress any native opposition to British influence in the huge and populous province of Bengal. The East India Company exercised the most oppressive kind of domination in Bengal: unchecked power without responsibility. The company collected taxes, controlled trade, and increased its military control.
  20. 20. ·         When Parliament passed the India Act of 1784, the British government effectively replaced the company as the ultimate authority and named a new ruling official, the governor-general of India. ·         Lord Cornwallis was the first to fill this position. The British Raj ·         Lord Cornwallis turned India’s rural gentry into landlords by giving them title deeds. ·         The governor-general reserved the highest positions in the army and civil bureaucracy for whites. In each district he appointed two British magistrates, one combining the functions of police superintendent and tax collector and the other responsible for administering justice. ·         The salt monopoly extracted money from the Indian population, while opium was exported to China in exchange for Chinese tea. ·         By the 1830s, the British were not extracting wealth or strategic advantage from India but considered India as their own dominion in which they were duty bound to impose their own values on the Indian people.
  21. 21. New Imperialism: Motives and Tactics
  22. 23. 19-Century Empires ·        Liberal Empire o      Steadily expanded influence overseas ·        Independence movements starting with American Revolution drove European colonial powers from New World ·        Slave agitation = central part of assault on mercantile colonial world ·        Secular reformers joined forces with religious abolitionists ·        Enlightenment universalism – belief in basic sameness of all humans ·        Denmark outlawed the Atlantic slave trade first in 1803, followed by Britain and US in 1807 ·        1850-European slave trade essentially ended ·        1834-Britain abolished slavery itself   ·        Enlightenment natural scientists o      Swede Carolus Linnaeus o      Frenchman Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon · King George III told Cook to establish British authority in Hawaii in 1779        
  23. 24. 19-Century Empires ·        Early 19-Century-Britain conducted most ambitious civilizing experiments in India o      Sati-practice of widow burning herself to death on funeral pyre of her dead husband o      Indian Rebellion of 1857-British civilizing efforts came to halt ·        British East India Company o      1757-decisive victory over nawab of Bengal in Battle of Plassey  Significance: crushing blow to already weak Mughal Empire  gave Britain access to enormous Indian wealth.  Capture=firm base for territorial expansion in India ·        Ottoman Empire o      Sultan Mahmud II  Tanzimat (reorganization) – initiate program of administrative, legal, and technological westernization o      1838-dependency on Britain o      During Crimean War (1852-1854), borrowed money from French and British to subsidize its military mobilization ·        China o      Opium War of 1840-1842 ended in Chinese defeat   2 nd Opium War (1856-1858), fought over same issues also ended in Chinese defeat  Taiping Rebellion of 1850-1864
  24. 25. 19-Century Empires ·        Southeast Asia o      British dominated trade economy  abrupt halt with passage of Charter Act of 1833. British East India Company lost monopoly of China trade & company’s interest in India-China trade route waned sharply. ·        Pacific Rim o      Emigration soared after Australian Gold Rush of 1851 o      1850s-Britain granted New Zealand & Australia limited autonomy o      European diseases  killed most of local inhabitants ·        Japan o      Only Japan managed to escape European rule ·        Greatest imperial shit of 19-century was in European stance toward Africa ·        Africa o      Source of raw materials, outlet for its new manufactures o      Dysentery, yellow fever, typhoid, and above all, malaria decimated European visitors (“White Man’s Grave)  Cure to malaria-quinine: substance from bark of South American cinchona tree o      David Livingstone-famous missionary explorer o      Military genius built powerful & extensive Zulu empire in Natal region  Anglo-Zulu War of 1878-1879 ·        Egypt o      Napolean seized opportunity to invade Egypt in 1798
  25. 26. Projecting a Greater France <ul><li>·        May 6 th , 1931-France’s Colonial Exhibition opened at Bois de Vincennes in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>·        Paul Reynard-France’s minister of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>·        North African agriculture=most efficient </li></ul><ul><li>·        Algeria-4 th most important wine producer in world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to colonial rule  open rebellious in Morocco in 1925, Syria in 1926, and in Indo-China in 1930. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in 19-Century ·        1800-Europeans occupied 35% of land ·        1878-Europeans occupied 67% of land ·        1914-Europeans occupied over 90% of land ·        Steamers, quinine, rifles & machine guns, steamship lines, Suez Canal, submarine telegraph cables, colonial railroads ·        Maillot idolized as hero of French science ·        Mossing-cutting strips of bark and wrapping the trees in moss ·        Niger River-earliest and most active use of steamers by invading Europeans because it was easiest to navigate all of tropical Africa ·        Standard weapon of European infantryman was muzzle-loading smoothbore musket ·        French Army (1822)-1 st military to adopt percussion locks ·        1800-British created 1 st Rifle Brigade ·        China-led world in most fields of technology ·        Burmese&Chinese had 2 weaknesses: armed with antiquated weapons and vulnerable to attack by river steamers
  27. 28. The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in 19-Century ·        1873-74, General Wolseley defeated Ahanti (one of West Africa’s most powerful kingdoms) ·        Famous of all colonial campaigns-Kitchener’s conquest of Sudan in 1898 ·        Samori Toure-1 st African leader in region to arm all troops with guns o      1898-year he was finally defeated ·        Most common method of fighting-frontal assault (rush) o      October 1893-battle took place near Zimbabwe in southern Africa ·        November 30, 1854-Said gave de Lesseps the concession to build Suez Canal o      Mediterranean to Red Sea o      Built mostly with Egyptian labor, French money and machinery, and served mainly the interest of Great Britain ·        Iron shipbuilding
  28. 29. Tactics of Rule
