Virology
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  • 1. Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 2. Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 3. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 4. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 5. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 6. Virus ✴Particle made of nucleic acid and a protein coat ✴~100x smaller than our cells ✴Virology-the study of viruses (structure, classification, isolation, potential uses) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 7. The Great Debate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 8. The Great Debate ✴Are viruses living organisms? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 9. You Be the Judge Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 10. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 11. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 12. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 13. You Be the Judge ✴They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ✴No membrane bound organelles ✴They cannot metabolize or divide ✴Must use a host to reproduce Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 14. Structure Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 15. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 16. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 17. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 18. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 19. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 20. Structure ✴Nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid coat ✴4 types: ✴helical ✴icosahedral ✴enveloped ✴bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 21. Helical Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 22. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 23. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 24. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 25. Helical Virus ✴Spiral tube of protein (“stair case”) ✴Tobacco mosaic virus, rabies Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 26. Icosahedral Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 27. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 28. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 29. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 30. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 31. Icosahedral Virus ✴Appear spherical at low mag. ✴They actually have 20 triangular sides ✴Hepatitis B Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 32. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 33. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 34. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 35. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 36. Enveloped Virus ✴Spherical shape ✴These viruses highjack a host’s cell membrane, forming an envelope ✴Glycoproteins (“receptors”) on the surface of the envelope allow the virus to appear “friendly” ✴HIV, influenza Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 37. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 38. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 39. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 40. Enveloped Virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 41. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 42. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 43. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 44. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 45. Bacteriophage “Complex Viruses” ✴Hexagonal head bound to a helical tail ✴Resemble a lunar landing pod ✴Tail fibers act (“legs”) help to inject DNA into the host cell ✴T Phages (E.coli) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 46. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 47. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 48. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 49. Bacteriophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 50. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 51. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 52. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 53. Bacteriophage Replication ✴Lytic Cycle- during the lytic cycle a virus invades a host, produces new viruses, and destroys the host (lysis) ✴Viruses that replicate this way are known as virulent ✴T phages are virulent Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 54. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 55. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 56. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 57. Bacteriophage Replication wLysogenic Cycle- sometimes a virus may infect a host cell and remain dormant wThis type of virus is known as a temperate virus wTemperate virus DNA will combine with host DNA creating a prophage Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 58. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 59. Bacteriophage Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 60. Viral Replication Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 61. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 62. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 63. Viral Replication ✴Infection begins when a virus recognizes and attaches to or enters a host cell ✴The viral genome takes over the cell, making it a factory for more viruses ✴Because they can only replicate with the help of a host, viruses are known as obligate intracellular parasites Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 64. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 65. ✴DNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 66. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 67. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 68. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 69. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 70. ✴DNA Viruses: ✴Some DNA enters a host and makes mRNA ✴Other DNA may actually insert into a host cell’s chromosome (provirus) ✴RNA Viruses: ✴Some RNA enters the host and serves directly as RNA ✴Other RNA may be transcribed and serve as a template for more viral DNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 71. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 72. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 73. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 74. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 75. ✴Some RNA viruses (retroviruses) contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase ✴This enzyme is used to transcribe viral RNA into DNA (reversing the normal process of transcription) ✴This viral DNA is used to make more viruses ✴HIV is a retrovirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 76. Virology Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 77. Virology Part Deux Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 78. Human Viral Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 79. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 80. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 81. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 82. Human Viral Diseases ✴Because viruses aren’t “alive” they must be spread by an intermediate host (vector) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 83. Chicken Pox/Shingles: Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 84. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 85. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 86. Chicken Pox/Shingles: ✴Caused by vericella-zoster herpesvirus ✴Spread through the air and contact ✴May remain dormant as a provirus and become shingles Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 87. Viral Hepatitis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 88. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 89. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 90. Viral Hepatitis ✴Inflammation of the liver caused by 5 different viruses ✴A and E spread by fecal matter ✴B,C and D spread by sexual contact or blood transfusion Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 91. AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 92. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 93. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 94. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 95. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 96. AIDS ✴Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ✴Caused by the HIV virus ✴Glycoproteins on the surface of the virus bind to receptor sites of immune cells (macrophages) ✴Retrovirus, Provirus ✴Genetically diverse Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 97. Is there a cure ? Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 98. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 99. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 100. Is there a cure ? ✴Azydothymidine- inhibits reverse transcriptase ✴Protease inibitors- blocks synthesis of new capsids ✴These drugs can only slow the progression to full-blown AIDS Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 101. Emerging Diseases Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 102. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 103. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 104. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 105. Emerging Diseases ✴Caused by infections in animal populations ✴Rainforest animals-> Ebola ✴Hanta virus (pneumonia)-> mice ✴SARS-> civet cats Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 106. Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 107. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 108. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 109. ✴Epidemic- quickly spreading infectious disease ✴Pandemic- disease spreads over large regions ✴Bubonic plague, Small pox Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 110. Treatment Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 111. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 112. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 113. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 114. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 115. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 116. Treatment ✴Vaccine- harmless version of a virus used to build an immune response (microevolution) ✴Inactivated virus- not able to replicate ✴Attenuated virus- weakened form of a virus; no ability to cause disease ✴Vector control ✴Drug therapy- interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis ✴Acyclovir- blocks DNA polymerase Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 117. Viroids vs. Prions Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 118. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 119. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 120. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 121. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Single-stranded RNA ✴Disrupt plant metabolism ✴Coconuts, oranges, potatoes Tuesday, January 26, 2010
  • 122. Viroids vs. Prions ✴Viroids ✴Prions ✴Infectious ✴Single-stranded protein RNA particles ✴Disrupt plant ✴Clump in brain; metabolism cause cell death ✴Coconuts, ✴Mad cow, oranges, Creutzfeldt- potatoes Jakob disease Tuesday, January 26, 2010