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Virology
 

Virology

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    Virology Virology Presentation Transcript

    • Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • The Great Debate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • The Great Debate ✴Are viruses living organisms? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • You Be the Judge Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide ✴Must use a host to reproduce Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped ✴bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Helical Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” ✴HIV, influenza Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell ✴T Phages (E.coli) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent ✴T phages are virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus wTemperate virus DNA will combine with host DNA creating a prophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses ✴Because they can only replicate with the help of a host, viruses are known as obligate intracellular parasites Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA ✴Other RNA may be transcribed and serve as a template for more viral DNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses ✴HIV is a retrovirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Virology Part Deux Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Human Viral Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Chicken Pox/Shingles: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact ✴May remain dormant as a provirus and become shingles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Hepatitis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter ✴B,C and D spread by sexual contact or blood transfusion Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus ✴Genetically diverse Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Is there a cure ? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids ✴These drugs can only slow the progression to full-blown AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Emerging Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice ✴SARS-> civet cats Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions ✴Bubonic plague, Small pox Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis ✴Acyclovir- blocks DNA polymerase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism ✴Coconuts, oranges, potatoes Tuesday, January 26, 2010
    • Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Prions ✴Infectious ✴Single-stranded protein RNA particles ✴Disrupt plant ✴Clump in brain; metabolism cause cell death ✴Coconuts, ✴Mad cow, oranges, Creutzfeldt- potatoes Jakob disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010