M-Learning in Sub Saharan Africa Context- What is it about?

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Presentation at World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Victoria, Kanada 2013

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M-Learning in Sub Saharan Africa Context- What is it about?

  1. 1.    M-­‐Learning  in  Sub  Saharan  Africa  Context      What  is  it  about?  M.  Ebner    &  M.  Grimus    University  of  Technology,  Graz,  Austria    Victoria,  June  2013  
  2. 2. Sub  Sahara  Afrika  (SSA)    Background  Current  SituaIon    • EducaIon  • Infrastructure  • Policies    Aims  General  Issues  specific  for  SSA  Improving  Quality  of  EducaIon  ?  Mobile  Learning    • Learning  with  Mobiles  • Projects  • Teacher  EducaIon  • Resources  • Challenges/Benefits  
  3. 3. Facts  -­‐  Sub  Sahara  Afrika  •  Population 950 Millionsexpected to double till 2050hVp://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.2DAY).  •  50 % younger than 15 years•  32 % between age 10 - 14•  Only 36% capacity to enroll in SecondaryEducationReference hVp://www.gallup.com/poll/155369/poverty-­‐drops-­‐secondary-­‐educaIon-­‐sub-­‐saharan-­‐africa.aspx    •  37 % Illiterate (> 15 years)•  Language: ~ 2.000 languages/dialects inAfrica.English = official language for 470 mill. ( ~ 36 %of the population speaks the official langauge)Numbers on SSA average, range differs in the 46countries Reference:http://www.weltbevoelkerung.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF/Datenreport/Datenreport_2012.pdfM.  Grimus,  Vienna,  Austria  43% of kids out of school in the world livein SSAhttp://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.2DAY)  40  %    Illiterates  acer  5  years  of  school  
  4. 4.  EducaIon-­‐  Challenges    •  Fast  increasing  numbers  of  students  •  Large  class  sizes  •  Un-­‐trained  or  under-­‐trained  teachers  •  Shortage  of  adequate  material  (textbooks,  libraries…)  •  Limited  repertoire  of  pedagogies  •  Widespread  adult  literacy  M.  Grimus,  Vienna,  Austria  
  5. 5. In  School  •  Limited  books    •   Low  reading  skills  •  Scarce  electricity  in  schools  •  Scarce  access  to  computers  /Internet  Out  of  School  •  „mobile-­‐rich“  •  Read  and  write  on    mobile  Literacy  13,1  7,9  3  2,6  3,6  3,2  2,1   2   2,1   1,9  1,5   1,3  0  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  Reading  Mathe  RaIo  of    textbooks  in  primary  schools:  pupils  per  book  
  6. 6. •  Infrastrucure  in  Schools  •  Teachers  readyness:      digital  literacy  and  pedagogy  •  Costs  (Internet,  airIme)  •  Poverty  and  disease    •  Low  compleIon  rates  •  Adult  Illiteracy  –  late  learners    (age,  gender)    •  HIV  (  age  15-­‐49,  average  SSA  2009:  male  3,6%,  female  5,6%  ),    influences  teaching  capacity  Resources    Challenges  
  7. 7. •  Facilitate  learning  in  remote  areas  •  Youth  is  becoming  demanding  (learning)  •  Mobiles  –  more  affordable  than  PCs  •  Internet  access  nearly  mobile  only  •  Age  (adults,  overaged  students)  •  Informal  learning  •  Overcome  Gender  inequaliIes  (girls)  •  Shic  from  classroom  centered  learning  to  informal  learning  •  Cost  effecIve  tablets,  e-­‐reader,  feature  phones  to  deliver  mainly  texbased  content.  •  Content  –  naIonal  demands  (ethic,  culture,  needs)  Benefits  -­‐  Mobile  Learning  in  SSA  
  8. 8. ICT  Policies  and    21st  Century  Skills  Teaching  and  Learning    Impact  of  General  Issues  Infrastructur  Mobile  Networks,  Internet  
