Welcome everyone! This presentation will assist you in conceptualizing the theoretical underpinnings of the instructional technology field. At great length, I will discuss the psychological foundation theories or models which provide the different perspectives of learning into the design of a learning environment. In addition, learning motivation theories or models which also provide input into the design of the learning environment will be discussed. Various learning environments will be described. Finally, information on learner beliefs which encompass the final product will also be shared.
The table of contents indicates three slides which portray a brief introduction to the topic; these slides will cover the definitions of several key concepts in order to have a basis of understanding prior to discussing the theories and models that have put into practice.
Part of foundation and frameworks in the instructional technology field is the basic understanding of the terms, learning and instruction. Though we inherently understand or know what each of these terms already mean, it is important to convey them in the language that is used by psychologists, theorists, educators, and those in the instructional technology field. The definition of learning focuses more on cognition and the benefits of the outcome. The definition of instruction does not focus on the concept of “teaching” as one would think, but instead it discussed on the sequence of information/events and relevance to instruction.
This presentation focuses on four aspects. 1. Psychological foundation theories and models. 2. Learning environment theories and models. 3. Learner motivation theories and models. 4. Learner’s psychological beliefs on learning. Please do not mistaken the questions contained in the clouds as not being pertinent information. The way that theories, models, and learning environments arise are because of researcher questions, which cause further investigation and a hypothesis being stated and tested. Observations are made during this inquiry, and propositions are formulated, which actually become the basis of theories. For example, a question which may cause you to investigate the underlying reasons or verify its validity would be: “why does the sun rise in the east and set in the west?” You should already have some possible answers to this question, but it in order to validate these answers, you should conduct research on viable subjects in the astronomy field such as: cause of day and night, the sun’s role in our solar system, earth’s rotation, etc. in order to find the answer. And, after research, you will discover that the sun does not really rise or set. It is the earth’s 24 hour rotation on its axis which causes this affect. Thus, the validity of this question is being tested throughout the process of testing your answers, and out of investigations.
The key to this pictorial depiction is the emphasis on “design”. That is the actual “design of the learning environment” should incorporate a foundation of psychological theories/models and motivational theories/models. Why is that so? This is to ensure that the design of the learning environment is based upon time tested theories and models which indicate a more successful outcome. Thus, the processes used to create the learning environment are systematic, rather than haphazard. A trend in instructional design is to look at noninstructional interventions, and not just instructional interventions. It is important to realize the beliefs of the target audience that will be utilizing the learning environment.
Section I focuses on 4 different psychological foundation theories or models. Once again, theories are derived from questions, and this process is very similar to the scientific method. Let’s go ahead and review these theories. Constructivism theory will be discussed in greater length due to the fact that its popularity has risen from the innovation of the personal computer. The reason for this is because the learner can become the owner or controller of learning via this platform, in comparison to classroom instructor-led learning. Next, the cognitive information processing theory, Gagne’s theory, and situated learning will be discussed; these theories, as well as other theories not mentioned in this presentation are relevant in the field per application to certain learning environments. Today, even two or more psychological theories/models can also describe how learning occurs in instructional environments being used today. For example, a hybrid class contains both classroom instructor-led sessions as well as an online interface when class is not in session.
The key to understanding constructivism is that learning is occurring inside the learner and is continuously being built, like building blocks in construction. The learner takes ownership of his/her learning; and self-regulates it. Authentic environments which are portrayed in learning environments can facilitate this type of learning. Thus, this theory focuses on problem-solving. The learning outcome of each learner is dependent upon how he/she built up to the solution; thus solutions will vary. In constructivism, the role of the learner is magnified; he/she is vested in the learning environment with regards to inherently designing his/her own learning. The popularity of providing a learning environment based upon constructivism in the instructional technology fields has stemmed from innovations in technology media and equipment. A learner using a personal computer can easily become more autonomous in his/her learning in conjunction with the use of media which supports the constructivism philosophy.
This slide provides you on the various components that are related to the constructivism philosophy. The trend in Instructional Technology is to continue to provide learning environments which support constructivism. The innovations in technology, in particular the personal computer, has become an ideal platform in delivering constructivism based learning applications. Learning goals support development of the learner being autonomous or taking full ownership in learning. In fact, the actual design of the learning environment is “the learner actually designing it for his/her own learning”, rather than it being rigid in limited learning outcomes. The conditions for instruction facilitate the learning process; the focus is usually problem-solving being done on the platform.
