Chapter 13 <br />Respiration and Excretion<br />Page 262<br />
13:1  The Role of Respiration<br />Gases of Respiration<br />Oxygen is brought into your body, and CO2 is carried out of y...
Cellular Respiration Formula<br />C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy <br />C6H12O6= Simple Sugar<br />6O2= Oxygen<br />...
Role of Respiratory System<br />
Respiration in Animals<br />Earthworms exchange gases through their skin. <br />Insects have large network of small tubes ...
Need to Know Questions<br />Which gases are exchanged by the respiratory system? <br />Why is oxygen needed by our cells?<...
13:2 Human Respiratory System<br />Respiratory Organs<br />Nose<br />Air enters nose<br />Nose Hairs trap dust particles t...
Epiglottis<br />Small flap that closes over the windpipe when you swallow. <br />Prevents food or liquid from entering win...
Bronchi<br />Are two short tubes that carry air from the trachea to the left and right lung. <br />Lungs<br />Major organs...
As bronchi enter lungs, they branch into thousands of smaller tubes. <br />Each of these tubes lead into tiny air sacs. <b...
Large Area provides a surface for gases to diffuse into or out of the blood or cells. <br />Frog= B; Earthworm= A, Fish D,...
Gas Exchange<br />
Blood Capillaries around alveoli low in oxygen. <br />As you breath oxygen it fills each alveolus. <br />Oxygen passes out...
Blood arrives at the lungs, Carbon Dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli.<br /> The carbon dioxide is then re...
Breathing<br />Most breathe in 12 to 16 times a minute. <br />Steps of the Breathing Process.<br />Diaphragm is relaxed.  ...
Air pushes out of the alveoli as the lungs are squeezed. <br />Diaphragm begins to contract. As it tightens up, it flatten...
13:3 Problems of the Respiratory System<br />A Breathing Problem<br />Carbon Monoxide is an odorless, colorless, poison ga...
Respiratory Diseases<br />Pneumonia is a lung disease caused by bacteria, virus or both. <br />Microbes invade the alveoli...
Emphysema<br />Lung disease that results in the breakdown of alveoli. <br />Person seems to be always out of breath b/c th...
Answers to Study Guide page 75<br />Arrows should be  shown leaving the alveoli and entering the capillary. <br />Drawing ...
Drawing C shows alveoli filled with pus, liquid, and mucus.<br />What Disease may cause this to occur? <br />PNEUMONIA<br ...
Drawing D shows the alveoli of a person with emphysema.  <br />How do these alveoli compare with those of a normal person?...
13:4  The Role of Excretion<br />Waste Removal<br />Blood contains chemical wastes not needed by body that could be harmfu...
Urea is a waste that results from the breakdown of body protein. <br />Poisonous and must be removed from the body. <br />...
Human Kidneys <br />Each human body starts with two kidneys, each about as big as a fist. <br />Filters waste from blood. ...
Steps of Blood through kidneys. <br />Blood carrying wastes move through bodies arteries. <br />Small arteries bring blood...
Blood in veins is taken to the heart and other parts of the body. <br />Wastes from blood leave each kidney through a URET...
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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter 13 <br />Respiration and Excretion<br />Page 262<br />
  2. 2. 13:1 The Role of Respiration<br />Gases of Respiration<br />Oxygen is brought into your body, and CO2 is carried out of your body by your respiratory system. <br />Respiratory systems role is to exchange these gases. <br />Oxygen is used by cells in cellular respiration. <br />Cellular respiration: Oxygen and sugar combine , this creates energy for the body, carbon dioxide and water are formed. <br />
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration Formula<br />C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy <br />C6H12O6= Simple Sugar<br />6O2= Oxygen<br />6CO2= Carbon Dioxide<br />6H2O= Water<br />
  4. 4. Role of Respiratory System<br />
  5. 5. Respiration in Animals<br />Earthworms exchange gases through their skin. <br />Insects have large network of small tubes that carry air to all body parts. <br />Frogs exchange gases through lungs and skin.<br />Humans have lungs. <br />Respiratory systems have large surface area in order to provide a surface for gases to diffuse into or out of the animals bodies. <br />The higher an organisms metabolism, the more efficient their respiratory system needs to be. <br />
  6. 6. Need to Know Questions<br />Which gases are exchanged by the respiratory system? <br />Why is oxygen needed by our cells?<br />Why do respiratory systems have large surface areas?<br />Explain why a bird would need a more efficient respiratory system than human? <br />
  7. 7. 13:2 Human Respiratory System<br />Respiratory Organs<br />Nose<br />Air enters nose<br />Nose Hairs trap dust particles to prevent from entering lungs. <br />Nasal Chamber<br />Large space above roof of your mouth.<br />Warms or cools the entering air. <br />Mucus is formed inside nose.<br />i. Mucus keeps air moist as it passes through the nose. <br />
  8. 8. Epiglottis<br />Small flap that closes over the windpipe when you swallow. <br />Prevents food or liquid from entering windpipe when you are eating. (Video segment 1)<br />Trachea (windpipe) <br />Tube about 15cm long that carries air to two shorter tubes that lead into your longs. <br />
  9. 9. Bronchi<br />Are two short tubes that carry air from the trachea to the left and right lung. <br />Lungs<br />Major organs of respiratory system. <br />Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. <br />
