Foreign Policy2


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Foreign Policy2

  1. 1. Foreign policy: Part II <ul><li>When is it justifiable to intervene in foreign endeavors? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideology guided foreign policy in the Cold War era? </li></ul><ul><li>How has ideology changed in the post 9-11 era? </li></ul>
  2. 2. When is it justifiable to intervene in foreign endeavors? <ul><li>Defense of interest- </li></ul><ul><li>Peace keeping- </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge- </li></ul><ul><li>Seek resources- </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian- </li></ul>
  3. 3. US Foreign Policy Goals <ul><li>State Department Mission Statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Eras of US Foreign Policy <ul><li>1944-1949: hegemonic US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolationist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to be involved in WWII, until Pearl Harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950-1962: bipolar world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two power blocs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USSR and USA are superpowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arms race- Deterrence- MAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interventionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Containment, domino effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Eras of US Foreign Policy <ul><li>1960-1991: loose bipolarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration of the international arena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several blocks of power in the EU, UN, and Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1991-2001:towards a multi-polar world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of China and India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-9-11 – Pax Americana? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uni-polar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War against terrorism </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. American Foreign Policy in 21 st Century <ul><li>Basic Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US freedom is protected by insuring others are free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US prosperity depends on prosperity of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US security relies on a global effort to secure the rights of all. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Examining the Iraq War <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 19, 2003 – May 1, 2003 ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 2,877 + 5 confirmation from DOD pending deaths of American soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21,572 wounded soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate of civilian deaths at 100,00 to 150,000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Iraqi police dead at 2,145 (DOD does not track Iraqi deaths). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war has cost about $347 billion thus far. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pentagon is spending about $6 billion a month on the war in Iraq, or about $200 million a day, or about 7.3 million per hour according to the CBO. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum was less than $30 a barrel in May 2003 and it selling at $75 a barrel 3 years later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq has world’s 2 nd largest oil reserves. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Examining the Iraq War <ul><li>Justification for invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WMD’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberate the Iraqi’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>?Control of oil supply? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on the State Departments mission statement, was the war justifiable? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the military policy (stay the course) in Iraq working? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethnic/Religious Groups in Iraq
  10. 10. Examining Iraq War Strategy <ul><li>Traditional War Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective achieved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Succeed in removing Saddam Hussein, but failing in suppressing insurgency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of strategy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shock and Awe” worked only when target are static and apparent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Insurgency War Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different type of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classic Doctrine in fighting Malay insurgency was developed by general Sir Gerald Templar in 1940-1950 . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counterinsurgency warfare is 20% military and 80% political. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Examination of the Iraq War <ul><li>Institutions Slow to Change stuck in Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional War strategy is not working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pentagon’s strategy in 2003 and 2004 was to combat insurgency simply by eliminating it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The approach was called “ kill and capture”. “ Hunt them down”. Rumsfeld, “ I want their heads on a plate.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumsfeld’s Pentagon was unwilling to cut expensive weapon systems that would allow to create new combat units and other resources necessary for effective counter terrorism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 Dec 2006, for the first time since the Vietnam War, the Marine Corp will release an new counterinsurgency field manual. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Examining the Iraq War <ul><li>Critique of the strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ History teaches you that war, at its heart, is a human endeavor. And if you ignore the human side-yours, the enemy’s and the civilian’s-you are setting yourself up for failure.”-- Major McLaughlin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it is not just winning the hearts and minds in other words making them “like you”. Iraqis needs to accept that supporting the US side is in their best interest. --Kilcullen </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Examining the Iraq War <ul><li>Critique of the strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“If we are smart enough to see this through, we can win it. If we are not careful, we could destroy everything we’ve done in the last 6 months in a manner of minutes by doing something stupid-taking an action to alienate the Sunni population. It takes months to make someone like you; it can take just a minute to make them hate you.” --- Major Simmering </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. War Against Terrorism: A Different Type of War <ul><li>Who is the enemy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Dept definition: Guerilla War “ Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy held or hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is success or failure in the war gauged? </li></ul><ul><li>What determines the end of the war? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best strategy to win the war against terror? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Quiz <ul><li>What should the US do with Iran’s nuclear ambitions? </li></ul><ul><li>Iran has refined low grades of Uranium. </li></ul><ul><li>President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has been vocal about Iran’s entry into the nuclear club. </li></ul><ul><li>Iran produces 4 million barrels of oil a day. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the Middle East where conflict already exist in Israel and Iraq. </li></ul>