Extensive research in the constructivism philosophy has led to the creation of the learning sciences discipline. Learning sciences converge design activities, cognition, and sociocultural context. Design research is the merging of both research and design. This allows designers to formalize feedback and adjustment while learning is occurring. This information is relevant to instructional technology, especially for constructivist learning environments that are used in academics. In following the model, learning can be adjusted based upon collected data from the outcome of learning tasks. The model is iterative to produce this adjusted learning trajectory. Due to the fact that the design process begins with a “thought experiment”, it allows the instructional designer to test various ways to commence learning. Based upon test results, the learning environment is rich with technology application, complex in design, authentic in context, and can solve instructional problems.
Cognitive Information Processing Theory advocates that learning is conducted in the mind in a similar fashion as to how a computer operates. Information/instruction serves as an input, further processed internally in the learner, and the output is the learning outcome. There are three types of learning which occur: sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Sensory memory focuses on the five senses; and information is held very briefly. One example is the flashing that occurs when one opens up a training simulation or application on the computer. This flash of the visual image will reside in the brain for only for a few seconds; and brings attention to the learner. An example of working memory is when there is only a short-term use for the information being learned; for example, being given a temporary code or password to type into the logon screen of a learning environment; thus the brain only stores it for less than a minute. And, finally long-term memory is the transfer of information from working memory which needs to be stored in the brain for long-term. An, example of this type of memory is always knowing the sequence of steps on the computer which one needs to take in order to search for online articles from a library database. For the instructional technology field, these stages of memory become relevant with the selection and employment of instructional media.
Gagne presents a comprehensive theory which outlines the various learning outcomes, from verbal to motor skills. He further elaborates conditions for learning in order for these outcomes to take fruition. Gagne’s theory remains as a foundation in instructional design practices. Gagne’s additional contribution is that the learner benefits from a hierarchical organization of instruction; where subordinate skills are taught prior to higher level skills. This is one of the key characteristics in instructional design models.
Some of the key themes presented in the Situated Learning Theory is the focus on authentic learning, learning in a social context, and learning environments which foster learning through a community. The learning community members have various levels of skills; learning occurs through collaboration, teamwork, leveraging from experts in the community, and learning outcomes are achieved both individually and via community interactions. Many organizations have created knowledge management databases, which allows this type of learning to occur for its employees. In these platforms, employees can derive best practices, network with other professionals, hold discussions on projects, and publish findings in order to educate others.
In Section II, several motivational models are mentioned. The goal is for instructional designers to create a learning environment which will motivate learning. In order to accomplish this goal, they rely on past theories or models, and even studies in classroom learning which can serve as input into designing the instructional system. The first works of Alschulur and Brophy will be mentioned first in this section, because the principles that they derived served as a foundation for the ARCS and Time-Continuum models. The ARCS and Time-Continuum models are holistic models. In other words, these two models provide a whole system of beliefs rather than only individual motivational components. Furthermore, these models are often compared in the instructional technology field.
Achievement motivation characteristics were founded by Alschuler’s study of the role of teachers and children in classrooms. The major finding is to not make instruction more appealing, but to raise the stakes in the motive which entice the learner to become more motivated. Achievement motivation is systematic; thus it contains a sequence of steps which are addressed in a workshop setting for both students and teachers. These workshops address specific strategies advocated for each step of achieving motivation in the n-Ach sequence of steps. Alschuler’s book, “Teaching Achievement Motivation” is written for educators in order to address the child that shows the attitude of “I don’t care” in the classroom. The achievement motivation sequence of steps have provided foundation information to developers of the ARCS and Time-Continuum models about specific motivational characteristics and strategies which will facilitate learning in the classroom. In order to acknowledge the importance of Alschuler’s work in the instructional technology field, an instructor can develop the N-Ach motives in learners by using the advocated instructional strategies within the model. Presently, since instructional designers are looking for ways to ensure that a learning environment motivates learning; they are less concerned with specific motivational characteristics as in Alschuler’s work . As a result, this improvement in the field has led matching motivational requirements while designing the instructional system at the same time in order to ensure a holistic approach is being taken.
Brophy receives credit for his work in studying motivation in the classroom also. His model advocates a set of principles and strategies in order for motivate both learners and the motivator. The model can be used as a checklist during the planning of curriculum. The principles are applied and tested for validity; thus Brophy’s work is mentioned with the ARCS and Time-Continuum model. Another contribution in the instructional technology field from Brophy’s work has been on disposition or state with regard to a student’s motivation in learning. With other researchers of motivation, Brophy also distinguishes intrinsic verses extrinsic motivation in his model. Finally, the instructional technology field has improved from earlier time periods in seeing motivation as less elusive and more static…which has resulted in a learning environment that has been automated in addressing motivation in learning, but is not completely precise in addressing what causes someone to learn.