  29. 30. The New Imperialism 1870-1914 <ul><li>In the nineteenth century, Europeans remapped the contours of the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>     -This allowed a systematic campaign of conquest and occupation in much of Africa and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Four features of the new imperialism stand out. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Late nineteenth century European nations adopted imperialism as an official policy. </li></ul><ul><li>    -The entrance of a new group of nations into the race for territory changed the rules of the imperial game. </li></ul><ul><li>    -The more competitive imperial climate changed the political objectives of imperial nations. </li></ul><ul><li>    -The new imperialism defined its own ideological mission,  abandoning the universalist premise of the liberal empire. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Europe Transformed: Explaining the New Imperialism <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>    -European nations had access to new and astonishingly efficient technology that would change the course of colonial conquest and domination. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples are..... </li></ul><ul><li>    -Gunboats(Armed steamboats) </li></ul><ul><li>    -Ironclad Warships </li></ul><ul><li>    -Telegraph </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>    -Many agree that it was nationalism that propelled the new imperialism forward. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Nationalism also played an integral role in the rise of a new political and economic order of nation-states in this period. </li></ul><ul><li>    -The emergence of Japan and the U.S. as industrial giants reconfigured the global balance of power and in so doing, changed the stakes of empire. </li></ul><ul><li>    -It challenged British global sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Britain and France sought to expand their empires to compensate for this. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Germany, Japan, and the U.S. responded by creating their own colonial empires. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>In this nationalist framework, economic, political, and cultural forces each played a role in promoting the imperial scramble. </li></ul><ul><li>    -This unstable economic context promoted views that colonial markets could act as buffers against fluctuations of global commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Because of this, the western European nations began to abandon free trade in the 1880s and 1890s. </li></ul><ul><li>    -New phases of industrial capitalism brought fears of saturation of the domestic market and, with that, industrial overproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>    -European nations traded far more with other independent countries, including their European neighbors, than they did with their own colonies. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Political Motives </li></ul><ul><li>     -The actions of Euro nations within the imperial arena were taken as much to jockey for political power and to preempt the territorial claims of other nations as they were to pursue economic gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>    -In the cultural realm, late nineteenth century nation-states mobilized imperialism to assist with internal processes of state-building. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Empires were shown as the shared symbolic property of the nation, an asset that transcended social class and allowed peasants and workers to seem superior to the nation's colonial subjects. </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>Seven European states partitioned most of the African continent, leaving only Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and Liberia independent. </li></ul><ul><li>The Berlin Conference </li></ul><ul><li>The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, presided over by the German Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, was convened to sort out the conflict between Portugal and Belgium over control of the Congo river, and to lay ground rules for colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>-Its main role was to ratify the principle that coastal settlement by a Euro nation also gave it claim to the lands beyond as long as it could establish authority in the region. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>The Berlin Conference  (Cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>     -The Berlin Conference thus centralized power in a previously decentralized political landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>    -The Berlin Conference also extended the Euro abolition of slavery and the slave trade to Africa. </li></ul><ul><li> The Wars of Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Euro powers faced fierce African resistance, and enjoyed several advantages in those conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as </li></ul><ul><li>-Technology(Weapons, vehicles, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>-Trained Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>-Industrious Production of those technologies. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>New Imperial Nations </li></ul><ul><li>After the Berlin Conference had recognized King Leopold II's claims in the Congo in exchange for free trading and shipping rights in the region for other Euro states, Belgium emerged as a major African power. </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>French and British expansion overshadowed that of all others. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the British denigrated the French Empire as a large &quot;sandbox,&quot; France dominated West and North Africa. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Conquest in Africa <ul><li>The Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>    -In the late nineteenth century, Britain stopped supporting the Ottoman empire. </li></ul><ul><li>South and Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>    -India, ruled by Britain after 1857, remained Britain's jewel. </li></ul><ul><li>    -Was a prime manufacturer for Britain, bringing in much money.  </li></ul>
  38. 39. The End of Empire: Decolonization and Postcolonial Immigration
  39. 45. Imperialism
  40. 46. <ul><ul><li>Reasons for expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries no longer state sponsored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European rivalries now fueled expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Initially British East India Company worked with rulers – Later – backed territorial claims, princes used Europeans to settle disputes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Unlike Dutch however, British Raj (gov’t) came from French/British rivalries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Key battle – 1757 Plassey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victory not merely based on numbers issue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brits used Hindu banker money to pay off Indians </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of getting back at Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mughal Empire gradually breaks down under wars with East India Company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for British takeover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Muslims/Hindus don’t unite under national identity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Some Indians liked fighting for British – uniforms, weapons, pay, treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><ul><li>India’s large population made it the key to great empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian soldiers used to conquer surrounding areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became market for investments, manufactured goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major source of raw materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Colonial Society in India and Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially maintained existing social structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just placed traders/officials above existing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to bring Europe over to Asia, but not always with success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t do the whole Dutch canal thing in Indonesia with mosquitoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted to varying degrees dress, eating, work habits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some refused…bad idea…wool clothes in S. East Asia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted food, hookahs/water pipes, Indian dancing. