Bacteria

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Bacteria

  1. 1. Bacteria Thursday, March 11, 2010
  2. 2. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  3. 3. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  4. 4. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  5. 5. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  6. 6. Two kingdoms: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  7. 7. Two kingdoms: ‣Eubacteria – “true” bacteria Thursday, March 11, 2010
  8. 8. Two kingdoms: ‣Eubacteria – “true” bacteria ‣Archaebacteria – oldest organisms on earth, live in extreme conditions Thursday, March 11, 2010
  9. 9. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  10. 10. 3 Groups O’ Archaea Thursday, March 11, 2010
  11. 11. 3 Groups O’ Archaea ‣Methanogens – convert H and CO2 into Methane gas Thursday, March 11, 2010
  12. 12. 3 Groups O’ Archaea ‣Methanogens – convert H and CO2 into Methane gas ‣Halophiles – salt lovers Thursday, March 11, 2010
  13. 13. 3 Groups O’ Archaea ‣Methanogens – convert H and CO2 into Methane gas ‣Halophiles – salt lovers ‣Thermoacidophiles – heat/ acid lovers Thursday, March 11, 2010
  14. 14. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  15. 15. ‣Unicellular Thursday, March 11, 2010
  16. 16. ‣Unicellular ‣Prokaryotic Thursday, March 11, 2010
  17. 17. ‣Unicellular ‣Prokaryotic Fact: Each square centimeter of your skin averages about 100,000 bacteria. A single teaspoon of topsoil contains more than a billion (1,000,000,000) bacteria.  Thursday, March 11, 2010
  18. 18. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  19. 19. What’s inside? Thursday, March 11, 2010
  20. 20. What’s inside? ‣A singular large loop of DNA Thursday, March 11, 2010
  21. 21. What’s inside? ‣A singular large loop of DNA ‣Tiny loops of DNA called plasmids Thursday, March 11, 2010
  22. 22. What’s inside? ‣A singular large loop of DNA ‣Tiny loops of DNA called plasmids ‣The organelle you can’t live without -> Ribosomes Thursday, March 11, 2010
  23. 23. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  24. 24. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  25. 25. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  26. 26. Do Bacteria Have SEX? Thursday, March 11, 2010
  27. 27. Do Bacteria Have SEX? ‣Well actually they reproduce through a splitting process called binary fission Thursday, March 11, 2010
  28. 28. Do Bacteria Have SEX? ‣Well actually they reproduce through a splitting process called binary fission Thursday, March 11, 2010
  29. 29. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  30. 30. Bacteria can reproduce se xually through a process called conjugation Thursday, March 11, 2010
  31. 31. Bacteria can reproduce se xually through a process called conjugation Bacteria exchange plasmid DNA Thursday, March 11, 2010
  32. 32. Bacteria can reproduce se xually through a process called conjugation Bacteria exchange plasmid DNA This is how an entire colony of bacteria can become antibiotic resistant Thursday, March 11, 2010
  33. 33. Bacteria can reproduce se xually through a process called conjugation Bacteria exchange plasmid DNA This is how an entire colony of bacteria can become antibiotic resistant Thursday, March 11, 2010
  34. 34. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  35. 35. Bacte r ia c an also reproduce se xually through a process called transformation Thursday, March 11, 2010
  36. 36. Bacte r ia c an also reproduce se xually through a process called transformation A dying bacterial cell can release DNA that may be incorporated by another. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  37. 37. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  38. 38. Bacteria can ALSO reproduce sexually through a process called transduction Thursday, March 11, 2010
  39. 39. Bacteria can ALSO reproduce sexually through a process called transduction A bacteriophage can actually transmit DNA from 1 bacteria to another! Thursday, March 11, 2010
  40. 40. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  41. 41. Bacteria have cell walls? Thursday, March 11, 2010
  42. 42. Bacteria have cell walls? ‣peptidoglycan - layer made of protein and sugar Thursday, March 11, 2010
  43. 43. Bacteria have cell walls? ‣peptidoglycan - layer made of protein and sugar ‣This MAY be covered with an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide Thursday, March 11, 2010
  44. 44. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  45. 45. Don’t forget your protection: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  46. 46. Don’t forget your protection: ‣capsule - gelatinous layer surrounding some bacteria; considered a virulence factor Thursday, March 11, 2010
  47. 47. Don’t forget your protection: ‣capsule - gelatinous layer surrounding some bacteria; considered a virulence factor ‣Others may form endospores around chromosomes when they are exposed to harsh conditions (drought, high temp); these types of bacteria can cause botulism Thursday, March 11, 2010
  48. 48. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  49. 49. Soooo....how do they move? Thursday, March 11, 2010
  50. 50. Soooo....how do they move? ‣flagella - used as a rotor for swimming/ locomotion Thursday, March 11, 2010