Wlodkowski derived the time-continuum model by addressing six major motivational factors which are divided before, during and after instruction. The model is prescriptive, and comes in the form of a handbook for developing instruction. Wlodkowski’s model has been compared in detail with the ARCS model; the ARCS model uses a problem-solving approach and is integrated well with the instructional systems design process in the field. Wlodkowski’s model is well published in the field because it is considered holistic. Just like the ARCS model, Wlodkowski’s model provides guidance for application of motivational tactics, but the instructor must be judicial in deciding what instructional strategies or methods should be represented in instruction; thus these models are heuristic also.
The ARCS model is a systematic model which can be fully integrated into the creation/design of an instructional platform. There are four conditions for motivation. The ARCs model also represents four principles, and 10 steps employed to motivate student learning. The application of the model occurs when following these ten steps (see next slide for the 10 steps). The model follows a problem-solving approach and supports learner self-regulation in learning. One trend is to utilize the model in performing human resources functions, such as human performance. Another area of interest is the intrinsic characteristics of motivation in the learner with the extrinsic characteristics of motivation provided by computing technologies in terms of hardware. There are issues in efficiency of applying this model to instructional design, because it is a time consuming process. Thus, the field’s professionals will need to conduct further research and studies in all motivational theories/models that are being applied to designing a learning environment.
This slide represents the ten steps in the ARCS motivational model. The process is systematic, but time-consuming for instructional designers to implement.
Learning environments have changed drastically due to computing technologies. Computing technologies have provided both hardware and software which can provide a framework in the delivery of learning environments. Historically, a teacher in the classroom would decide when and how to integrate audio-visuals and other technologies into the curriculum. But now, instructional technologist must be knowledgeable about how to design instruction, what media should be used, and what is the best way to learn the concepts for a particular subject. Section III presents four types of learning environments.
Integrated Learning Systems is a type of learning platform that is used inprimarily academics. These are complete instructional systems which are computer based. The future intention is to develop these systems to a complex level such that they eliminate the need for teachers delivering instruction. These systems are based upon constructivism, and there are many online applications which are being utilized by students. Due to the fact that they follow a constructivist approach, students “explore” these applications rather than learn by skill practice.
Distance learning has gained much popularity and exposure in the United States due to the use of computing technologies which provide a vehicle for delivering instruction. Distance learning is also referred to online or e-learning. Distance learning education closes the gap of learners geographically spread out around the globe by using an online interface which provides access to the learning environment. Distance learning research and studies are still being conducted today, and researchers continue to publish best practices with regard to the design of a distance learning platform. Though computing technologies provide an efficient way of delivering instruction, this does not eliminate the risks of completely relying on the integrity of networks, service providers, viruses, server performance, etc.
Advance organizers are used to provide introductory material to the learner in order for him/her to create meaning of learning in a particular subject matter later. The advantage of having advance organizers is that they can reduce the cognitive load for learner so that he/she can construct meaning of the instruction. These types of organizers can aid those with special needs. In the instructional technology field, it is important to address the needs of the target audience in various ways such that the learning environment supports various skill levels of learning.
Learning communities are types of learning environments which support learning through a community members. Learning communities contain learners with distributed levels of learning; for example, a novice can learn from an expert. This type of learning environment encourages networking, collaboration, sharing of best practices, teamwork, and partnering with organizations. Many organizations utilize learning environments which are based upon learning communities for the learning development of their employees. For instructional technology, it is important to recognize the value of learning received from these types of platforms especially when employees are training for new roles, and improving their level of performance.
Section IV discusses learner beliefs. Different from learner motivation, learner beliefs are taken into account for learner attitudes and values in learning. In general, most learners do have an idea of their level of curiosity, success/failure rate, luck, effort, and ability in subjects which are presented to them. For instructional technologists, it is relevant to take these factors into consideration and try to measure learner beliefs before, during, and after instruction. This will allow the field’s professionals to make changes to the learning platform, instruction delivery, and other components which affect learner beliefs.
At the basic level of expressing a foundation theory, one can see that learner beliefs are encompassed on the various ways learning can occur in relation to the theory. If we see learner beliefs as characteristics of learners, then we can begin viewing them as the learner’s attitude or what the learner values. Usually, learners do know to some degree whether they can learn the information being instructed to them. Learner beliefs include curiosity, effort, ability, luck, and assessing success and failure result. Bandura’s self-efficacy model comprises of four principles which addresses the learner’s expectancy of success based upon their capabilities.