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society had racial discrimination. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But also… Europeans/Asians mixed – miscegenation – mostly men colonize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 48. <ul><ul><li>Social Reform in the Colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially – maintained religion of existing group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept Hindu caste system – refused entry to missionaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But…nabobs – corrupt British leaders who made money while overseas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in 1770 Bengal famine kills 1/3 population – obvious reforms needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lord Charles Cornwallis – took out local autonomy – report directly to Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But…also mistrusted Indians, made wholesale changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the push for change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarians – England has best system – why not share? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evangelical religious revival – reform the heathens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push for education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infusion of Western technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of sati – 1830s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>w/ help from western educated Indian leaders – Ram Mohun Roy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened with physical punishment if they applied sati </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><ul><li>Changes – transplanted Western industrial/political revolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western ideas, inventions, modes of organization, technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn into global network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At schools, model behavior on European exercise, reading, scientific learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ironically…values taught to Indians, used against them later </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>III. Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Science/industrial advantages led to European competition between states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Beginning 19th century – Britain’s navy makes dominant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Belgium, France, Germany, US competing for power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Reasons for colonial expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Status as great power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Raw materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Markets for manufactured goods – needed to keep economies growing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. European countries suffering from overproduction and unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Colonies could be destinations for unemployed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. markets for surplus goods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 50. <ul><ul><li>Central political leaders took more direct control over running colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improved communication – telegraph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer could an explorer alone ratify agreements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>led to fierce parliamentary debates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public opinion important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mass journalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extension of the vote – universal manhood suffrage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal Combat: Colonial Wars and the Apex of European Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances due to Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to minerals others didn’t know existed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemists create even more powerful explosives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgy – mass production of mobile artillery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More accurate hand weapons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine gun as effective battlefield weapon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved ships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engines, iron hulls, massive guns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 51. <ul><ul><li>Areas of Africa/Pacific Islands fought with spears, arrows, leather shields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some areas resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnamese guerillas fought back when leaders refused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zulus defeated British at Isandhlwana in 1879 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But…eventually they would lose…win the battle, but no way they can win war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only successful methods of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>guerrilla warfare, sabotage, banditry only match for superior weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes spiritual leaders gave encouragement to locals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical dependencies – small # of Europeans rule a ton of locals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought under rule suddenly late 19th/early 20th century </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement colonies – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White Dominions – huge % of land, low % of population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small # of natives, whites majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natives killed by disease/wars of conquest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US, Canada, Australia, Chile, Argentina </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 52. <ul><ul><li>Third type – settlement colony variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large indigenous population + large # of immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S. Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, Algeria, Kenya </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous clashes over land rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial Regimes and Social Hierarchies in the Tropical Dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followed pattern of India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Played ethnic/cultural divisions against one another </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West/East Africa – Animists and Christians vs. Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These divisions called “tribes” – dehumanizing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>