What Is Sociology?The American Sociological Association (2006) describes “sociology as thestudy of social life, social change, and the social causes andconsequences of human behavior. The ASA contends that “sociologistsinvestigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and howpeople interact within these contexts.” Sociology is the scientific study ofsociety and human behavior. This means, when sociologists apply theirtrade, they use a rigorous methodology. Other definition: Sociology is the science or study of the origin, development,organization, and functioning of human society; the science of the fundamentallaws of social relationships, institutions, etc. It generally concerns itself with thesocial rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, butas members of associations, groups, and institutions, and includes the examinationof the organization and development of human social life.The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of shortcontacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study ofglobal social processes. Most sociologists work in one or morespecialties or subfields.The meaning of the word comes from the suffix "-logy" which means"study of," derived from Greek, and the stem "socio-" which is from theLatin word socius, meaning member, friend, or ally, thus referring topeople in general. It is a social science involving the study of the sociallives of people, groups, and societies, sometimes defined as the study ofsocial interactions. It is a relatively new academic discipline whichevolved in the early 19th century.Because sociology is such a broad discipline, it can be difficult to define,even for professional sociologists. One useful way to describe thediscipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensionsof society. For example: • social stratification studies inequality and class structure; • demography studies changes in a population size or type; • criminology examines criminal behavior and deviance; • political sociology studies government and laws; • the sociology of race and sociology of gender examine societys racial and gender cleavages.
New sociological sub-fields continue to appear - such as economicsociology and network analysis - many of which are cross-disciplinary innature.Since the late 1970s, many sociologists have tried to make the disciplineuseful for non-academic purposes. The results of sociological researchaid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and othersinterested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy,through subdisciplinary areas such as survey research, evaluationresearch, methodological assessment, and public sociology.Sociological methods, theories, and concepts compel the sociologist toexplore the origins of commonly accepted rules governing humanbehavior. This specific approach to reality is known as the sociologicalperspective. Sociology is methodologically diverse using bothqualitative and quantitative methods, including case studies, surveyresearch, statistical analysis, and model building among others. History of SociologySociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other socialsciences including economics, political science, anthropology, history,and psychology. The ideas behind it, however, have a long history andcan trace their origins to a mixture of common human knowledge andphilosophy. Sociology as a scientific discipline emerged in the early19th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernity: asthe world was becoming smaller and more integrated, peoplesexperience of the world was increasingly atomized and dispersed.Sociologists hoped not only to understand what held social groupstogether, but also to develop an antidote to social disintegration.The term was coined by Auguste Comte in 1838 from Latin Socius(companion, associate) and Greek logos (speech). Comte hoped to unifyall studies of humankind-including history, psychology and economics.His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century; hebelieved all human life had passed through the same distinct historicalstages (theology, metaphysics, positive science) and that, if one couldgrasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills.Sociology was to be the queen of sciences.
The first book with the term sociology in its title was The Study ofSociology (1874) by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer. In theUnited States, Lester Frank Ward, described by some as the father ofAmerican sociology, published Dynamic Sociology in 1883 and thediscipline was taught by its own name for the first time at the Universityof Kansas, Lawrence in 1890 under the course title Elements ofSociology (the oldest continuing sociology course in America). TheDepartment of History and Sociology at the University of Kansas wasestablished in 1891 and the first full fledged independent universitydepartment of sociology was established in 1892 at the University ofChicago by Albion W. Small, who in 1895 founded the AmericanJournal of Sociology. The first European department of sociology wasfounded in 1895 at the University of Bordeaux by Emile Durkheim,founder of LAnnee Sociologique (1896). The first sociology departmentto be established in the United Kingdom was at the London School ofEconomics and Political Science (home of the British Journal ofSociology) in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established inGermany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich by MaxWeber and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Znaniecki.International cooperation in sociology began in 1893 when Rene Wormsfounded the small Institut International de Sociologie that was eclipsedby the much larger International Sociological Association starting in1949 (ISA). In 1905 the American Sociological Association, the worldslargest association of professional sociologists, was founded.Other "classical" theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20thcenturies include Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tonnies, Emile Durkheim,Vilfredo Pareto, and Max Weber. Like Comte, these figures did notconsider themselves only "sociologists". Their works addressed religion,education, economics, law, psychology, ethics, philosophy, andtheology, and their theories have been applied in a variety of academicdisciplines. Their most enduring influence, however, has been onsociology, (with the exception of Marx, who is a central figure in thefield of economics as well) and it is in this field that their theories arestill considered most applicable.One shift in the discipline away from scientific explanation hadphilosophical roots. Early theorists approach to sociology, led byComte, was to treat it in the same manner as natural science, applying
the same methods and methodology used in the natural sciences to studysocial phenomena. The emphasis on empiricism and the scientificmethod sought to provide an incontestable foundation for anysociological claims or findings, and to distinguish sociology from lessempirical fields like philosophy. This methodological approach, calledpositivism, became a source of contention between sociologists andother scientists, and eventually a point of divergence within the fielditself. Thus, while most sciences evolved from deterministic, Newtonianmodels to probabilistic models which accept and even incorporateuncertainty, sociology began to cleave into those who believed in adeterministic approach (attributing variation to structure, interactions,or other forces) and those who rejected the very possibility ofexplanation and prediction.A second push away from scientific explanation was cultural, evensociological, itself. As early as the 19th century, positivist and naturalistapproaches to studying social life were questioned by scientists likeWilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert, who argued that the naturalworld differs from the social world due to unique aspects of humansociety such as meanings, symbols, rules, norms, and values. Theseelements of society both result in and generate human cultures. Thisview was further developed by Max Weber, who introduced anti -positivism (humanistic sociology). According to this view, which isclosely related to anti - naturalism, sociological research mustconcentrate on humans cultural values. This has led to some controversyon how one can draw the line between subjective and objective researchand has also influenced hermeneutical studies. Similar disputes,especially in the era of the Internet, have led to variations in sociologysuch as public sociology, which emphasizes the usefulness ofsociological expertise to abstracted audiences.
Auguste ComteSociological reasoning pre-dates the foundation of the discipline. Socialanalysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge andphilosophy, and has been carried out from at least as early as the time ofPlato. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Islam. It may besaid that the first sociologist was Ibn Khaldun, a 14th century Arabscholar from North Africa, whose Muqaddimah was the first work toadvance social-scientific theories of social cohesion and social conflict.The word sociology (or "sociologie") is derived from the Latin: socius,"companion"; -ology, "the study of", and Greek λόγος, lógos, "word","knowledge". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayistEmmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript.Sociology was later developed by the philosopher, Auguste Comte(1798–1857), in 1838. Comte had earlier used the term "social physics",but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably theBelgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unifyhistory, psychology and economics through the scientific understandingof the social realm. Writing shortly after the malaise of the FrenchRevolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied throughsociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in TheCourse in Positive Philosophy [1830–1842] and A General View ofPositivism (1844). Comte believed a positivist stage would mark thefinal era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in theprogression of human understanding.