Anglin has restated six revised design guidelines (from Simonson in 1979) in utilizing instructional media in the field which addresses learner attitudes and values. The purpose of these guidelines is to facilitate learner attitude change or formulation. Many of these guidelines support the constructivism philosophy in suggesting an authentic learning environment, gaining useful information in a credible context, involving the learner in the design of his/her own learning of information,encouraging learner participation, and advocating the use of media-rich instruction. In the field, professional can gauge learner beliefs by taking a closer look at similar characteristics in the target audience.
If we look in detail at the scope of activities involved in designing a learning platform today; we can then only appreciate the historical contributions made by past researchers and their studies. These studies led to the derivation of psychological and motivational theories that serve as the foundations and frameworks of the field. A learning environment’s effectiveness and robustness can today be been raised considerably higher baseline than in previous time periods. Today, learning platforms are enriched with the use of computing technologies; they are versatile in offering learners a mechanism to self-regulate and take ownership of their own learning. Instructional technologists can measure human performance improvement with regard to both instructional and noninstructional interventions.
It is important to state certain limitations in the scope of the instructional technologists work. There is high dependency for the use of computing technologies; unfortunately, problems do arise. Instructional technology cannot be a success as a solo effort; there is a high dependency for team effort, and input should be solicited from many stake holders. The rapid change in technology is another factor that affects the field; thus it is important for those in the field to strategically look ahead to the future needs in the field. The field is still evolving, and research/studies being conducted during this time period will assist in changing the scope of responsibilities of the instructional technologist. This concludes the presentation. Thank you for your time.
Foundations and framework
Foundations and Framework<br />In the Instructional Technology Field<br />Videsha Sethi<br />University of Houston – Clear Lake<br />1<br />
What is Learning and Instruction?<br />Learning:<br /><ul><li>A result of internal cognitive processes occurring within the learner.
The encoding which occurs from organization, integration, and translation of information.
Driscoll (2005) states, “it is a persisting change in human performance or performance potential” (p. 9).</li></ul>Instruction:<br /><ul><li>It is the organizing and sequencing of information for the learner.
It is the presentation and provision of examples, practice, and feedback.
Driscoll (2005) states, “it is any deliberate arrangement of events to facilitate a learner’s acquisition of some goal” (p. 23).</li></ul>Note: Being presented with information does not always cause learning to occur; and the learning of information does not always result in the need for instruction.<br />Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />3<br />
Four Considerations for Instruction Technology<br />How do we instruct?<br />What are the different ways we learn?<br />Psychological foundation theories and models: They explain the different perspectives, different assumptions, and different beliefs about how we learn.<br />Learning environment theories and models: They provide a designed platform to facilitate learning through the use of media and instruction. <br />How do we stay motivated to learn?<br />How do we incorporate our learner beliefs during instruction?<br />Learner motivation theories and models: These provide a designed framework where motivation characteristics are integrated when designing a learning environment.<br />Learner’s psychological beliefs: These are integrated into the final product.<br />4<br />
Connecting Learning, Instruction, Motivation and Beliefs<br /><ul><li>Psychological foundations are theories or models which provide input into the learning environment, such as: Situated Learning, Constructivism, Gagne’s Theory, and Cognitive Information Processing Theory.
Learner motivation theories and models provide input into the design of a learning environment.</li></ul>Learning Environments<br />Psychological Foundations<br />Learner Beliefs<br />Learner Motivation<br /><ul><li>Various learning environments are designed with the underlying notion of the psychological foundation being used and the integration of learner motivation theories and models.
Learner philosophical beliefs are integrated into the final product. </li></ul>5<br />
Section 1: Psychological Foundation Theories and Models<br /><ul><li> Constructivism
Constructivism<br /><ul><li> The learner is the active constructor of knowledge.
Instructional technologist provide both a realistic or authentic learning environment which is complex in order to facilitate the above learning outcomes.
Constructivism has greatly influenced instructional designers; Reiser and Dempsey (2007) declare that it “attempts to create learning situations that promote the engagement or immersion of learners in practice fields…and fields of practice” (p. 46).
Anglin (1995) describes “the concept of constructionism (now called constructivism) was first proposed by Bruner in the mid-1960s and builds on earlier ideas of Piaget. Basically, it holds that the learner rather than the teacher are more important than instruction that originates from the teacher” (p. 41).
