Political Parties And Interest Groups


Published on

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Political Parties And Interest Groups

  1. 1. Interest Groups and Political Parties What are the differences between the Democrats and the Republicans? What are political parties important in an democracy?
  2. 2. Interest Groups <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private groups that attempt to influence the government to respond to the shared attitudes and ideas of their members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAC, Sierra Club, AARP, ACLU, Philip Morris, </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Operations: <ul><li>Lobbying- communicate with politicians to sway decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to catch their attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass Propaganda </li></ul>
  4. 4. Regulating Interest Groups <ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registration with the House clerk or Senate secretary if interest groups had money to persuade legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act failed few interest group register b/c Supreme Court (1954) allowed noncompliance of grass root groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act did not apply to lobbying the executive branch </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. When do interest groups become political parties? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties often support a certain ideology, but may also represent a subgroups that have different interests. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Presidential election Results
  7. 7. Political Socialization <ul><li>Source of political beliefs and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and the Social Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders’ Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60’s and the Vietnam War Era </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Impact of Institutions on Party Structure. <ul><li>One party, Two party, or Multiparty System Contingent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majoritarian or Proportional Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential or Parliamentary System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Theory: Lipset and Rokkan <ul><li>Theory on Political Cleavages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties that were formed in the aftermath of political, religious, and economic revolutions are frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State vs. Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker vs. Owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land vs. Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center vs. Periphery (Fed vs. State) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These have and will continue to exist in the political arena despite new issues and challenges. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Constitution <ul><li>Says nothing about political parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founding fathers felt parties were wicked and corrupt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want parties to control politics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to pervade the entire country. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ideology
  12. 12. Ideologies: Liberalism vs. Conservatism <ul><li>Conservatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor limited governmental involvement in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic freedom is a necessity for the good of the society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate governmental involvement to preserve traditional values and lifestyles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor governmental regulation of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate a limited governmental role in social issues Social freedom is necessary for the good of society </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Today’s Major US Political Parties and Ideology <ul><li>Republican Party (GOP)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the more socially conservative and economically liberal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Ken Mehlman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered more socially liberal and economically interventionist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Howard Dean </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. US Parties: First Party System (before 1824) American Revolution Federalist Founded by Hamilton Supported strong central government Anti federalist Founded by Jefferson Supported more state autonomy Also known as the Republicans Jackson split into a Democratic party Adams remained in the Republican party, but latter called the Whigs Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States
  15. 15. US Parties: Second Party System (1824–1854) Civil War <ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Strong state govt </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opportunities for common man such as farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hostile to blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed slavery for economy </li></ul></ul></ul>National Republicans (Whig party ) active federal. govt, economic Laissez-Faire Against the expansion of slavery Southern Whigs ceased to exist (dealigned) Northern Whigs united with antislavery Democrats and radical antislavery Free Soil party thus creating Lincoln’s Republicans party
  16. 16. US Parties: Third Party System: Post Civil War (1854–1896) Post Civil War <ul><ul><li>Northern Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared strong central govt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to give free slaves rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated the white south for decades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought to increase the power of the federal govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted economic growth and businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted evangelical protestant morals and values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public schools w/ protestant curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation in check to maintain working class wages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited/prohibited the sale of alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats embraced populism. Advocated for small farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sought high inflation for debt relief. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. US Parties: Fourth Party System/ Progressive Era (1896–1932) Industrial Revolution <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional small govt. policy was realigned and opened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to govt. intervention in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson was able to win presidency because the Republican split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest Impartial Govt could regulate the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more effectively </li></ul></ul>1912 split : T. Roosevelt ran on the Bull Moose Ticket The platform based non progressive ideals. Protect women, children, and immigrants. Reform corrupt govt, and give people more voice.
  18. 18. US Parties: New Deal and Fifth Party System Great Depression and New Deal <ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez Faire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State govt and private organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ease the suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United whites and blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sought relief from hardships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong federal govt </li></ul></ul>60’s Democrats split from economic and social Conservatives in south into republican base <ul><li>60’s </li></ul><ul><li>social progressives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans remained Democrats </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Goals of Political Parties <ul><li>To mobilize the public in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and run elections </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit Candidates (strategy: TO WIN) </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting alternative policies </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting responsibility for the operation of govt. (advocating party agenda) </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as opposition to party in power. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Parties: Party Structure <ul><li>National Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State party chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Boss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Level (Grassroots) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precinct or ward captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Workers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cartoon
  22. 22. Primary Elections <ul><li>Candidates nomination process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feb: Local caucus where party members select delegate to district convention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mar: District Convention selects delegates to state convention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jun: Presidential primaries are closed primaries. Party member choose candidate for Nov election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug: National convention officially nominates party’s presidential candidate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keynote address will open convention and set the tone for the convention and campaign. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nov: General election registered voters will cast ballots for their candidate in the electoral college. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Parties in Action <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrennial party convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate presidential candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals party platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces new and upcoming stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes party momentum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides funding for candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whips legislators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund raising </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. National Convention
  25. 25. Accountability to the Voters <ul><li>Presidential and Parliamentary Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Viable third parties </li></ul>
  26. 26. Role of third parties in a two party system <ul><li>Goals of third parties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rally enough supports where they are noticed by the 2 dominate parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can’t beat them, then join them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to have third party interest included in main party platform </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Role of the Citizen