Foundations of the academic disciplineÉmile DurkheimThough Comte is generally regarded as the "Father of Sociology", theacademic subject was formally established by another French thinker,Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who developed positivism in greaterdetail. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at theUniversity of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the SociologicalMethod. In 1896, he established the journal LAnnée Sociologique.Durkheims seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suiciderates amongst Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguishedsociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. It also marked amajor contribution to the concept of structural functionalism.A course entitled "sociology" was taught in the United States at Yale in1875 by William Graham Sumner, drawing upon the thought of Comteand Herbert Spencer rather than Durkheimian theory. In 1890, the oldestcontinuing American course in the modern tradition began at theUniversity of Kansas, lectured by Frank Blackmar. The Department ofHistory and Sociology at the University of Kansas was established in1891. The Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago wasestablished in 1892 by Albion W. Small. George Herbert Mead andCharles Cooley, who had met at the University of Michigan in 1891
(along with John Dewey), would move to Chicago in 1894. Theirinfluence gave rise to social psychology and the symbolic interactionismof the modern Chicago School. The American Journal of Sociology wasfounded in 1895, followed by the American Sociological Association(ASA) in 1905.The first sociology department to be established in the United Kingdomwas at the London School of Economics and Political Science (home ofthe British Journal of Sociology) in 1904. In 1909 the DeutscheGesellschaft für Soziologie (German Society for Sociology) was foundedby Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, among others. Weberestablished the first department in Germany at the Ludwig MaximiliansUniversity of Munich in 1919, having presented an influential newantipositivist sociology. In 1920, Florian Znaniecki set up the firstdepartment in Poland. The Institute for Social Research at the Universityof Frankfurt (later to become the Frankfurt School of critical theory) wasfounded in 1923. International co-operation in sociology began in 1893,when René Worms founded the Institut International de Sociologie, aninstitution later eclipsed by the much larger International SociologicalAssociation (ISA), founded in 1949.Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges ofmodernity, such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and aperceived process of enveloping rationalization. The field predominatedin continental Europe, with British anthropology and statistics generallyfollowing on a separate trajectory. By the turn of the 20th century,however, many theorists were active in the Anglo-American world. Fewearly sociologists were confined strictly to the subject, interacting alsowith economics, jurisprudence, psychology and philosophy, withtheories being appropriated in a variety of different fields. Since itsinception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry,have significantly expanded and diverged.Durkheim, Karl Marx and Weber are typically cited as the three principalarchitects of social science. Their thought is central to the modernsociological paradigms of functionalism, conflict theory and anti-positivism respectively. Vilfredo Pareto, Alexis de Tocqueville, AdamFerguson, Robert Michels, Werner Sombart, Ferdinand Tönnies, Georg
Simmel and Karl Mannheim are occasionally included on academiccurricula as further founding theorists. Each key figure is associatedwith a particular theoretical perspective and orientation.Marx and Engels associated the emergence of modern society above allwith the development of capitalism; for Durkheim it was connected inparticular with industrialization and the new social division of labourwhich this brought about; for Weber it had to do with the emergence of adistinctive way of thinking, the rational calculation which he associatedwith the Protestant Ethic (more or less what Marx and Engels speak ofin terms of those icy waves of egotistical calculation). Together theworks of these great classical sociologists suggest what Giddens hasrecently described as a multidimensional view of institutions ofmodernity and which emphasizes not only capitalism and industrialismas key institutions of modernity, but also surveillance (meaning controlof information and social supervision) and military power (control ofthe means of violence in the context of the industrialization of war).Positivism and anti-positivismThe methodological approach toward sociology by early theorists was totreat the discipline in broadly the same manner as natural science. Anemphasis on empiricism and the scientific method was sought to providea tested foundation for sociological research, and to distinguishsociology from less empirical fields such as philosophy. Thisperspective, called positivism, is based on the assumption that theonly authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that suchknowledge can come only from positive affirmation of theoriesthrough strict scientific and quantitative methods. Émile Durkheimwas a major proponent of theoretically grounded empirical research,seeking correlations between "social facts" to reveal structural laws. Hisposition was informed by an interest in applying sociological findings inthe pursuit of social reform and the negation of social "anomie".Accounts of Durkheims positivism may be vulnerable to exaggerationand oversimplification: Comte was the only major sociological thinkerto postulate that the social realm may be subject to scientific analysis inthe same way as noble science, whereas Durkheim acknowledged ingreater detail the fundamental epistemological limitations.
Karl MarxThe history of all hitherto existing society is the history of classstruggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf,guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stoodin constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, nowhidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in arevolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruinof the contending classes. – Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto 1848Reactions against social empiricism began when German philosopherGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel voiced opposition to both empiricism,which he rejected as uncritical, and determinism, which he viewed asoverly mechanistic. Karl Marxs methodology borrowed from Hegeldialecticism but also a rejection of positivism in favour of criticalanalysis, seeking to supplement the empirical acquisition of "facts" withthe elimination of illusions. He maintained that appearances need to becritiqued rather than simply documented. Marx rejected Comteanpositivism but nonetheless endeavoured to produce a science of societygrounded in historical materialism.
A bust of Ferdinand Tönnies in Husum, GermanyFerdinand Tönnies theorized on "gemeinschaft and gesellschaft" (lit.community and society) as two "normal types" of social grouping.Tönnies drew a sharp line between the realm of conceptuality and thereality of social action: the first must be treated axiomatically and in adeductive way ("pure sociology"), whereas the second empirically andinductively ("applied sociology"). Max WeberAt the turn of the 20th century the first generation of Germansociologists formally introduced methodological antipositivism,proposing that research should concentrate on human cultural norms,values, symbols, and social processes viewed from a resolutelysubjective perspective. Max Weber argued that sociology may be
loosely described as a science as it is able to identify causalrelationships of human "social action"—especially among "ideal types",or hypothetical simplifications of complex social phenomena. As a non-positivist, however, Weber sought relationships that are not as"ahistorical, invariant, or generalizable" as those pursued by naturalscientists. Sociology is ... the science whose object is to interpret the meaning ofsocial action and thereby give a causal explanation of the way in whichthe action proceeds and the effects which it produces. By action in thisdefinition is meant the human behaviour when and to the extent that theagent or agents see it as subjectively meaningful ... the meaning to whichwe refer may be either (a) the meaning actually intended either by anindividual agent on a particular historical occasion or by a number ofagents on an approximate average in a given set of cases, or (b) themeaning attributed to the agent or agents, as types, in a pure typeconstructed in the abstract. In neither case is the meaning to be thoughtof as somehow objectively correct or true by some metaphysicalcriterion. This is the difference between the empirical sciences of action,such as sociology and history, and any kind of priori discipline, such asjurisprudence, logic, ethics, or aesthetics whose aim is to extract fromtheir subject-matter correct or valid meaning.Georg SimmelBoth Weber and Georg Simmel pioneered the interpretative method insocial science; a systematic process by which an outside observerattempts to relate to a particular cultural group, or indigenous people, on
their own terms and from their own point-of-view. Through the work ofSimmel, in particular, sociology acquired a possible character beyondpositivist data-collection or grand, deterministic systems of structurallaw. Relatively isolated from the sociological academy throughout hislifetime, Simmel presented idiosyncratic analyses of modernity morereminiscent of the phenomenological and existential writers than ofComte or Durkheim, paying particular concern to the forms of, andpossibilities for, social individuality. His sociology engaged in a neo-Kantian critique of the limits of perception, asking What is society? in adirect allusion to Kants question What is nature?The deepest problems of modern life flow from the attempt of theindividual to maintain the independence and individuality of hisexistence against the sovereign powers of society, against the weight ofthe historical heritage and the external culture and technique of life. Theantagonism represents the most modern form of the conflict whichprimitive man must carry on with nature for his own bodily existence.The eighteenth century may have called for liberation from all the tieswhich grew up historically in politics, in religion, in morality and ineconomics in order to permit the original natural virtue of man, which isequal in everyone, to develop without inhibition; the nineteenth centurymay have sought to promote, in addition to mans freedom, hisindividuality (which is connected with the division of labor) and hisachievements which make him unique and indispensable but which atthe same time make him so much the more dependent on thecomplementary activity of others; Nietzsche may have seen therelentless struggle of the individual as the prerequisite for his fulldevelopment, while socialism found the same thing in the suppression ofall competition - but in each of these the same fundamental motive wasat work, namely the resistance of the individual to being levelled,swallowed up in the social-technological mechanism. – Georg Simmel The Metropolis and Mental Life 1903 Determinism: Economic, Environmental, BiologicalExcept in the philosophy of Karl Marx (whose writings ranged over allthe social science fields rather than specifically in sociology), thedoctrine of economic determinism never gained a strong foothold insociology. This was not a consequence of scholarly ignorance;
sociologists of all periods have read Marx and have usually read suchwriters as the historian Charles A. Beard, who emphasized economicself-interest, and Werner Sombart, the German sociologist who had beena convinced Marxist in his early career.But there have been only some adapted reflections of these economicviews in the writings of such sociologists as Franklin H. Giddings orFrank H. Hankins who viewed some political and religious doctrines asrationalizations of economic and social interests.The human geographers--Ellsworth Huntington, Ellen Semple, FriedrichRatzel, Paul Vidal de La Blache, Jean Brunhes, and others were alsoread critically by sociologists but did not make a lasting majorcontribution to the mainstream of sociological thought, even thoughthere are some who believe that the social morphology of EmileDurkheim, Maurice Halbwachs, and others--that is, their theories aboutthe roles of individuals interacting in a social system--grew in part fromthis interest.Aside from the interest in evolution, organismic analogies, and theinstinct concept, sociologists have not found biological determination ofvalue to them and have spent more energy in refuting it than in makinguse of it.Functionalism and conflict theoryStructural functionalism is a broad paradigm, both in sociology andanthropology, which addresses the social structure in terms of thenecessary function of its constituent elements. A common analogy(popularized by Herbert Spencer) is to regard norms, values andinstitutions as organs that work toward the proper-functioning of theentire body of society. The perspective is implicit in the originalsociological positivism of Comte, but was theorized in full byDurkheim, again with respect to observable, structural laws. Althoughfunctionalism shares a history and theoretical affinity with the empiricalmethod, later functionalists, such as Bronisław Malinowski and TalcottParsons, are to some extent antipositivist. Parsons, in fact, came to viewthe term as descriptive of a particular stage in the methodological
development of the social sciences, rather than a specific school ofthought. Whilst functionalism shares an affinity with grand theory (e.g.systems theory in the work of Niklas Luhmann), emphasis may beplaced on small units of socialization, such as the nuclear family. It isalso simplistic to equate the approach directly with conservativeideology. Functionalism has been associated with thinkers as diverse asthe post-structuralist philosopher Michel Foucault. In the most basicterms functionalism concerns "the effort to impute, as rigorously aspossible, to each feature, custom, or practice, its effect on thefunctioning of a supposedly stable, cohesive system."To aim for a civilization beyond that made possible by the nexus of thesurrounding environment will result in unloosing sickness into the verysociety we live in. Collective activity cannot be encouraged beyond thepoint set by the condition of the social organism without undermininghealth.Conflict theories, by contrast, are perspectives which critique theoverarching socio-political system, which emphasize the inequality of aparticular social group, or which otherwise detract from structuralfunctionalism (though they may also be structural). Conflict theoriesdraw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, andgenerally contrast traditional or historically-dominant ideologies. Theterm is most commonly associated with Marxism, but as a reaction tofunctionalism and the scientific method may be associated with criticaltheory, feminist theory, queer theory, postmodern theory, post-structural theory, postcolonial theory, and a variety of otherperspectives. Social Darwinism and EvolutionismDarwinian evolutionary theory doubtlessly suggested a way in which ascience of human behaviour could become academically respectable,and a line of creative thinkers, including Herbert Spencer, BenjaminKidd, Lewis H. Morgan, E.B. Tylor, L.T. Hobhouse, and others,
developed analogies between human society and the biological organismand introduced into sociological theory such biological concepts asvariation, natural selection, and inheritance - evolutionary factorsresulting in the progress of societies through stages of savagery andbarbarism to civilization, by virtue of the survival of the fittest.Some writers also perceived in the growth stages of each individual arecapitulation of these stages of society. Strange customs were thusaccounted for on the assumption that they were throwbacks to an earlieruseful practice; an example offered was the make-believe strugglesometimes enacted at marriage ceremonies between the bridegroom andthe relatives of the bride, reflecting an earlier bride-capture custom.Social Darwinism waned in the 20th century, but in its popular period itwas used to justify unrestricted competition and a laissez-faire doctrinein order that the "fittest" would survive and that civilization wouldcontinue to advance.