See next slide for a pictorial depiction for constructivism which includes the following components: Learning Goals, Conditions for Instruction, and Methods of Instruction.</li></ul>Anglin G. J. (1995). Instructional technology: Past, present, and future( 2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.<br />Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology(2nd ed.). Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice.<br />7<br />
Constructivism Continued<br />Driscoll’s (2005) pictorial representation of “constructivism” (p. 384).<br />Assumes knowledge is constructed<br />Constructivism<br />Methods of Instruction<br /><ul><li>Microworlds and hypermedia designs
Collaborative learning and problem scaffolding
Goal-based scenarios and problem-based learning
Open software and course management tools</li></ul>Learning Goals include<br /><ul><li> Reasoning
Mindful reflection</li></ul>Conditions for Instruction<br />Complex and relevant learning environments<br />Social negotiation<br />Multiple perspectives and multiple modes of learning<br />Ownership in learning<br />Self-awareness of knowledge construction<br />Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />8<br />
Constructivism Continued<br />The incorporation of constructivism has greatly affected instructional activities and the instructional system design process. As a result, a new discipline has emerged called learning sciences.<br /><ul><li>According to Reiser and Dempsey (2007), “learning sciences are the convergence of design of activity systems, cognition, and sociocultural context” (p. 47). The learning environment relies upon constructivist cognitive discipline. They are complex learning environments which offer learners an authentic platform for learning. Learning sciences also uses concepts and practices from computer science.
Research and design functions in learning sciences are merged into one activity called design research. Reiser and Dempsey (2007) state, “design research integrates the design of learning environments with the development of prototheories (emergent development theories)” (p. 48).
Design research allows a more contextually bound understanding of learning. This occurs when the design process starts with a thought experiment, rather than beginning with the analysis phases.
For the instructional technology field, the learning is more local and useful in solving instructional problems.</li></ul>9<br />Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology(2nd ed.). Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice.<br />
Cognitive Information Processing Theory<br />Atkinson and Shiffrin’s cognitive information processing theory implies that the learner’s mind works like a computer. Educational implications from Roblyer and Doering (2010) state that “instruction must gain attention, provide the right kinds of application, and provide sufficient practice to ensure encoding, retention, and retrieval” (p. 36).<br /><ul><li>The cognitive information processing view states that the learner is a processor of information in much the same way as a computer is. Driscoll (2005) states that “when learning occurs, information is input from the environment, processed and stored in memory, and output in the form of some learned capability “(p. 74).
Sensory memory – This stage is focused more on the five senses, where a learner can hold information very briefly in memory, and begins the actions of pattern decoding of the environment.
Working memory – This memory is considered short-term memory, where the learner will remember a limited amount of information for a very short amount of time.
Long-term memory – This memory allows the learner to transfer information from working memory for permanent or long term storage. </li></ul>Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A .H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. <br />10<br />
Gagne’s Theory of Instruction<br />Gagne’s Theory of Instruction encompasses three components: <br /><ul><li>A Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes: 1. verbal information; 2. intellectual skills; 3. cognitive strategies; 4. attitudes; 5. motor skills
Conditions of Learning: For each of the above learning outcomes, external conditions exist for learning the different varieties of outcome.
Nine Events of Instruction:</li></ul>Gaining attention<br />Informing learners of objectives<br />Stimulating recall of prior learning<br />Presenting the stimulus<br />Providing learning guidance<br />Eliciting performance<br />Providing feedback<br />Assessing performance<br />Enhancing retention and transfer<br /><ul><li> Driscoll (2005) states, “because Gagne eventually adopted information-processing theory as a foundation for his theory, the conditions for learning include both internal events (such as previously encoded information) and external events (such as preparation to facilitate encoding). Additionally, the events of instruction refer to methods or procedures designed to facilitate the processes (such as encoding, retentions, retrieval, etc.) thought to occur during learning” (p. 355).</li></ul>Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />11<br />
Situated Learning Theory<br /><ul><li>In situated learning, both declarative and procedural knowledge are integrated into a single framework. The basis of cognition has both a social and situated aspect.
Driscoll (2005) states “what people perceive, think, and do develops in a fundamentally social context” (p. 157).
The theory focuses on communities of practice. Reiser and Dempsey (2007) state, “learning from a situated perspective occurs through the learner’s participation in the practices of a community, practices that are mutually constituted by the members of the community” (p. 40).