  9. 9. Mobile  Learning  -­‐  a  Chance  for    Formal  and  Informal  Learning  Barriers  •  Lack  of  awarness  of  decisionmakers  •  Costs  (device,  airRme)  •  Lack  of  Content  (m  -­‐  Learning)  •  Limited  pedagogy  for  m-­‐learning  •  Need  for  guidelines  für  „Good  PracRce“  •  Privacy  Issues  •  Power  supply  •  Internet    -­‐  free  WiFi  in  schools  and  communiRes  Drivers  •  Youth    is  knowledgable  with  mobiles  and  social  networks  (Facebook)  •  Young  teachers  •  Demand  of  new  teachers  (needs  of  350.000  new  teachers  /  year)  •  Teacher  educaRon  –  new  strategies  •   Decreasing  costs    for  device  and  airRme  •  Informal  learning  (adult  learners)  •  CooperaRon  in  Learning  -­‐  Peer  Groups  (teacher  educaRon)  •  UNESCO  guidelines  for  Mobile  Learning  Policies  Projects  in  SSA    
  10. 10. •  Textbased  applicaIons    (costs,  feature  phones)  •  InteracIvity  •  Increases  literacy    local  demands:  topics,  language  •  Health  educaRon        HIV  prevenIon  -­‐  apps,  games    hVp://www.freedomhivaids.in/    in  Kiswahili  and  Shen.    HIV  Cricket  www.FreedomHivAids.in/HIVCricket.wml    Mobile  phones  are  the    e-­‐Reader  of  Africa  
  11. 11. Projects  in  SSA  •  iRead:  Worlreader–Project,  e-­‐Books  on  Kindle    and  on  mobile  phones.  Reading  increased  50  %,  :  500.000  reader  since  dec.  2012  in  Ghana,  Nigeria,  Uganda,  Kenya……  •  m4Lit  mobiles  for  Literacy    Yoza    Cell  Phone  Stories  ShuVleworth  FoundaIon  South  Africa  (beVer  infrastructure  )    Youth:  90%  own  a  mobile  phone  Write  and  read  their  stories,  in  Englisch,  Afrikaans  and  isi  Xhosa  •  MulRlingual  Maths  in  South  Africa      grade  11  and  12  material  for  maths  on  mobile  phones  in  English  and  Setswana  (switch)  •  ABC  -­‐  Literacy  for  adult  Illiterated  Niger  ,  in  local  languages  -­‐  Dosso,  Zinder,  Hausa,  Zarma,  Kanuri.  •  South  African  Literacy  Improvement  iniRaRve,  500.000  Users,  50  stories      Source:  Steve  Volso  2010  de.slideshare.net/uocunescochair/m4-­‐lit-­‐unescobarcelonaoct2010sprinkling      hVp://www.worldreader.org/uploads/Worldreader%20VacaIon%20School%20Report%20Oct-­‐2011.pdf    „The  stories  r  interesIng  nf  fun  2  read,  they  kip  ma  englsh  gng“  Hlegiwe  gulube  „Wow  wat  a  story  i  like  it  shame  it  realy  uplics  da  spirits  of  those  livng  with  HIV  it  shows  tht  being  hiv+  is  no  death  sentence  wow  am  so  touched  as  im  also  living  with  hiv  „  ….  Yonela“    
  12. 12. 21st  Century  Skills  -­‐  Curricula  
  13. 13. Digital  literacy  &  pedagogy  New  Teachers  qualificaRon    21st  Century  Skills  +    350.000  p/year  Nigeria,  Kano  2010  Life  Skills  Teacher  EducaIon  
  14. 14. Resources    •  OER  Open  EducaIonal  Resources  CK-­‐12    webbases  collaboraIve    ‘flex-­‐books‘  ,  hVp://www.ck12.org/)  •  E-­‐books  (formats)  •  CreaIve  Commons  •  MOOCS  •  Open  Courseware:  MIT  (Masschusets  InsItute  of  Technology)  hVp://ocw.mit.edu    Khan  Academy  ,hVp://www.khanacademy.org/  
  15. 15. Discussion  •  Policies  •  Devices  ?    •  Costs  (device,  access  to  mobile  content)  •  Informal  Learning  –  Teachers  readiness  ?????  •  TradiIons,  Language,  Ethics  in  SSA  •  Open  EducaIonal  Resources  •  Open  Source    
  16. 16. Conclusions  WiFi  in  schools  and  communiRes  Content  for  mobiles      Digital  literacy  Policies  &  Infrastructure  Teacher  EducaRon  Curricula  
  17. 17. Information Technology ServicesGraz University of TechnologyMartin Ebnermartin.ebner@tugraz.athttp://elearningblog.tugraz.athttp://elearning.tugraz.atDept. Social Learning
  18. 18. Learning    formal  /  informal  CompleRon?  •  Enrollment  (age)  •  DuraRon  (years?)  •  Gender  •  QualificaRon  -­‐  Teachers  Life  Skills  •  Youth:  -­‐  demanding  befer  skills  •  HIV  /  AIDS  •  Mothers  18  

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