Culture May 23, 2009 by Russ Long Key Concepts • culture • folkways • culture shock • mores • taboos • norms • values I.Culture and SocietyA.What is Culture?Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior. • Culture is all the values, norms, and customs that people share with one another. • Culture includes language and beliefs • Culture is all of the material objects such as monuments, three-piece suites, the lottery, fur coats, and fine automobiles. • Culture is ideas (like the belief in democracy and freedom) found within a society. • Culture is what individuals think is right and important as they interact (Schaefer, 1992:67).Culture is a way of life. When people talk about "the way of life" of people with adistinctive life style, whether they live in Appalachia or Norway, they are talking aboutculture. It defines what is important and unimportant. Culture refers to everything thatpeople create. Values, norms, goals, and culture in general, develop as people interactwith one another over time.Culture accounts, in part, for the unprecedented success of the human species. Itallows us to adapt to extreme environments. We could not survive without our culture. Ina sense, we create our culture, but our culture, in turn, recreates us (See Robertson,1989:38-42).Culture provides the context (back ground) that we use to interact with each other. Itdefines boundaries that we use to distinguish us from them.B.LanguageHenslin (2006:38-40) notes that language is the primary way people communicate withone another.
• It’s a system of symbols which all us to communicate abstract thought (Henslin, 2004:40). • It’s a perspective which allows culture to exist. • Language is universal in that all cultures have it, but it is not universal in that people attach different meanings to particular sounds.1.The Sapir-Whorf HypothesisThe Sapir-Whorf hypothesis argues that language provides categories through whichsocial reality is defined and constructed. It argues that thinking and perception are notonly expressed through language but also shaped by language.C.PerspectivesWe need to keep in mind the notion of perspective when talking about culture. A cultureis a "shared perspective." It is not absolute truth. Perspectives are limited by theirnature. They allow us to see life from only a certain angle. As we interact, we come toshare ideas about the way the world is. Perspectives filter what we see (Charon,1986:199-203).Example: "The Allegory of the Cave"D.EthnocentrismEthnocentrism, according to Farley (1988:16-17), refers to the tendency to view onesown culture as the norm. There is a tendency to assume ones culture is superior toothers. "Our" truths and values are so central to whom "we" are that it is difficult toaccept the possibility that our culture represents only one of many. A particular culturedoes not represent universal "TRUTH." This is not to say that to be proud of onesheritage is inappropriate. On the contrary, a little ethnocentrism is beneficial because ofits bonding effect. Ethnocentrism becomes a problem when we expect others tobecome like us. Example An American who thinks citizens of another country are barbarian because they like to attend bull fights is an example of ethnocentrism.E.Cultural Relativism and VerstehenTo accurately study unfamiliar cultures, sociologists have to be aware of culturally-based biases. Max Weber advocates the use of "value-free" Sociology, which meansthat one should eliminate, as much as possible, bias and prejudice.Weber calls attention to the German idea of verstehen to describe the practice ofunderstanding unique culture from the standpoint of others. Cultural relativism refers tothe understanding of a culture on its own terms. In essence "you have to be able tostand in the other persons shoes." When you can "see" from the perspective of another,then you can understand that culture.
II.Components of CultureA.Cultural UniversalsCultural universal refers to a cultural item that exists in all cultures part and present.Items like religion and language are found in every culture. They are examples ofcultural universalsB.InnovationInnovation is the process of introducing an idea or object that is new to culture. Thereare two forms of innovation: discovery and invention.C.DiffusionSociologists use the term diffusion to refer to the process by which a cultural item isspread from group to group or society to society. Cultures learn from one another.Diffusion can occur through a variety of means, among them exploration, militaryconquest, missionary work, etc. (Schaefer & Lamm, 1992: 70).Henslin (2004:51) contends that when groups make contact with one another, they mostoften exchange nonmaterial culture.D.Cultural LevelingHenslin (2004:51) uses cultural leveling to describe a situation in which cultures becomesimilar to one another as a result of travel and communication. The fact that one canfind a McDonalds or a Coke nearly every where in the world is an example of culturalleveling.E.Material Vs. Nonmaterial1.MaterialCulture is easily divided into material or nonmaterial concepts (See Robertson,1989:29). Material culture includes: • weapons • machines • eating utensils • jewelry • art • hair styles • clothingAnthropologists study material artifacts when exploring cultures which have been extinctfor hundreds or thousands of years. All which remains from ancient cultures are artifactsof their material culture.2.Nonmaterial
Often Sociologists will investigate nonmaterial aspects. Nonmaterial culture refers toabstract human creations. Included in this category are: • language • gestures • values • beliefs • rules (norms) • science • philosophies • customs • governments • institutionsF.Ideal Culture and Real Culture?Appelbaum and Chambliss (1997:42) contend that ideal culture refers to the norms andvalues that a society professes to hold. Henslin (2004:49-50) ideal culture describesmodels to emulate and which as worth aspiring to.Real culture refers to norms and values that are followed in practice.Example: Henslin (2004:49-50) notes that Americans glorify academic achievementand material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and mostcitizens are not wealthy. Thus there is a gap between ideal culture and real culture.G.Culture LagCulture lag refers to the tendency for culture to be slow to adapt to changes intechnology. Technological change can happen over night while some times it takesculture a few generations to adapt to changes in technology (Henslin, 2004: 50).Example: When Napster provided free music exchange, the record producers arguedthat the practice was unfair, but yet no laws existed which made music sharing illegal.This example highlights the lag between technology and social adaptation.Henslin (2004:50) calls this the distinction between material and non material culture.Material culture runs ahead of non material culture.H.Culture ShockAs people grow, they develop a sense of what to expect in their familiar surroundings."Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going onaround us" (Henslin, 1999:36). We dont generally question these assumptions. Whenone travels into a completely different culture, for example, a rural village in Africa, oneencounters different assumptions that might violate what we come to expect as normal.An individual suddenly immersed in a unique and unfamiliar setting experiencesdisorientation. This is known as culture shock (see Henslin, 2004:35). Example
A rural individual who is suddenly taken to a large city III.Norms and ValuesNorms are rules that govern our lives and values are the goal of our lives. Norms arethe expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop out of values. Norms are guidelinesfor our behavior.Norms may be informal or they may be formalized into laws.Values are principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.Norms are rather specific while values are abstract and general in nature.A.NormsNorms are the shared rules or guidelines that govern our actions in society. Norms canbe laws, but they also can be procedures, morals, customs or expectations. Manytimes, Ones position within the social structure determines the definitions of norms.Often norms are outward expressions of a societys deeply held and shared values.Norms are important for defining boundaries. The text uses gangs as an example again.In order to belong to a gang, a potential gang member has to learn the "norms" of thegang. Norms define us and them.1.FolkwaysFolkways are norms that ordinary people follow in everyday life. Conformity is expected,but not absolutely insisted on. Folkways are not strictly enforced.Example: "No shirt, no shoes, no service"2.MoresMores are norms are taken more seriously and are strictly enforced. Henslin (1999:44)considers them as "essential to our core values." Henslin suggests that we insist onconformity.Example: Flag burning, murder3.TabooTaboos approximate super mores. Henslin (1999:44) argues that taboos are so"strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion."Examples are Incest and cannibalism.4.Laws
