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Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
Instructional technology
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Instructional technology

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  • 1. Theoretical Foundation for Instructional Technology Maram M. kalantan
  • 2. What is learning?
    • According to Reiser & Demposey (2007) “learning is defined as a persisting change in human performance or performance potential’’ (p. 37).
    • Learning is outcome of experience and interaction with the world.
    • Learning is an individual process.
    • Learning is Characterized by processes shared by affecting the members of team.
    Reiser & Demposey (2007)
  • 3. Psychological Foundation theories
    • Psychological Foundation theories
    Cognitive Information Processing Schema Theory and Cognitive load Situated learning Gagne’s Theory of instruction Behaviorism
  • 4. Behaviorism
    • The most prominent behavioral scientists are:
    • Behaviorism: is the philosophy of psychology, which is based on the work and thinking and feeling which can be observed on the organism (Wikipedia, 2011)
    • Behavioral approach emphasizes the practice and repetition in a series of actions that lead to the desired behavior. (Grabinger et al.,2007)
    • Behavior depends on two main elements of environmental stimuli, and the response from the object ( Reiser & Demposey , 2007, p.38)
    Pavlov is the founder of the theory of learning Skinner is theory of procedural learning
  • 5. Gagne’s Instructional Theory
    • Gagne’s theory focus on instruction and how can be related to the design.
    • Gagne’s theory of instruction include three components:
    • (Reiser & Demposey, 2007, p. 41)
    • According to Nejdi & Tochtermann (2006) “Gagne’s theory is information ـــ processing theory, so its goal is not only for getting attention but for directing attention to that which is to be learned” (p. 165).
    Taxonomy of learning outcomes that determine the capacity of humans to learn Internal and external learning conditions related to learning outcomes Nin events of instruction simplify and enhance the cognitive process through learning
  • 6. Gagne’s Instructional Theory 2. Information the learner of the objective. 1. Gaining attention. 3. Providing learning guidance. 5. Presenting the stimulus. 6. Eliciting performance. 8. Assessing performance. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer. 4. Stimulating recall of prior learning. 7. Providing feedback. (Reiser & Demposey, 2007, p.41)
  • 7. Theory of Constructivism
    • constructivist theory based learner to build his/her own knowledge thought experience and information prior (Tobias & Duffy, 2009, p. 188).
    • Foundations of constructivist theory focuses on
    Construction of knowledge itself and not transfer the information directly to the student Environment and society are part of knowledge construction.. Experiences and prior knowledge whether the concept wrong or correct. (Reiser & Demposey, 2007, p. 42)
  • 8. Learning Environments
    • According to Wellhousen & Crowther (2004). “ Children learn best when they deal with the real world-people, natural materials, problems to solve their own creation” and “ children learn best though active play that is personally meaningful” (p. 23).
    • There are three environment that focus on education:
    • (Bell, 2010)
    • Keefe & Jekine (1997) illustrated learning environment it must be perfect“ School learning environments should be good enough to meet the need of student and reflect contemporary knowledge about learning and instruction” (p. 73).
    Emotional Environment Physical Environment Social environment
  • 9. Learning Environments
    • Learning environments in the past is limited to some simple educational tools were face to face called traditional education. As for now, it has evolved in environments technical education to become more effective and successful (e.g., smart electronic blackboard, internet … ect) it is possible education through online called distance Learning.
    • wikipedia (2011) define of distance Learning “ is afield of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology with the aim of delivering teaching, often on individual basis, to students who are not physically present in traditional education setting such as a class room.
  • 10. My Philosophical Beliefs Of Learning Environments
    • Learning environment in the perspective of personal as umbrella, subdivided into several environments such as the traditional learning environment that is face to face user simple tools in education, Environment of the introduction and integration of technology in education that used the technology and educational media and multiple sources of information. Learning environment electronics, it be more independent and self-reliance and direct interaction without the limits of time or place called distance learning.
    • The learning environment is the place where the learner feels comfortable safety and support both the means and technical devices to allow the learner’s individual learning opportunities and learning in groups. This environment create activity, cooperation, schema, innovation, access to the concepts themselves. This environment is an integrated environment in terms of learner and teacher.
  • 11. References
    • Bell, A. (2010). Dialogue on learning : Creating a learning-centered environment. Retrieved from http://www.dialogueonlearning.tc3.edu
    • Grabinger, S., Aplin, C., & Ponnappa-Brenner, G. (2007). Instructional Design for Sociocultual Learning Environments. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/
    • Nejdi, W., & Tochtermann, K. (Eds.). (2006). Innovative approaches for learning and knowledge sharing. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/
    • Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional design and technology (2 Edition). upper saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
    • Tobias, S., & Duffy, T.M. ( 2009). Constructivist Instruction: Success or Failure? . Retrieved from http://books.google.com
    • Wellhousen, K., & Crowther, I. (2004). Creating Effective learning Environment. Retrieved from
    • http://books.google.com
    • Wikimedia foundation, Inc. (2011). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Behaviorism. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
    • /

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