Examples of learning environments based upon this theory is stated by Roblyer and Doering (2010), “Technology-based materials, such as the Jasper Woodberry Problem Solving Series, videodisc-based mathematics materials created by the now-disbanded Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV), and more recently, GeoThentic, were designed to provide learning environments that reflected situated cognition, or instruction anchored in experiences that learners considered authentic because they emulated the behavior of adults” (p. 41).</li></ul>Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice.<br />Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A .H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. <br />12<br />
Section 1I: Motivational Theories and Models<br /><ul><li> Motivational Principles and Strategies
Achievement Motivation<br />Studies on specific motivational characteristics lead to developing the achievement motive in children. The approach was to change behavior and improve self-motivation by strengthening this motive, instead of making instruction more appealing.<br /><ul><li>Alschuler, A. S., Tabor, D., McIntyre, J. (1971) state, “when desire for achievement becomes a dominant concern for a person, it is expressed in restless driving energy aimed at attaining excellence, getting ahead, improving on the past records, beating competitors, doing things better, faster, more efficiently, and finding unique solutions to difficult problems” (p. 6).
To increase motivation, the way of learning should be changed rather than what is being learned.
This work consisted of teaching achievement motivation to students and teachers through workshops which contained sequences of steps to be followed. It also encompassed teachers making changes to the classroom in order to encourage and reward students’ achievement motivation in a systematic way.
According to Alschuler, A. S., Tabor, D., McIntyre, J. (1971), “the need to achieve (or n-Ach for short) involves a special way of planning to attain excellence, a set of strong feelings about doing well, and specific action strategies” (p. 1). The n-Ach is a six-step sequence in arousing and internalizing a motive: 1. Attend; 2. Experience; 3. Conceptualize; 4. Relate; 5. Apply; 6. Internalize.</li></ul>Alschuler, A. S., Tabor, D., McIntyre, J. (1971). Teaching Achievement Motivation Middletown, CT: Education Ventures, Inc.<br />14<br />
Motivational Principles and Strategies<br /><ul><li>Brophy advocates the use of the following motivational principles and strategies for planning curriculum and instruction: A. General Principles; B. Strategies for Supporting Students’ Confidence as Learners; C. Strategies for Motivating through Extrinsic Incentives; D. Strategies for Connecting with Students’ Intrinsic Motivation; E. Strategies for Stimulating Students’ Motivation to Learn; F. Adaptations to the Needs of Individual Students; G. Your Development as a Motivator.
Each of the above principles contain statements which support it; these can be used as a checklist.
These motivational principles and strategies were identified through research in the classroom; thus derived systematically in order to provide a checklist of motivation principles for the both the motivator and student.
Student motivation to learning is either a disposition or state. Brophy (2004) states, “as a disposition, it is an enduring tendency to value learning- to approach the process of learning with effort and thought and to seek to acquire skills and knowledge. In specific situations, a state of motivation to learn exists when a student engages purposefully in an activity by adapting its goal and trying to learn the concepts or master the skills it develops” (p. 16).</li></ul>Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.<br />15<br />
Time-Continuum Model<br />Wlodkowski’s time-continuum model consists of six major motivational factors: attitudes, needs, stimulation, affect, competence, and reinforcement. These factors are organized by three time frames: beginning, during, and ending of an instruction.<br /> Before Instruction – attitudes and needs<br /> During Instruction – stimulation and affect<br /> Ending Instruction – competence and reinforcement<br /><ul><li>Wlodkowski (1986) states, “by continuously attending to the six factors outlined, the teacher can, in any learning situation, design motivational strategies for his/her students throughout the learning process” (p. 23).
The model is prescriptive on actions that an instructor should take to ensure motivation of learners.
Hodges (2004) states, “the model is presented in the form of a handbook for developing instruction and draws on approaches from linguistics, cognitive psychology, and motivation research” (p. 3).</li></ul>Hodges, C. B. (2004). Designing to motivate: Motivational techniques to incorporate in e-learning experiences. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/PDF/2.3.1.pdf<br />Wlodkowski , R. J. (1986). Motivation and teaching: A practical guide. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States.<br />16<br />
ARCS Model<br />Keller’s ARCS model has been developing for over 15 years. According to Driscoll (2005), “it is an integrated model for understanding motivation and for systematically incorporating motivational concerns into instruction” (p. 332).<br /><ul><li>The acronym, ARCS is derived from the model’s four conditions of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.
The model supports for self-regulating learning to take place. Driscoll (2005) states, “learners become increasingly self-regulated when they acquire skills to plan their learning, monitor their own progress, and evaluate the success of their efforts so as to improve their strategies in the future” (p. 332).