A law is a norm that is formally enacted by a political authority. The power of the statebacks laws.5.Social ControlSociety always establishes a way of ensuring that people "behave in expected andapproved ways"6.SanctionsHenslin (1999:43) contends that sanctions are positive or negative reactions to the waysin which people follow norms. They can be either positive or negative. Rewards accruefor conformity and punishment for nonconformity. They can be material, such as a finefor not adhering to a norm, but they can also be gestures, "such as frowns, stares,harsh words, or raised fists" (Henslin, 1999:43).B.Values • Each culture has a general consensus of what is worth working for (ends). • Values refer to that which we consider important or unimportant, desirable or undesirable, good or bad, and beautiful or ugly. • They guide most of our actions. • Values are long range commitments to ends that people share culturally. • Values are abstract and general. • Essentially, values describe our "moral" goals in society. • Values indicate the standards by which people define their ideas about what is desirable in life. IV.Variations Within Cultures: Sub-Cultures and Counter CulturesSome cultures in the U.S. have remained relatively isolated from the dominant culture.These are subcultures. Charon (1986:199) points out that subcultures have goals,values, and norms that are different from those of the dominant culture. Although theirculture differs from the dominant culture, they do not openly oppose the dominantculture. Members of subcultures are usually content to avoid the dominant culture.Countercultures, on the other hand, like the SDS, Hippies, and the Black Panthers areexamples of subcultures that openly oppose the dominant culture. Counterculturesactively seek to change the dominant culture.The following are two examples of subcultures. They are not counter cultures. Neithergroup seeks to change the status quo.B.The Vice LordsThe Vice Lords is another subculture. In a book called Vice Lords R. Lincoln Keiser (inCharon, 1987:221-4) discussed four aspects [which Keiser calls ideological sets] thatthe Vice Lords use to define their world and guide their actions. Keiser defines fourideological sets which he calls Heart ideology, Soul ideology, brotherhood ideology, andgame ideology.
1. Heart Ideology:Heart ideology refers to the displays of courage and daring which are important for theVice Lords. A member has to show that hes willing to put his personal safety on theline. An individual who talks a lot about fighting, but who doesnt back up his rhetoric isa "punk."2. Soul Ideology:Soul for the Vice Lords has the same general connotation as it does for the Blackcommunity. Soul refers to ways of conducting ones self that strips away the superficialsurface and gets down to the nitty-gritty. Soul is the essence of the Black community.The Vice Lords judge one another in terms of soul.3. Brotherhood Ideology:The spirit of brotherhood is also important. Drinking wine is an important shared socialexperience for the group. Each person contributes what money he has for a "bottle."Each then gets an equal amount regardless of how much money he puts in. Drinkingwine reinforces the brotherhood.4.Game Ideology:In "game ideology" the gang member attempts to manipulate other gang members byplaying games. Manipulating others through games is a significant part of the ViceLords life. Such games may include hustling money from strangers. A "light weight"game player may simply ask for money. More than likely he gets turned down. A"heavy" on the other hand may concoct a story that another street gang is going to jumpthe stranger. There for the stranger should pay protection money to the "lords."
What is countercultureCounterculture is a subculture that adheres to a set of norms and values that sharplycontradict the dominant norms and values of society of which that group is a part.
Examples• Delinquent gangs, the Hare Krishna religious sect, hippies, punks, rockers and some extreme religious right – wing can be classified as counterculture.• The norms and values of each of these groups contrast sharply with those held by conventional middle – class.• Delinquent gangs may grant prestige and social approval for law breaking, violence, theft, or the use of drugs to achieve their goals of dominance and material successsubculture Subculture are cultures within a culture that has their own way of doing things that is different from the m ain culture that they live. Subcultures exist sim ply because it fits the person’s way of life. For instance: Take m usic fans as m any will try to dress and im itate their favorite rock band or m usic artist. These allow fans a way of feeling connected to their favorite band or artist.
DANGerOus subcultures Some subcultures can be dangerous not only to an individual but also to society as a whole. It is those dangerous subcultures that prey on our children and cause harm and destruction where ever they are present.DruG subculture Drug are another dangerous subculture. Within the drug subculture two things remain a constant and that is money and getting high. The drug culture has those who deal drugs and those who do the drugs. Either side of this subculture is dangerous to anyone around them and to society as a whole. Not all subcultures are dangerous though. Some exist just to provide like minded individuals with a sense of belonging.
• By maintaining schools to instill Amish values in their children, prohibiting mechanized vehicles and equipment, and dressing in plain clothing, the Amish proclaim their ownDefinition: Subculture are cultures within a culture that have their own wayof doing things that is different from the main culture that they live. Mostsocieties include groups who have their own distinctive set of norms, values, symbols and lifestyles. These units of culture are subcultures. Subculture isthe culture of those who are dissatisfied with their place in society.Different subcultures have their own beliefs, value systems, fashion, andfavourite music. Subcultures exist within the confines of a larger culture. Rockers-bought standard factory- made motorcycles and stripped them down, tuning them up and modifying them to appear like
racing bikes.Their bikes were not merely transport, but were used as an object of intimidation and masculinity projecting them uneasily close to death, an elementexaggerated by their use of skull and cross bone-type symbolism. They raced on public roadsand hung out at transport cafes such as The Ace Cafe, Chelsea Bridge tea stall, Ace of Spades,Busy Bee and Johnsons. First seen in the United States and then England, the rocker fashionstyle was born out of necessity and practicality. Rockers wore heavily-decorated leathermotorcycle jackets, often adorned with metal studs, patches, pin badges and sometimes an Essogas man trinket. When they rode their motorcycles, they usually wore no helmet, or wore aclassic open-face helmet, aviator goggles and a white silk scarf (to protect them from theelements). Who are emos First, let’s start with what an emo actually is. An Emo is usually a teen who is depressed for; get this, no reason at all (well maybe having rich parents). All they do is go on about how dark the world is and wanting to end there so called “life”, although they never do.
What EMO means EMO means emotional. There favorite colors are black and pink. Emo’s usually have badly dyed, black hair. It covers their eyes, and is straightened, or sometimes a mop (saçaq). The extreme Emo’s freshly dye there hair black every time they leave the house, and then have black fingernails because of it.What do they wearThey sport around in tight black jeans (the tighter the better), with either ahoodie (balaxon) on top, or their favorite band t-shirt on. They sometimes havenumerous amounts of piercing’s. Mainly below their lower lip. They wear thickeyeliner and sometimes black eye shadow around their eyes. Then there a somewho have the lot, eyeliner, black eye shadow around their eyes and foundation allover their face. A classic example of this is the lead singer from My ChemicalRomance, a band emos love to jam too. What do these people do? Now that you know what emos look like and can spot them from a mile away, lets continue with what they are and what they do. Now emos hate their life right. Well it doesn’t end there they usually hate people, their parents; well pretty much everything. To ease this “everlasting” pain they’ll slit their wrists. Its sick right?They love to kick it old school, and be as non-conforming as they can. One thingthey do is play Super Nintendo; they’ll get a stack of old games but only play one.
