Virology

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Virology

  1. 1. Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  2. 2. Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  3. 3. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  4. 4. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  5. 5. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  6. 6. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  7. 7. The Great Debate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  8. 8. The Great Debate ✴Are viruses living organisms? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  9. 9. You Be the Judge Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  10. 10. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  11. 11. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  12. 12. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  13. 13. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide ✴Must use a host to reproduce Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  14. 14. Structure Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  15. 15. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  16. 16. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  17. 17. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  18. 18. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  19. 19. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  20. 20. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped ✴bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  21. 21. Helical Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  22. 22. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  23. 23. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  24. 24. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  25. 25. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  26. 26. Icosahedral Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  27. 27. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  28. 28. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  29. 29. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  30. 30. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  31. 31. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  32. 32. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  33. 33. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  34. 34. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  35. 35. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  36. 36. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” ✴HIV, influenza Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  37. 37. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  38. 38. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  39. 39. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  40. 40. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  41. 41. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  42. 42. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  43. 43. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  44. 44. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  45. 45. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell ✴T Phages (E.coli) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  46. 46. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  47. 47. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  48. 48. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  49. 49. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  50. 50. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  51. 51. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  52. 52. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  53. 53. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent ✴T phages are virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  54. 54. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  55. 55. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  56. 56. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  57. 57. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus wTemperate virus DNA will combine with host DNA creating a prophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  58. 58. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  59. 59. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  60. 60. Viral Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  61. 61. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  62. 62. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  63. 63. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses ✴Because they can only replicate with the help of a host, viruses are known as obligate intracellular parasites Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  64. 64. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  65. 65. ✴DNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  66. 66. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  67. 67. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  68. 68. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  69. 69. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  70. 70. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA ✴Other RNA may be transcribed and serve as a template for more viral DNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  71. 71. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  72. 72. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  73. 73. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  74. 74. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  75. 75. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses ✴HIV is a retrovirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  76. 76. Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  77. 77. Virology Part Deux Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  78. 78. Human Viral Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  79. 79. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  80. 80. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  81. 81. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  82. 82. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  83. 83. Chicken Pox/Shingles: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  84. 84. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  85. 85. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  86. 86. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact ✴May remain dormant as a provirus and become shingles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  87. 87. Viral Hepatitis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  88. 88. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  89. 89. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  90. 90. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter ✴B,C and D spread by sexual contact or blood transfusion Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  91. 91. AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  92. 92. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  93. 93. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  94. 94. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  95. 95. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  96. 96. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus ✴Genetically diverse Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  97. 97. Is there a cure ? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  98. 98. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  99. 99. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  100. 100. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids ✴These drugs can only slow the progression to full-blown AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  101. 101. Emerging Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  102. 102. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  103. 103. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  104. 104. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  105. 105. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice ✴SARS-> civet cats Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  106. 106. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  107. 107. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  108. 108. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  109. 109. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions ✴Bubonic plague, Small pox Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  110. 110. Treatment Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  111. 111. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  112. 112. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  113. 113. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  114. 114. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  115. 115. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  116. 116. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis ✴Acyclovir- blocks DNA polymerase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  117. 117. Viroids vs. Prions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  118. 118. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  119. 119. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  120. 120. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  121. 121. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism ✴Coconuts, oranges, potatoes Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  122. 122. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Prions ✴Infectious ✴Single-stranded protein RNA particles ✴Disrupt plant ✴Clump in brain; metabolism cause cell death ✴Coconuts, ✴Mad cow, oranges, Creutzfeldt- potatoes Jakob disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010

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