Political Parties And Interest GroupsPresentation Transcript
Interest Groups and Political Parties What are the differences between the Democrats and the Republicans? What are political parties important in an democracy?
Private groups that attempt to influence the government to respond to the shared attitudes and ideas of their members.
PAC, Sierra Club, AARP, ACLU, Philip Morris,
Lobbying- communicate with politicians to sway decision making
Tools to catch their attention
Regulating Interest Groups
1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act:
Registration with the House clerk or Senate secretary if interest groups had money to persuade legislation
Act failed few interest group register b/c Supreme Court (1954) allowed noncompliance of grass root groups
Act did not apply to lobbying the executive branch
When do interest groups become political parties?
political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns.
Parties often support a certain ideology, but may also represent a subgroups that have different interests.
Presidential election Results
Source of political beliefs and attitudes
Family and the Social Environment
The Great Depression
60’s and the Vietnam War Era
Impact of Institutions on Party Structure.
One party, Two party, or Multiparty System Contingent on:
Majoritarian or Proportional Representation
Presidential or Parliamentary System
Laws and Constitution
Theory: Lipset and Rokkan
Theory on Political Cleavages
Parties that were formed in the aftermath of political, religious, and economic revolutions are frozen.
State vs. Church
Worker vs. Owner
Land vs. Industry
Center vs. Periphery (Fed vs. State)
These have and will continue to exist in the political arena despite new issues and challenges.
Says nothing about political parties.
Founding fathers felt parties were wicked and corrupt.
Did not want parties to control politics.
Did not want to pervade the entire country.
Ideologies: Liberalism vs. Conservatism
Favor limited governmental involvement in the economy
Economic freedom is a necessity for the good of the society
Advocate governmental involvement to preserve traditional values and lifestyles
Favor governmental regulation of the economy
Advocate a limited governmental role in social issues Social freedom is necessary for the good of society
Today’s Major US Political Parties and Ideology
Republican Party (GOP)-
Considered the more socially conservative and economically liberal.
Party Chairman- Ken Mehlman
Considered more socially liberal and economically interventionist.
Party Chairman- Howard Dean
US Parties: First Party System (before 1824) American Revolution Federalist Founded by Hamilton Supported strong central government Anti federalist Founded by Jefferson Supported more state autonomy Also known as the Republicans Jackson split into a Democratic party Adams remained in the Republican party, but latter called the Whigs Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States
US Parties: Second Party System (1824–1854) Civil War
Strong state govt
opportunities for common man such as farmers
hostile to blacks
Needed slavery for economy
National Republicans (Whig party ) active federal. govt, economic Laissez-Faire Against the expansion of slavery Southern Whigs ceased to exist (dealigned) Northern Whigs united with antislavery Democrats and radical antislavery Free Soil party thus creating Lincoln’s Republicans party
US Parties: Third Party System: Post Civil War (1854–1896) Post Civil War
Feared strong central govt
Did not want to give free slaves rights
Dominated the white south for decades
Sought to increase the power of the federal govt.
Promoted economic growth and businesses
Promoted evangelical protestant morals and values
Public schools w/ protestant curriculum
Inflation in check to maintain working class wages
Limited/prohibited the sale of alcohol
Democrats embraced populism. Advocated for small farmers
Sought high inflation for debt relief.
US Parties: Fourth Party System/ Progressive Era (1896–1932) Industrial Revolution
Traditional small govt. policy was realigned and opened
to govt. intervention in the economy
Wilson was able to win presidency because the Republican split
Honest Impartial Govt could regulate the economy
1912 split : T. Roosevelt ran on the Bull Moose Ticket The platform based non progressive ideals. Protect women, children, and immigrants. Reform corrupt govt, and give people more voice.
US Parties: New Deal and Fifth Party System Great Depression and New Deal
State govt and private organizations
To ease the suffering
United whites and blacks
Both sought relief from hardships
Strong federal govt
60’s Democrats split from economic and social Conservatives in south into republican base
African Americans remained Democrats
Goals of Political Parties
To mobilize the public in an organization
Organize and run elections
Recruit Candidates (strategy: TO WIN)
Presenting alternative policies
Accepting responsibility for the operation of govt. (advocating party agenda)
Acting as opposition to party in power.
Parties: Party Structure
State party chairperson
Local Level (Grassroots)
Precinct or ward captains
Candidates nomination process
Feb: Local caucus where party members select delegate to district convention.
Mar: District Convention selects delegates to state convention.
Jun: Presidential primaries are closed primaries. Party member choose candidate for Nov election.
Aug: National convention officially nominates party’s presidential candidate.
Keynote address will open convention and set the tone for the convention and campaign.
Nov: General election registered voters will cast ballots for their candidate in the electoral college.
Parties in Action
Quadrennial party convention
Nominate presidential candidate
Reveals party platform
Introduces new and upcoming stars
Establishes party momentum
Provides funding for candidates
Accountability to the Voters
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
Viable third parties
Role of third parties in a two party system
Goals of third parties:
Rally enough supports where they are noticed by the 2 dominate parties
If you can’t beat them, then join them.
Seek to have third party interest included in main party platform