What do they listen to?• That damn music they listen to. It is terrible. Have you ever heard a song about how bad life is? Or a song about suicide? Basically just anything depressing. Well then, this would be classed as an “Emo” song. A prime example of this would be Simple Plan’s song “Welcome to my life”. More bands that this emo type thrive on would be,/p• My Chemical Romance• Bullet For My Valentine• AFI• I Write Sins Not Tragedies• Good Charlotte• Green Day (The New Stuff) Goth fashion-is stereotyped as a dark, sometimes morbid, eroticized fashion and style of Typical gothic fashion Includes dyed black hair, dark eyeliner, black fingernails, black period-styled clothing; goths may or may not have piercings. Styles are often borrowed from the
Elizabethan, Victorian or medieval period and often express pagan, occult or other religiousimagery such as pentacles or ankhs. The extent to which goths hold to this style varies amongstindividuals as well as geographical locality, though virtually all Goths wear some of these elements.Fashion designers, such as Alexander McQueen and John Galliano, have also been described aspracticing "Haute Goth“. Goth fashion is often confused with heavy metal fashion: outsiders oftenmistake fans of heavy metal for goth, particularly those who wear black trench coats or wear "corpsepaint" (a term associated with the black metal music scene).Cultural ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the personal idea that your culture are superior to all others. Ethnocentrism also involves using your own culture and belief system to judge others by only the standards of your own viewpoint. Ethnocentrism can be a benefit in uniting societies, but overall it has a negative effect on both culture and society. All cultures are ethnocentric to some degree. When a culture takes an ethnocentric viewpoint, it automatically places itself as the dominant culture. Ethnocentrism is especially relevant when it comes to a cultures sense of moral values. For example, polygamy, the practice of having more than one wife is normal or even necessary in Eastern culture. But it is not normal in Western culture. The extremes of ethnocentrism When branching from culture to society, we see the real effects of ethnocentrism. A society can be a grouping of separate cultural groups living together in a specific area. If each culture within the society continues to view themselves as superior, this will drive dividing lines through the society. Not only will it separate the society, but it will also negatively affect commerce, trade and even normal day-to-day relations. Ethnocentrism is also the cause of many wars. What is relativism? The solution to ethnocentrism is cultural relativism. Cultural Relativism is defined as understanding cultures from their own perspective, not necessarily as a comparison to your own culture.
Someone who uses cultural relativism would look at a culture not from theirown perspective, but try and look at the culture from the own peoples view.Cultural relativity is a better way to discuss culture than that ofethnocentrism, because it allows the people discussing it to be more open tothe different cultures around them; not decide someone elses culture is badbecause its not like theirs.Many people, many viewsNudity in the shower is appropriate, but nudity is classroom or in publicplaces (in many countries) is inappropriate. In some hunting societies, beingfat may have survival values and may serve as a source of admiration.The practice of abandoning unwanted infants would be viewed as intolerableby most contemporary cultures, but many cultures used to follow thispractice, and some still do.This points that only aspect of a culture must be considered within its largercultural aspect. Each aspect may be regarded as good if it acceptable to themembers and helps attain desired goals and bad if it’s unacceptable or failsto achieve these goals.When in Rome do as Romans do!Cultural relativity does not mean that a behavior appropriate in one place isappropriate everywhere.It’s not a license to do as one wishes. Even though having three wives isacceptable in Muslim countries (and in Brazilian tribe), and wearingloincloths is acceptable to African bushmen, these behavior is not acceptablein the same Muslim countries and USA.They are acceptable in some societies because they are part of a larger beliefand value system and are coincident with other norms appropriate to thatcultural settingsJudging other societies on the basis of cultural relativism make us less likelyto ridicule or scorn (həqarətçi nifrət) the beliefs and habits of people fromother cultures.Xenocentrism.
The opposite of ethnocentrism is Xenocentrism, the belief that what’sforeign is best, that our own lifestyle, products or ideas are inferior to thoseof others. The strange, distant and exotic are regarded as having specialvalue, cars made in Japan,watches made in Switzerland, beer brewed inGermany, fashions created in Farnce, silks imported from India andThailand. In some instances feelings of xenocentrism are so strong thatpeople reject their own group. Thus we find Anti – American Americans,anti – Semitic Jews, priests who revolt against the church, blacks who rejectblack identity. Xenocentrism may focus on a product, an idea, or a life – style. Regardlessof a focus, it’s assumed that native techniques and concepts are inferior.Religion and Society Religion is a cultural system that creates powerful and long-lastingmeaning by establishing symbols that relate humanity to beliefs and values.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith or beliefsystem, but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect.Some academics have divided religions into three broad categories: worldreligions, a term which refers to transcultural international faiths; indigenousreligions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specificreligious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recentlydeveloped faiths.Societal Effects of Religion Religion has contributed a lot to the social, cultural and economicdevelopment of most first world societies. Religion has also been used as aneconomic tool to exploit the gullibility of the commoners in favor of theelite. It has been used as a tool to maintain political dominance of the worldorder. Religion has been one of the biggest obstructions to scientificdevelopment and success. Medical science has faced some of the mostdisgusting attacks from religious fanatics hiding behind facades of moralityand righteousness. Religion is now and has always been the cheapest andmost effective way of controlling the masses.Religion has also had a positive influence on humanity. This was especiallytrue during the earlier years. Religion helped reinforce moral behaviouramong people without the treat of divine punishment. You can run from the
man whose house you just robbed but you cant run from God or something along those lines. It also served to provide hope to people in desperate situations, giving them something to believe in rather than just giving up on everything. This is especially true for the elderly even today as belief in the afterlife provides comfort. Religions have the societal effect of dividing people into "us" and "them". This unfortunately has the same characteristics as any other form of discrimination, such as racialism. It becomes easy to consider "us" as the righteous and "them" as unrighteous. Why is there Religion Religion is said to help to satisfy the human need for spiritual fulfillment. This at once raises the question of what spiritual fulfilment is. One description of spiritual fulfillment is the need to feel comfortable with things that are beyond human understanding. Thus the need to believe in a god or gods arises from the inability to understand the origin and purpose of life.StereotypesA stereotype is a popular belief about specific social groups or types ofindividuals. The concepts of "stereotype" and "prejudice" are often confused withmany other different meanings. Stereotypes are standardized and simplifiedconceptions of groups based on some prior assumptions.EtymologyThe term stereotype (στερεότυπος) derives from the Greek words στερεός (stereos),"firm, solid" and τύπος (typos), "impression," hence "solid impression".It was invented by Firmin Didot in the world of printing; it was originally aduplicate impression of an original typographical element, used for printing insteadof the original. American journalist Walter Lippmann coined the metaphor, callinga stereotype a "picture in our heads" saying, "Whether right or wrong (...)imagination is shaped by the pictures seen (...) originally printers words, and intheir literal printers meanings were synonymous. Specifically, cliché was a Frenchword for the printing surface for a stereotype. The first reference to "stereotype,"
in its modern, English use was in 1850, in the noun, meaning "image perpetuatedwithout change."The term, in its modern psychology sense, was first used by Walter Lippmann inhis 1922 work Public Opinion although in the printing sense it was first coined in1798.DynamicsSocial psychologists believe that mental categorizing (or labelling) is necessaryand inescapable. In one perspective of the stereotyping process, there are theconcepts of in-groups and out-groups. In groups are viewed as normal andsuperior, and are generally the group that one associates with or aspires to join. Anout- group is simply all the other groups. They are seen as lesser than or inferior tothe in-groups.A second perspective is that of automatic and explicit or subconscious andconscious. Automatic or subconscious stereotyping is that which everyone doeswithout noticing. Automatic stereotyping is quickly preceded by an explicit orconscious check which permits time for any needed corrections. Automaticstereotyping is affected by explicit stereotyping because frequent consciousthoughts will quickly develop into subconscious stereotypes.A third method to categorizing stereotypes is general types and sub-types.Stereotypes consist of hierarchical systems consisting of broad and specific groupsbeing the general types and sub-types respectively. A general type could bedefined as a broad stereotype typically known among many people and usuallywidely accepted, whereas the sub-group would be one of the several groupsmaking up the general group. These would be more specific, and opinions of thesegroups would vary according to differing perspectives.Certain circumstances can affect the way an individual stereotypes. For instance:Studies have shown that women stereotype more negatively than men, and thatwomen read into appearance more than men. Some theorists argue in favor of theconceptual connection and that ones own subjective thought about someone issufficient information to make assumptions about that individual. Other theoristsargue that at minimum there must be a casual connection between mental statesand behavior to make assumptions or stereotypes. Thus results and opinions mayvary according to circumstance and theory. An example of a common, incorrectassumption is that of assuming certain internal characteristics based on externalappearance. The explanation for ones actions is his or her internal state (goals,feeling, personality, traits, motives, values, and impulses), not his or herappearance.Sociologist Charles E. Hurst, "One reason for stereotypes is the lack of personal,concrete familiarity that individuals have with persons in other racial or ethnic