According to Dick, W., Carey, J.O., Carey, L. (2001), the, “ARCS represents the principles for (1) gaining and then maintaining learner attention through instruction that is (2) perceived by the learners to be relevant for their personal needs and goals, (3) at the appropriate level of difficulty so that learners are confident they can succeed if they try, and (4) perceived by learners as satisfying in terms of rewards for their investments” (p. 364).</li></ul>Dick W., Carey, J.O., Carey, L. (2001). The systematic design of instruction (5th ed.). New York, NY: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc.<br />Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />17<br />
ARCS Model - Continued<br />Obtain course information<br />2. Obtain audience information<br />3. Analyze audience<br />4. Analyze existing materials<br />5. List objectives and assessments<br />6. List potential tactics<br />8. Integrate with instruction<br />9. Select and develop materials<br />7. Select and design tactics<br />10. Evaluate and revise<br />18<br />
Section 1II: Learning Environments<br /><ul><li> Integrated Learning Systems
Integrated Learning Systems<br /><ul><li>Integrated Learning Systems (ILS) – These systems were introduced in the 1970s; they provide computer based instruction, additional resources which support instruction. They also provide summary reports on student progress. They can be networked or online sources.
For the future, ILSs are becoming more complex tutorial systems for the intention of replacing teachers in delivering instruction.
According to Roblyer and Doering (2010), “ILS products useful for constructivist purposes typically have an information bank (electronic encyclopedias), symbol pads (word processing and/or desktop publishing software), construction kits (Logo or other graphic languages or tools), and phenomenaria (computer simulations and/or problem-solving resources)” p. 102).
The emphasis is “exploration” through simulation, instructional game, and problem- solving; rather than learning through demonstration or skill practice.</li></ul>Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A .H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.<br />20<br />
Distance Learning<br />The United States Distance Learning Association (USDL) (2008), defines Distance Learning as “the application of information technology (and infrastructure) to educational and student related activities linking students and teachers in differing places” (p. 44).<br />Distance Learning’s birth is attributed from technology advancements, especially the invention of the personal computer and Internet. These innovations allowed for an inexpensive way of delivering instruction.<br /><ul><li>Distance learning is also called “online learning” and “e-learning”
According to Morley (2009), “the majority of distance learning coursework is completed over the Internet via class Web pages, discussion groups, chat rooms, and e-mail…distance learning classes often utilize Web-based training components” (p. 140).
Roblyer and Doering (2010) state, “distance courses are made possible by a course management system (CMS), an online collection of web course design and delivery tools” (p. 231). The CMS is further supported by other online tools, such as site capturing software, intranets, and whiteboards.</li></ul>Morley, D. (2009). Understanding computers in a changing society (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.<br />Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A .H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.<br />The United States Distance Learning Association (2008). About Us. Glossary_Distance. Retrieved from http://www.usdla.org/Glossary_Distance.pdf<br />21<br />
Advance Organizers<br />Advance organizers are utilized as introductory material, which can bridge the gap between what the incoming learner already knows about the subject with what the learner will need to know in order to create meaningful learning.<br /><ul><li>Advance organizers can reduce cognitive load and they also facilitate the learning of subjects which make no sense to them. Driscoll (2005) states, “learners will be better able to construct and automate an appropriate schema or mental model for a particular class of problems when the instruction minimizes extraneous cognitive load but increases germane cognitive load” (p143).
Students with special needs can benefit with advance organizers. In considering of study aids; some online advance organizers are used to improve reading comprehension are SparkNotes, NovelGuide, Free Book Notes, and Pink Monkey.
Demsey and Sales (1993) state, “Ausubel has confirmed the supposition that increase the availability of relevant subsumers in cognitive structure through the use of organizers enhances the meaningful learning of such material” (p. 62).</li></ul>Demsey, J. V. & Sales, G. C. (1993). Interactive instruction and feedback. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications.<br />Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />22<br />
Learning Communities<br />Learning communities allow for learners to have incoming distributed levels of expertise by focusing on a problem of interest. Through collaboration, they build knowledge by contributing towards a communal database.<br /><ul><li>The focus of this learning environment is learning received from a community of practice.
Learning communities can be established globally when a flexible online infrastructure is manifested in order to allow learners to communicate with other learners with various expertise levels.
According to Reiser and Dempsey (2007)) distributed learning, “could include any combination of campus lectures, CBT training modules, online seminars, videoconferences, weblogs, simulations, performance support systems, and numerous other elements by which learning is accomplished” (p. 290).
