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  • Chapter10

    1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Ten Political Parties
    2. 2. Chapter Ten: Learning Objectives • Define political parties • Explain the historical development of the American party system • Discuss the meaning and impact of party identification
    3. 3. Chapter Ten: Learning Objectives • Analyze the various forms of party organization • Understand the role of parties in government • Appraise different arguments about virtues and defects of the party system
    4. 4. Introduction Do you believe that political parties are an important part of a deliberative democracy? Why or why not? Political parties and the issues separating the parties have evolved over time.
    5. 5. Political Parties and Their Functions: The Meaning of Party Three levels of political parties 1. Party in the electorate 2. Party organization 3. Party in government
    6. 6. Political Parties and Their Functions: The Functions of Party Political parties are not addressed in the Constitution. Political parties emerged as one way for citizens to mobilize for political action, especially during election time. Democratic-Republicans and Federalists were early American political parties.
    7. 7. Party Alignments and Realignments Why does the United States have a two-party system? What are the differences between partisan alignment and partisan realignment?
    8. 8. Party Alignments and Realignments: Early Party Era Federalists had economic resources, but the Democratic-Republicans were better at voter mobilization. The presidential election of 1800 started a shift in the party system.
    9. 9. Party Alignments and Realignments: Democrats and Whigs The Democrats gained power through party patronage. During this time, national party conventions emerged. The Democrats’ opponents were known as Whigs.
    10. 10. Party Alignments and Realignments: Republicans Rising Immigration issues emerged and some anti-immigrant Whigs formed the American Party or the Know-Nothings. Opinions on slavery split the Democrats. The Civil War was the beginning of a new party realignment with the emergence of the Republican Party.
    11. 11. Myths and Misinformation Official party histories – yada, yada, yada Both the Democratic and Republican parties cast their history in a positive light and often ignore some of their negative history.
    12. 12. Party Alignments and Realignments: Populists and Progressives The Populist Party emerged in the late 1800s to represent rural interests. The Progressive Party was part of the movement which fought for adoption of election procedures like primary elections.
    13. 13. Party Alignments and Realignments: New Deal With Roosevelt’s election in 1932, the New Deal coalition emerged and southerners, Jews, Catholics, African Americans, people with roots in Southern and Eastern Europe, union members, poor people, intellectuals, and artists were attracted to the Democratic Party.
    14. 14. Party Alignments and Realignments: Upheavals By the mid to late 1960s, the Democrats began to lose some of their base from the New Deal coalition. Ronald Reagan built a stronger coalition for the Republican Party, but not strong enough to prevent divided government.
    15. 15. Party Alignments and Realignments: Sources of Party Change What are some sources of party change? • Ideas about government and politics • Major historical events • Economic and demographic change
    16. 16. Parties in the Electorate: Party Identification How do these characteristics affect party identification? • Age • Income • Education • Ethnicity • Religion • Gender
    17. 17. Parties in the Electorate: Party Identification
    18. 18. Parties in the Electorate: Party Registration and Primaries Types of primaries 1. Closed 2. Semiclosed 3. Open 4. Blanket (outlawed in 2000)
    19. 19. Pledges and Promises Party loyalty Throughout history, citizens have taken oaths and pledges to participate in political party activities.
    20. 20. Party Organization What role do political party organizations play in choosing candidates? Rick Wilking/Reuters/Landov Ethan Miller/Getty Images
    21. 21. Party Organization: State and Local Parties State and local political parties may not be as influential as they once were, but continue to provide important assistance to political candidates in their campaigns.
    22. 22. Party Organization: National Party Committees The national party committees supply money to candidates. Forms of campaign expenditures include • Direct contributions • Coordinated expenditures • Independent expenditures
    23. 23. Party Organization: National Party Committees
    24. 24. Party Organization: National Party Conventions What is the purpose of the national party conventions? Are there differences between the Democratic and Republican national party conventions?
    25. 25. Party in Government What is the relationship of party in the electorate and party in government?
    26. 26. International Perspectives The parliamentary example What can America learn from parliamentary systems?
    27. 27. Third Parties What roles do third parties play in American politics? What barriers do third parties face in their quest for power in American politics?
    28. 28. Political Parties and Deliberative Democracy Should parties be more specialized in their focus or more broad-based? Would a system that encourages more parties be better or worse for deliberative democracy?
    29. 29. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You College party organizations Political parties have active chapters on many college campuses and, as such, may foster more political deliberation among college students.
    30. 30. Summary • Republicans and Democrats dominant • Party organizations try to influence electoral outcomes • Parties are important in government • Third parties can affect politics