groups. Lack of familiarity encourages the lumping together of unknownindividuals."Stereotypes focus upon and thereby exaggerate differences between groups.Competition between groups minimizes similarities and magnifies differences.This makes it seem as if groups are very different when in fact they may be morealike than different. For example, among African Americans, identity as anAmerican citizen is more salient than racial background; that is, AfricanAmericans are more American than African.Theories on stereotypesDifferent disciplines give different accounts of how stereotypes develop:Psychologists may focus on an individuals experience with groups, patterns ofcommunication about those groups, and intergroup conflict. Pioneeringpsychologist William James cautioned psychologists themselves to be wary oftheir own stereotyping, in what he called the psychologists fallacy. Sociologistsfocus on the relations among groups and the of different groups in a socialstructure. Psychoanalytically-oriented humanists have argued (e.g., SanderGilman) that stereotypes, by definition, are representations that are not accurate,but a projection of one to another.A number of theories have been derived from sociological studies of stereotypingand prejudicial thinking. In early studies it was believed that stereotypes were onlyused by rigid, repressed, and authoritarian people. Sociologists concluded that thiswas a result of conflict, poor parenting, and inadequate mental and emotionaldevelopment. This idea has been overturned; more recent studies have concludedthat stereotypes are commonplace.One theory as to why people stereotype is that it is too difficult to take in all of thecomplexities of other people as individuals. Even though stereotyping is inexact, itis an efficient way to mentally organize large blocks of information. Categorizationis an essential human capability because it enables us to simplify, predict, andorganize our world. Once one has sorted and organized everyone into tidycategories, there is a human tendency to avoid processing new or unexpectedinformation about each individual. Assigning general group characteristics tomembers of that group saves time and satisfies the need to predict the social worldin a general sense.Another theory is that people stereotype because of the need to feel good aboutoneself. Stereotypes protect one from anxiety and enhance self-esteem. Bydesignating ones own group as the standard or normal group and assigning othersto groups considered inferior or abnormal, it provides one with a sense of worth.Some believe that childhood influences are some of the most complex andinfluential factors in developing stereotypes. Though they can be absorbed at any
age, stereotypes are usually acquired in early childhood under the influence ofparents, teachers, peers, and the media. Once a stereotype is learned, it oftenbecomes self-perpetuating.Other theories propose that the praising of intelligence and ability rather than effortand hard work inevitably changes the prospective from a malleable sense of self-worth to a definite concept of self-worth as seen from the individual and othersaround them.Effects, accuracy, terminologyStereotypes can have a negative and positive impact on individuals. JoshuaAronson and Claude M. Steele have done research on the psychological effects ofstereotyping, particularly its effect on African Americans and women. They arguethat psychological research has shown that competence is highly responsive tosituation and interactions with others. They cite, for example, a study which foundthat bogus feedback to college students dramatically affected their IQ testperformance, and another in which students were either praised as very smart,congratulated on their hard work, or told that they scored high. The group praisedas smart performed significantly worse than the others. They believe that there isan innate ability bias. These effects are not just limited to minority groups.Mathematically competent white males, mostly math and engineering students,were asked to take a difficult math test. One group was told that this was beingdone to determine why Asians were scoring better. This group performedsignificantly worse than the control group.Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: • Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance • Unwillingness to rethink ones attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped group • Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fieldsThe effects of stereotyping can fluctuate, but for the most part they are negative,and not always apparent until long periods of time have passed. Stereotypes allowindividuals to make better informed evaluations of individuals about whom theypossess little or no individuating information, and in many, but not allcircumstances stereotyping helps individuals arrive at more accurate conclusions.Over time, some victims of negative stereotypes display self-fulfilling prophecybehavior, in which they assume that the stereotype represents norms to emulate.Negative effects may include forming inaccurate opinions of people, scapegoating,erroneously judgmentalism, preventing emotional identification, distress, andimpaired performance.
Yet, the stereotype that stereotypes are inaccurate, resistant to change,overgeneralized, exaggerated, and destructive is not founded on empirical socialscience research, which instead shows that stereotypes are often accurate and thatpeople do not rely on stereotypes when relevant personal information is available.Indeed, Jussim et al. comment that ethnic and gender stereotypes are surprisinglyaccurate, while stereotypes concerning political affiliation and nationality aremuch less accurate; the stereotypes assessed for accuracy concerned intelligence,behavior, personality, and economic status. Stereotype accuracy is a growing areaof study and for Yueh-Ting Lee and his colleagues they have created an EPAModel (Evaluation, Potency, Accuracy) to describe the continuously changingvariables of stereotypes.Role in art and cultureStereotypes are common in various cultural media, where they take the form ofdramatic stock characters. These characters are found in the works of playwrightBertolt Brecht, Dario Fo, and Jacques Lecoq, who characterize their actors asstereotypes for theatrical effect. In commedia dellarte this is similarly common.The instantly recognizable nature of stereotypes mean that they are effective inadvertising and situation comedy. These stereotypes change, and in modern timesonly a few of the stereotyped characters shown in John Bunyans The PilgrimsProgress would be recognizable.In literature and art, stereotypes are clichéd or predictable characters or situations.Throughout history, storytellers have drawn from stereotypical characters andsituations, in order to connect the audience with new tales immediately. Sometimessuch stereotypes can be sophisticated, such as Shakespeares Shylock in TheMerchant of Venice. Arguably a stereotype that becomes complex andsophisticated ceases to be a stereotype per se by its unique characterization. Thuswhile Shylock remains politically unstable in being a stereotypical Jew, the subjectof prejudicial derision in Shakespeares era, his many other detailed features raisehim above a simple stereotype and into a unique character, worthy of modernperformance. Simply because one feature of a character can be categorized asbeing typical does not make the entire character a stereotype.Despite their proximity in etymological roots, cliché and stereotype are not usedsynonymously in cultural spheres. For example a cliché is a high criticism innarratology where genre and categorization automatically associates a story withinits recognizable group. Labeling a situation or character in a story as typicalsuggests it is fitting for its genre or category. Whereas declaring that a storytellerhas relied on cliché is to pejoratively observe a simplicity and lack of originality inthe tale. To criticize Ian Fleming for a stereotypically unlikely escape for JamesBond would be understood by the reader or listener, but it would be more
appropriately criticized as a cliché in that it is overused and reproduced. Narrativegenre relies heavily on typical features to remain recognizable and generatemeaning in the reader/viewer.In movies and TV the halo effect is often used. This is when, for example,attractive men and women are assumed to be happier, stronger, nicer people .Racial and ethnic stereotypingAfrican stereotypesAfricans are typically presented as living in tiny huts in rural villages.In the AmericasLatino people are stereotyped as needing handouts through welfare and privatecharity, being Roman Catholic, having many children, and being present in the USillegally. The stereotypes say that they rarely complete high school and cannotspeak English well.Native Americans may be presented positively, as acutely environmentallyconscious, spiritual, wise, loyal, or with extraordinary skill in hunting or tracking.They may also be portrayed negatively, as indigent, drunk, violent, or implacableenemies.Black Americans were stereotyped in the early 20th century as joyous, naive,superstitious, and ignorant. Many portrayals showed them with thick lips, and incartoons they were often portrayed as crows. By the end of the 20th century, thestereotypes said that they were poor, lazy, ignorant, criminals, and violent, andoccasionally ardent adherents of Christianity.White Americans are also subject to being stereotyped by others, e.g., the uglyAmerican stereotype of American visitors.East Asian and South Asian stereotypesIrish stereotypes
The cartoon above (New Physiognomy, New York, 1866), contrasts FlorenceNightingale, the Crimean War nurse, with "Bridget McBruiser," the stereotypicalIrish woman.Scientific racism from an American magazine, Harpers Weekly, says that the Irishare similar to Negroes.An analysis of nineteenth-century British attitudes by Mary J. Hickman andBronwen Walter wrote that the Irish Catholic was one viewed as an "other," or adifferent race in the construction of the English nationalist myth. Likewise, theIrish considered the English "other" and fought hard to break away.Some of the more vulgar generalizations against Irish people are characterizationsof them as quick-tempered brawlers and alcoholics. One 19th century Britishcartoonist even depicted Irish immigrants as simian and racially different fromAnglo-Saxons. One American doctor in the 1850s, James Redfield, argued that"facial angle" was a sign of intelligence and character; likening the physiognomiesof human ethnic groups to animals. Thus Irishmen resembled dogs, Yankees werelike bears, Germans like lions, blacks like elephants and Englishmen like bulls. Inthe 20th century physical stereotypes survived in the comic books until the 1950s,with Irish characters like Mutt and Jeff, and Jiggs and Maggie appearing daily inhundreds of newspapers.Middle Eastern, West and Central Asian stereotypesJewish stereotypes
Antisemitic caricature based on racial stereotypes, 1873Jewish people have been stereotyped throughout the centuries and madescapegoats for a multitude of societal problems. Jews are still stereotyped asgreedy, nit-picky, misers. They have often been shown counting money orcollecting diamonds. Antisemitism prevailed for centuries and reached a climax inNazi Germany during World War II with the Holocaust.Early films such as Cohens Advertising Scheme (1904, silent) stereotyped Jews as"scheming merchants."Sexual stereotypes The British biologist, Angus John Bateman was the one who first talked about sexual stereotypes in the late 1940s. His theory would say that males are promiscuous and females tend to be more selective when choosing their sexual partners. Although Batemans principle was based on experiments made of fruitflies, later on he concluded that the theory applies also in the case of humans. His ideas also were based on the fact that males presented an "undiscriminating eagerness" to mate while females display Prejudices and biases