  10. 10. As bronchi enter lungs, they branch into thousands of smaller tubes. <br />Each of these tubes lead into tiny air sacs. <br />Alveoli (Video Segment two)<br />Tiny air sacs of the lungs. <br />Provide the large surface area for gases to pass into and out of your blood. <br />If all air sacs in a person’ s lungs were opened and spread out they would cover an area equal to about 1/5 the area of a basketball court. (See pg 268)<br />
  11. 11. Large Area provides a surface for gases to diffuse into or out of the blood or cells. <br />Frog= B; Earthworm= A, Fish D, Insect= E, Human (not Jamie)=C <br />
  12. 12. Gas Exchange<br />
  13. 13. Blood Capillaries around alveoli low in oxygen. <br />As you breath oxygen it fills each alveolus. <br />Oxygen passes out of the air sacs into the blood by diffusion. <br />a. Less moves out then brought in b/c some goes to body cells. <br />Your lungs give off more CO2 then they receive. <br />a. b/c carbon dioxide is formed as waste product by all body cells during cellular respiration. <br />
  14. 14. Blood arrives at the lungs, Carbon Dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli.<br /> The carbon dioxide is then released into the air as your lungs exhale. <br />
  15. 15. Breathing<br />Most breathe in 12 to 16 times a minute. <br />Steps of the Breathing Process.<br />Diaphragm is relaxed. It is domelike and pushes upward. (see page 270 for all diagrams)<br />Space between lungs and inside of chest wall. As diaphragm pushes up against the lungs space gets smaller. <br />b/c lungs are soft they are squeezed as space gets smaller. <br />
  16. 16. Air pushes out of the alveoli as the lungs are squeezed. <br />Diaphragm begins to contract. As it tightens up, it flattens and moves downward. <br />The space between the lungs and the inside of the chest becomes larger. <br />Lungs expand because space surrounding has increased. <br />Air is pulled into the alveoli as the lungs expand. This causes you to breath in. <br />
  17. 17. 13:3 Problems of the Respiratory System<br />A Breathing Problem<br />Carbon Monoxide is an odorless, colorless, poison gas sometimes found in the air. <br />CO is more easily picked up by your red blood cells than oxygen. <br />CO comes from the burning of certain fuels. <br />CO does not cause problems in open or well ventilated areas, but in a closed area is deadly for humans. <br />
  18. 18. Respiratory Diseases<br />Pneumonia is a lung disease caused by bacteria, virus or both. <br />Microbes invade the alveoli and multiply. <br />Causes lung tissue forms extra mucus. <br />Mucus and pus fill the alveoli and cause difficulty in breathing. <br />Prevents oxygen from entering the lungs. <br />Can be passed from one person to another. <br />
  19. 19. Emphysema<br />Lung disease that results in the breakdown of alveoli. <br />Person seems to be always out of breath b/c there are not enough alveoli to get oxygen into the blood. <br />Common cause is the breathing in of chemicals while smoking or from air pollution. <br />
  20. 20. Answers to Study Guide page 75<br />Arrows should be shown leaving the alveoli and entering the capillary. <br />Drawing B should have the squares (Carbon Monoxide) leaving the alveoli and entering the capillary. <br />CO is picked up more easily by the RBC’s. If too much CO is inhaled, too little oxygen will be delivered to the person’s cells. <br />
  21. 21. Drawing C shows alveoli filled with pus, liquid, and mucus.<br />What Disease may cause this to occur? <br />PNEUMONIA<br />Can oxygen (black dots) reach the capillaries surrounding these alveoli? <br />The alveoli are blocked with pus, liquid, and mucus. This prevents the Oxygen from getting into the blood. <br />
  22. 22. Drawing D shows the alveoli of a person with emphysema. <br />How do these alveoli compare with those of a normal person?<br /> Alveoli of a normal person have more surface area (see drawing A)<br />How is emphysema harmful?<br />b. A person with emphysema is out of breath b/c there are not enough alveoli surface area to get oxygen into the blood. <br />
  23. 23. 13:4 The Role of Excretion<br />Waste Removal<br />Blood contains chemical wastes not needed by body that could be harmful. <br />Wastes could destroy cells and tissues. <br />Cause fever, poisoning, or even death. <br />Wastes made by blood cells or undigested food. <br />Excretion is the process of removing waste from the body. <br />Solid wastes removed by digestive system. <br />Liquid wastes removed by excretory system. <br />
  24. 24. Urea is a waste that results from the breakdown of body protein. <br />Poisonous and must be removed from the body. <br />Picked up from cells by blood and carried to kidneys. <br />The KIDNEYS are the most important organ in the excretory system. <br />Animals without kidneys (sponges, jellyfish)<br />Waste passes out of cells directly into the water they live. <br />Earthworms use a pair of tubes in each body segment that connect the inside of the animal to the outside. <br />
  25. 25. Human Kidneys <br />Each human body starts with two kidneys, each about as big as a fist. <br />Filters waste from blood. <br />During one day your kidneys filter up to 200 liters of blood. <br />Kidneys are hooked up to blood vessels. <br />
  26. 26. Steps of Blood through kidneys. <br />Blood carrying wastes move through bodies arteries. <br />Small arteries bring blood to be filtered into each kidney. <br />Kidneys filter urea from blood. <br />Filtered blood leaves kidneys through veins. <br />a. Blood is now free of waste. <br />
  27. 27. Blood in veins is taken to the heart and other parts of the body. <br />Wastes from blood leave each kidney through a URETER. <br />URETER is a tube that carries waste from kidney to urinary bladder. <br />Urinary Bladder is a storage for liquid wastes from the kidney. <br />The URETHA is a tube that carries liquid waste from bladder to outside the body. <br />

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