Roblyer and Doering (2010) state, “now more than ever partnerships are being encouraged between schools, business, corporations, and individuals. It is very common for businesses within a community to partner with school programs, initiatives, and individuals…” (p. 66). An example of a partnership is the GoNorth! Adventure Learning Series.</li></ul>Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice.<br />Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A .H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.<br />23<br />
Section 1V: Learner Beliefs<br /><ul><li> Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Psychologist - Beliefs
Six guidelines which encompass attitudes, values and beliefs</li></ul>24<br />
Learner Beliefs<br />Behavioral psychologists advocate that learning is observable from both behavior and environment. Cognitive psychologists state that learning occurs by thought processes in the learner. Social psychologist warrant that learning is dependent upon the learner’s interactions with his/her socio-cultural environment. Driscoll (2005) states that all “these beliefs dictate what questions about learning will be investigated and what theoretical constructs will be invented to provide explanations” (p. 6).<br /><ul><li>Examples of some characteristics of motivation are provided by Reiser and Dempsey (2007), “people differ in the amount of curiosity they bring to a situation, their desires to be competitive in pursuing challenging goals, and their beliefs as to whether success and failure result from luck, personal effort, or ability” (p. 85).
A learner’s beliefs of their capabilities in achieving goals affects the expectancy of success; this is “self-efficacy”. Bandura (1977) states, “in the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from four sources of principal information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and psychological states. The more dependable the experiential sources, the greater are the changes in perceived self-efficacy” (p. 191).</li></ul>Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review. Retrieved from http://libproxy.uhcl.edu:2057/ehost/pdf?vid=3&hid=2&sid=81d72442-3e29-492f-8ee0-8eab39ce0318%40sessionmgr12<br />Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice.<br />25<br />
Learner Beliefs Continued<br />Regarding the self-efficacy theory, Anglin (1995) states, “this theory suggests that students invest effort on the basis of their beliefs about, or attitude toward, two factors: (1) the requirements of a task, and (2) the students’ assessment of their own skills related to task requirements” (p. 359).<br /><ul><li>When reading scholarly works about the field, many authors mention learner beliefs within the context of learner attitudes and learner values. There are six revised guidelines in utilizing instructional media in order to facilitate attitude change or formulation. Briefly, they are restated as:
Attitude change is favorable when learners are presented with authentic, relevant, and technically stimulating messages.
Discovery of useful and new information can allow the learner to be favorably persuaded.
Messaged delivered in authentic and credible context with the use of instructional technology affects learners in a positive way.
Learner involvement in planning, production, or delivery of mediated instruction react favorably to the situation and towards the delivery of media messages delivered.</li></ul>Anglin G. J. (1995). Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.<br />26<br />
Learner Beliefs Continued<br /><ul><li>Learner participation in critiquing discussions openly develop an attitude that is favorable towards the situation and towards messages.
Media-rich instructional situations provides learners with purposeful emotional involvement which will likely change their attitudes in the advocated direction.</li></ul>27<br />
Conclusion<br /><ul><li>The use of psychological foundation and motivational theories/models have created present-day learning environments that address various ways in which learning can be accomplished as well as ensuring motivation in learning.
The use of systematic approaches could not have been accomplished without past research and studies. These systematic approaches being employed in designing learning systems today provide credibility for stakeholders.
In addition, when a instructional systems design in conducted in this manner, a concrete baseline is established and can be furthermore used in measuring human potential and performance.
The trend of improving motivation in learners that are geographically distant from instruction through the use of computing technologies is being addressed in the field currently.
Even today, it is important for instructional technologists to continue to test the effectiveness of learning, motivation, instructional environments, and learner beliefs with the needs of the learner, especially due to advances in technologies.
Learner beliefs are also learner values and attitudes. Learner beliefs can be manipulated to be changed or formulated based upon the design of the instructional system.</li></ul>28<br />
Conclusion Continued<br /><ul><li>The instructional technology field depends upon the reliability of computing devices and software applications in order for instruction to be delivered. The field is not immune to problems associated with this platform that are unrelated to instruction; for example: performance issues, viruses, network connectivity, etc.)
Instructional technologists do not work alone in creating a learning environment; they have to leverage other personnel in order to carry out the number of activities and tasks associated with designing a system. In addition, they must also consider personnel (besides the learner and their team) that have considerable stake over the success of a learning platform. These people could be in human resources positions, executives in strategic planning, software developers, and hardware suppliers.</li></ul>29<br />