A prejudice is a prejudgment, an assumption made about someone or something before having adequate knowledge to be able to do so with guaranteed accuracy. The word prejudice is most commonly used to refer to a preconceived judgment toward a people or a person because of their personal characteristics. It also means beliefs without knowledge of the facts and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence. More often, speaking about prejudices, mean the representations divided by enough quantity of people. It can be elements of the existing or already disappeared religious beliefs circulating in mass consciousness (any superstition), out-of-date scientific hypotheses («the Atom cannot be split», «Weight and energy — independent physical sizes»), a consequence of action of propagation («in the West only and think, as though to enslave Russia», or «The main target of the Western countries is Islamic world»), advertizing (high prices mean high quality), cultural stamps («all Russian — drunkards and slovens», «all Germans — punctual and adhered to the law», «all Englishmen — cold and prudish», «all Americans fat and are mad about money»). A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices. William James Prejudices can be:• Racial• Religious
• Gender• Age In each phase of development of an organism and the person of the individual there are features which are perceived by himself and by others as inferiority signs. Judgment of adults that «all children are unreasonable» (as many children believe that fantastic heroes or, for example, Santa Claus and etc., exist actually). Opinion adult and elderly that «all young — are irresponsible» Opinion young that all «old are not suitable» for active vital activity (sports, physical activities). Racial prejudices Racial prejudice is an insidious moral and social disease affecting peoples and populations all over the world. It is diagnosed by the cataloguing of its various symptoms and manifestations which include fear, intolerance, separation, segregation, discrimination, and hatred. While all of these symptoms of racial prejudice may be manifest, the single underlying cause of racial prejudice is ignorance. Historically, a race of people is defined as a population with distinguishable biological features. When we don’t know an individual well, we consciously or unconsciously begin to characterize him or her based on what we see. Again, this is due to our ignorance of the person’s real character and personality. We will form opinions, often based along stereotypical lines: “all people of such and such race are. . .” We can fill in the blanks with such expectations that certain races are intellectually superior, others are full of avarice, another is more artistically or athletically inclined, still another has members who are apt to be dishonest, etc, etc… Gender prejudice
Gender prejudices the prejudices, concerning a gender, according to numerous researches one of the most widespread in the world. Gender prejudice had long been woven into the fabric of most societies. It was driven by a universal belief that women were the weaker of the sexes emotionally as well as physically and must be protected from the world outside the home. Normally, males were expected to be the provider and dominated in family matters, particularly those relating to the outside world in commerce and politics. Religious prejudices Religious prejudices or Religious intolerance is the intolerance of anothers religious beliefs or practices. The mere statement on the part of a religion group that its own beliefs and practices are correct and any contrary beliefs incorrect does not in itself constitute intolerance (i.e., ideological intolerance). There are many cases throughout history of established religions tolerating other practices. Religious prejudice, rather, is when a group (e.g., a society, religious group, non-religious group) specifically refuses to tolerate practices, persons or beliefs on religious grounds (i.e., intolerance in practice). Problems of BiasSince most sociological knowledge is based on the study of samplesfrom some larger universe of items, the possibilities of major errors fromsampling bias constitute a methodological issue. Where biases cannot becontrolled, the direction and extent may sometimes be estimated, butelimination of biases through use of quotas--or, when possible, randommethods--yields the best results.This can be done, for example, by first randomly selecting a number ofdefinable regions and metropolitan areas, then selecting randomly fromeach such area certain urban blocks and rural segments, then furtherselecting from these segments certain dwelling units, and finallyselecting from the dwelling units the specific persons to constitute thesample.In every stage of the process of discovery in sociology there arepossibilities of error, and recognition of these is a part of the progress of
sociological methodology. There is continuous creation of technicaldevices to reduce such errors and to estimate the amount of error thathas not been eliminated.The social groupsHumans are social creatures. Even those who think of themselves asloners participate in many groups, and for most of us, groups are amajor source of satisfaction. You may eat with a particular group offriends every day, belong to a drama club, or play tennis every weekwith your gym class. You probably depend on social groups, socialorganizations, and social systems for most of your psychological andphysical needs. Research indicates that we are influenced not only bythe groups we currently belong to and those we identify with but alsoby those we associated with in the past. In fact life without groupsseems impossible. Without group involvement, infants die, adolescentsget depressed, middle – aged people suffer psychologically, and theelderly get lonely and lose their will to live. We learn eat, work andworship in groups and deprivation of group involvement is damaging.To better understand groups we ask, What do sociologists mean whenthey use the word group? The main definition. A group is a number of people who havesomething in common.Types of social groups.Social groups vary widely in their size, purpose, and structure. Some areshort – lived, such as a group that gathers at the scene of an accident,whereas others last a lifetime, such as family group.
Membership in one type does not preclude membership on othertypes; in fact it is not unusual for a single group to fall into severaldifferent categories.Primary and secondary groups.Primary groups. The main definition. Primary groups are small andinformal and emphasize interpersonal cohesion and personalinvolvement. This category includes such groups as the family and theplay groups which are the most important in shaping the humanpersonality ( Charles H. Cooley 1909) Primary groups involve intimateface – to – face association and interaction, and their members have asense of “we – ness” involving mutual identification and sharedfeelings. Their members tend to be emotionally attached to oneanother and involved with other group members as a whole people,not just with those aspects of a person that pertain to work, school orsome other isolated part of one’s life. Your family, close friends, andsome neighbors and work associates are likely to be your primarygroup. A secondary group is a group whose members interact in animpersonal manner, have few emotional ties, and come together for aspecific practical purpose. Like primary groups, they may be small andmay involve face – to – face contacts and cordial or friendlyinteractions. However, they are more formal than primary groupinteractions. Sociologically they are just as important. Most of our timeis spent in secondary groups – committees, professional groups,classroom – groups or neighborhood – groups. The key differencebetween primary and secondary groups is in the quality of therelationships and the extent of personal intimacy and involvement.
Primary groups are person – oriented, whereas secondary groups tendto be goal – oriented. In – Groups and Out - GroupsAn in – group is a social category to which persons feel they belongand in which the members have a consciousness or awareness of kind.They feel that they share a common fate, adhere to a commonideology, come from a common background, or otherwise resemble theother members. In groups may be primary groups but are notnecessarily. We can feel “in” with people we have never met or shared personalintimacies with – members of our alumni group, religious group, orveterans group, Buddhists, or Vietnam veterans may experiencefeelings of comradeship or a sense of togetherness. Conversely, an out – group is one to which people feel they do notbelong. We do not identify or affiliate ourselves with members of out –groups, and we feel little allegiance to them. Peer groups. Peer groups is an informal primary group of people who share asimilar status and who usually are of similar age. The unique factor inper groups is equality. Although peer groups are most often discussedin connection with young people, they are found in all age groups. Mostfriendships, regardless of the friends’ age, share the characteristics of apeer group: they are informal, primary relationships, and theparticipants are of equal rank and often of the same sex.Reference groups
Reference groups are the groups we identify with psychologically. Theyserve as sources of self – evaluation and influence how we think andact and what we believe. People need not belong to a group for it to bea reference group for them; groups we aspire to belong to may also bea reference group. Negative reference group, those we don’t want tobe identify with, also serve as sources of self – evaluation. A personmight for example, try to avoid resembling members of a groupcomposed of intellectuals or of football players. Most attention is focused on positive reference groups. These are theones we want to be accepted by. Thus, if you want to be an executive,you must carefully observe and imitate the behavior of executives. Ifyou note that they play golf, wear conservative clothes, and read TheWall Street Journal, you might do the same. Reference groups are an important source of information about ourperformance in a given area. Just as cultures tend to asses themselveson the basis of their own standards individuals assess themselves inaccordance with the standards of their reference group. Reference groups serve not only as sources of current evaluation butalso as sources of aspiration and goal attainment. A person whochooses to become a football player, a lawyer , or a teacher begins toidentify with that group and is socialized to have particular goals andexpectations associated with that group. A knowledge of people’s reference groups can sometimes help usunderstand why they behave as they do. It may explain why a teenagerwho never smokes or drinks at home will do so with a school group, orwhy politicians may vary their stances on an issue, depending on theaudiences they are addressing.Small groups and large groups.
