Respiration and the respiratory system revision

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Respiration and the respiratory system revision

  1. 1. Respiration and The Respiratory System
  2. 2. What process keeps a cell alive? Respiration is the process that the body uses to release energy from digested food (glucose). This type of respiration is called aerobic respiration because energy is released in the presence of oxygen. How do the glucose and oxygen needed for aerobic respiration get to the all the body’s cells? oxygen carbon dioxideglucose + + water ( energy)+ from the digestive system from the respiratory system waste product (exhaled) waste product (exhaled)
  3. 3. Where do we get the raw materials from? - Oxygen Breathing Gaseous exchange in the lungs and then into our circulatory system via…
  4. 4. Energy is used for... to work the muscles and other organs to make the chemicals the body needs to make new cells for growth and to repair dead cells Transport chemicals Keeping body temperature constant
  5. 5. Anaerobic respiration Glucose Lactic acid + energy Instead of glucose forming CO2 and H2O, it is broken down without oxygen into an intermediate, lactic acid, giving less energy: 120 kJ To avoid damage to cells it has to be broken down fully to CO2 and H2O immediately after the exercise has finished. This needs more oxygen (oxygen debt)… BUT lactic acid accumulates in the muscles causing muscle fatigue and cramps.
  6. 6. glucose + oxygen a lot of energy carbon dioxide + water glucose lactic acid aerobic anaerobic some energy
  7. 7. How do we remove the waste products? Carbon Dioxide via Breathing Water via urine,sweating and breathing and
  8. 8. Different foods contain different amounts of energy The main food type which we use in respiration are CARBOHYDARTES (glucose), however if our body is lacking in carbohydrates. Then what do you think happens? •Carbohydrates – •Fat – •Protein -
  9. 9. Energy needed! Plant cells respire, just as animal cells do. If they stop respiring, they will die. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing, so take care - plants do not breathe. A s we can see from the word equations respiration and photosynthesis are opposites. Respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.
  10. 10. Plants store energy too
  11. 11. Plants respire anaerobically also • But instead they produce ethanol.....
  12. 12. Bacteria can respire anaerobically glucose --> ethanol + carbon dioxide + energy Yeast
  13. 13. You use your respiratory system to breathe in oxygen for respiration, and to breathe out carbon dioxide produced by respiration
  14. 14. The Lung These tubes continue to split. The order goes…. Trachea (biggest tube) Bronchus Bronchiole (smallest tube) Bronchi
  15. 15. The tubes of the lung
  16. 16. The lung including air sacs
  17. 17. The Lungs The lungs are all of the tubes surrounded by the lung tissue. There are different sections to the lungs called lobes. Compare the two lungs – what do you notice about the lobes? One does not have a middle lobe and is smaller.
  18. 18. Alveolar walls are made up of a continuous layer, one-cell thick, of epithelial cells – squamous epithelium. One type of cells produces surfactant. Therefore blood within an alveolar capillary and air from within the alveolus is only separated by an extremely thin barrier – this permits efficient diffusion of large amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside of the alveolar walls are lined with capillaries. The alveolus are bundles tiny hollow air sacs (singular – alveoli) Alveolus
  19. 19. Gas exchange
  20. 20. Here is a cross section: oxygen (O2) gas passes through here This O2 is then able to dissolve in a small moist lining. lining of the alveolus Alveolus The alveolar walls also contain a small space consisting of fluid and loose connective tissue
  21. 21. Copy and complete the table stating what happens to each part of the breathing system Feature Inhaling Exhaling Diaphragm shape Flat (contracts) Domed (relaxed) Ribs up and out down and in Diaphragm muscle contracted relaxed Rib muscle contracted relaxed Lungs inflated deflated

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