  51. 51. Soooo....how do they move? ‣flagella - used as a rotor for swimming/ locomotion ‣pili - short, thick hair- like structures that help bacteria attach to surfaces of other cells Thursday, March 11, 2010
  52. 52. Soooo....how do they move? ‣flagella - used as a rotor for swimming/ locomotion ‣pili - short, thick hair- like structures that help bacteria attach to surfaces of other cells Thursday, March 11, 2010
  53. 53. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  54. 54. 3 Bacteria Shapes: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  55. 55. 3 Bacteria Shapes: ‣bacillus - rod shaped Thursday, March 11, 2010
  56. 56. 3 Bacteria Shapes: ‣bacillus - rod shaped ‣coccus - sphere shaped Thursday, March 11, 2010
  57. 57. 3 Bacteria Shapes: ‣bacillus - rod shaped ‣coccus - sphere shaped ‣spirillum - spiral shaped Thursday, March 11, 2010
  58. 58. 3 Bacteria Shapes: ‣bacillus - rod shaped ‣coccus - sphere shaped ‣spirillum - spiral shaped Thursday, March 11, 2010
  59. 59. 3 Bacteria Shapes: ‣bacillus - rod shaped ‣coccus - sphere shaped ‣spirillum - spiral shaped Thursday, March 11, 2010
  60. 60. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  61. 61. Gram Staining: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  62. 62. Gram Staining: ‣Allows for the identification and correct treatment of bacterial infection Thursday, March 11, 2010
  63. 63. Gram Staining: ‣Allows for the identification and correct treatment of bacterial infection ‣Bacteria stain 1 of 2 ways: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  64. 64. Gram Staining: ‣Allows for the identification and correct treatment of bacterial infection ‣Bacteria stain 1 of 2 ways: ‣Gram positive - will typically respond to penicillin Thursday, March 11, 2010
  65. 65. Gram Staining: ‣Allows for the identification and correct treatment of bacterial infection ‣Bacteria stain 1 of 2 ways: ‣Gram positive - will typically respond to penicillin ‣Gram negative - typically respond to antibiotics unlike penicillin Thursday, March 11, 2010
  66. 66. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  67. 67. The Process: Thursday, March 11, 2010
  68. 68. The Process: Crystal Violet (purple) Thursday, March 11, 2010
  69. 69. The Process: Crystal Violet (purple) Iodine (fixing stage) Thursday, March 11, 2010
  70. 70. The Process: Crystal Violet (purple) Iodine (fixing stage) Alcohol (decolorizes) Thursday, March 11, 2010
  71. 71. The Process: Crystal Violet (purple) Iodine (fixing stage) Alcohol (decolorizes) Safranin Thursday, March 11, 2010
  72. 72. The Process: Crystal Violet (purple) Iodine (fixing stage) Alcohol (decolorizes) Safranin (pink counterstain) Thursday, March 11, 2010
  73. 73. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  74. 74. ‣Gram positive - stain purple to to large amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall Thursday, March 11, 2010
  75. 75. ‣Gram positive - stain purple to to large amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall Thursday, March 11, 2010
  76. 76. ‣Gram positive - stain purple to to large amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall Thursday, March 11, 2010
  77. 77. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  78. 78. ‣Gram negative - pink because the alcohol removes a lipopolysaccharide layer allowing dye to escape from a THIN peptidoglycan layer underneath Thursday, March 11, 2010
  79. 79. ‣Gram negative - pink because the alcohol removes a lipopolysaccharide layer allowing dye to escape from a THIN peptidoglycan layer underneath Thursday, March 11, 2010
  80. 80. ‣Gram negative - pink because the alcohol removes a lipopolysaccharide layer allowing dye to escape from a THIN peptidoglycan layer underneath Thursday, March 11, 2010
  81. 81. This is the anthrax bacterium. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  82. 82. ‣There are three types of bacteria based on how they obtain energy: heterotrophs, photosynthetic, and chemoautotrophs. This is the anthrax bacterium. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  83. 83. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  84. 84. Most bacteria are heterotrophs: ‣Decomposers - feed on and recycle organic material ‣Pathogens - parasitic, disease- causing bacteria (attack or secrete toxins) ‣Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria (Rhizobium) -Found in nodules of plants -Convert N2 into ammonia Thursday, March 11, 2010
  85. 85. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  86. 86. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  87. 87. Antibiotics: ‣Work by preventing cell wall formation, breaking up cell membranes, or disrupting chemical processes ‣Cannot treat viral infections Thursday, March 11, 2010
  88. 88. Strep throat Streptococcus Staphylococcus Thursday, March 11, 2010
  89. 89. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  90. 90. Cyanobacteria: ‣Photosynthetic autotrophs Thursday, March 11, 2010
  91. 91. Thursday, March 11, 2010
  92. 92. Chemoautotrophs: ‣Obtain energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules such as ammonia and methane to make food ‣Examples: Nitrobacter and Nitrosomas -live in soil -play a role in nitrification (turn ammonia into nitrates Thursday, March 11, 2010

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