Social networksOne daily basis each of us is involved in numerous groups of the typesjust described: primary, secondary, large, small, peer, reference, and soforth. Through these groups we develop linkage or ties to a total set ofrelationships: a social network. Social networks link people. Think forexample, of your social network. It probably includes your family, yourfriends, your neighbors, classmates, members of social clubs, peopleyou work with, and others. Social networks do not just happen. Over time we build and establishties to others, some strong, some weak. Strong ties may becharacterized by emotional involvement and are sustained in a varietyof ways, including calls, visits, letters, cards, attendance at particularevents, and as suggested by Cheal (1988) – through gifts. Results fromintensive interviews led Cheal to suggest that people use gifts toreinforce relationships already in existence. Strong ties were based onnumerous small gifts rather than large expensive ones. Unlike networks just described, many of our social networks includelinkages with people with whom we have little in common and onlyoccasional contact. These may be people whom we only know of orwho only know of us. These ,,weak” ties, however can be extremelyimportant in getting a job or a ,,good deal” on a purchase. Perhaps thiscan be illustrated by the frequently heard phrase, “whom you know isas important as what you know”. This is social networking. Nan Lin and others found that 60 percent of about 400 men in anurban area had used networks to find a job. As you might expect, socialnetwork linkages were not found to be equal for everyone. Lin foundthat men who had fathers with important occupational positionsgained the most from networking. The ,,old boy” network seems to be
effective in perpetuating social privileges to those who already holdpositions of higher rank and prestige. There is little question of the importance of social networks. Women,for example, whose networks include more relatives than those ofmen, are paying increasing attention to building networks in the worldof work. Many professional women, for example, are finding support intheir ties with other women that they find lacking in settings wheremen both outnumber and overpower them. Social networks do make adifference in professional advancement, as well as in developing asense of self – worth and integration into the society and culture ofwhich we are a part.Stratification. The social structureThe social stratification is division of society into layers or strata whose occupantshave unequal access to sosial opportunities or rewards. The social stratification isbased on Hierarchy Inequality – the unequal distribution of scarce goods or resources isfound in most societies. Some goods and resources are hard to come byin every society. In some countries meat is scarce; in others it isplentiful.
Land is a scarce resources in some areas; in others it’s so plentiful thatno one bothers to claim ownership. In countries where there not enoughworkers, children become a valuable resource. Some commodities areuniversally scarce; for example, mansions andluxury cars arescarce commodity in every society. Of cource, people differ in other ways as well. Some people travel intheir work, and others prefer to work ar a desk. Some people like towork with people , and others prefer solitary work. This is sosialdifferentiation – how people vary according to their sosialcharacteristic. Usually we do not rank people as high or low based onthese differencies. Rather , people are ranked accordin to the scarce resources theycontrol. Money and property are two types of scarce resources. Otherscarce resources are social status or prestige in the community. Theranking of people according their wealth and prestige is known as sosialstratification.Type of system The base of differentiation The method to define differences The natural features: gender, Physical forcing,Physical - genetic age, physical tradition Rights of citizenship andSlave- ownership Military forcing property Religious and ethnic. Caste system Religious rituals Labour division Estate system Obligations before state JudicialEthacratic power The military political The ranks in a state power(the state power) power Class system The amount of property Market excange Social - Type of profesion and Education sertificate professional competency
Cultural - Spiritual regulation and Way of life normative imitation ManipulationCultural symbolic Sacred aquisition (religious, technocratic, ideologic)Types of stratification. There are two types of stratification: caste and class. In a caste systemeverything is given to a person from his birth by belonging to a definite caste. In a class system human’s status depends on his belonging to a definite class. Butthe diggerrence is that it’s possible to change somebody’s class in class system. For example in 18 – th century in Russia, in time of Peter the First reigningpeople from different classes were able to buy a noble title Social status.Social status, according to Weber, is the amount of honor and prestige a personreceives from others in the community. Prestige is acquired by being born into ahighly respected family, living in a high status neighborhood, attendingprestigious schools, or joining high status groups or clubs. People also gainprestige by being able to buy consumer goods that others admire, such asexpensive houses, yachts, or airplanes. Status can also be acquired by holdingrespected positions in the community, such as clergy or professors. In short, statusis acquired by doing things and buying things that others admire. Thus, people’sstatus is very closely related to their wealth. Some people use their wealth to buystatus while other wealth people are content to live quietly, relatively unknown inthe community. Theories of social stratification.Why are societies stratified? How is that some people have more of the scarceresources society has to offer? This question was widely debated by earlysociologists. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Spenser believed that superior peoplewould educate themselves and become leaders, whereas inferior people wouldremain in the bottom ranks of society. Society, he said, developed through anevolutionary process, and those who profited from natural selection - ,,survival ofthe fittest” – come out on top. This process of natural selection was good for socialprogress, he agued, and society should not interfere with it. Conflict theory
The opposing view was formulated by Marx, who argued that stratificationwould eventually cause revolution. The upper class in industrial society hired theproletariat to work in their factories, exploited them for profit, and drove them intopoverty. As the proletariat become poorer, Marx contended, they would becomeaware of their plight (acınacaqlı vəziyyət ) and would revolt. The theories of theseearly writers have had a strong influence on modern theories of stratification;structural functionalism and others. Structural Functional TheoryStructural functionalists have refined Spenser’s notion that society, like any otherorganism, is self – regulating and self – maintaining. It consists of interrelatedparts that serve a function in maintaining a system as a whole. When they recognized that stratification was a persistent force in society, theyargued that it must be serving some function. They hypothesized that becausemodern society is so complex, people with strong leadership skills are need toorganize and run the complexes and industries. People with strong leadershipabilities need advanced training and must be willing to work very hard and assumea great deal of responsibility. Society must encourage these efforts by rewardingleaders with wealth and status scarce resources that in turn can be used to gain apower.The well – known chief manager of Hewlett – Packard company saidonce: ,,Work as a slave, create as the God, and rule as a king!”
Today the status of artists, actors, singers, sportsmen is In terms of significantly increased. Very often their earnings exceed theinherent worth as salary of some business owners. It is enough to remembera human being, the status of prominent artists as Salvador Dali, andDavis and Moore othersmusic, sport and movie stars(1945)acknowledged that . INCLUDEPICTUREan artist or a "http://0.tqn.com/d/gonyc/1/0/Y/F/moma-18.JPG" *teacher might beequal to corporateexecutive. The talents ofartists andteachers, however,are not as scarce MERGEFORMATINETand therefore notas valuable to the INCLUDEPICTUREsociety, according "http://0.tqn.com/d/arthistory/1/G/Q/i/dali_pmto Davis and a_05_06.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINETMoore. Thus,corporateexecutives whohave the talent tolead business andindustry are morehighly rewarded,not because theyare making greater INCLUDEPICTURE "http://0.tqn.com/d/movies/contribution to the 1/G/_/L/O/jolieshepherd1.jpg" *functioning ofsociety. This theoreticalperspectivepermits a belief inhuman equality atthe same time that MERGEFORMATINETit explains INCLUDEPICTURE "http://0.tqn.com/d/movies/inequality. If 1/G/l/5/N/cageghostcon1.jpg" *society had an MERGEFORMATINET
equal need for all types of work, then all its members would be equal in thestratification system.The social institutes. FamilyThe institution of family is a basic unit in the society, and the multifacetedfunctions performed by it makes it a much-needed institution in a society. Some ofthe important functions performed by the family include, reproduction of newmembers and socializing them, and provision of emotional and physical care forolder persons and young. Family in fact, is an institution which resolves or eases alarge number of social problems.The term family had been defined by various sociologists and anthropologists.Murdock (1949), after studying over 250 multi-cultural societies defines family asa “social group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation andreproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain asocially approved sexual relationship and one or more children - own or adopted -of the sexually cohabiting adults. The “household” is said to be the “livingarrangement” of such a family unit.Haralombos and Herald (1997), define family as a procedure for socialization,economic activity and sexual activities that consists of two persons of oppositegenders who will indulge in sexual activity at least for the sake of pleasure andwould also consist of children and a group of decedents. Most definitions refer tofamily as a universal social institution, which is constituted of persons directlylinked by “kin” connection where the adult members, assume the responsibility ofcaring for the children (Marsh et al., 1996).Interconnectedness of individuals in family relationships through bonds ofaffection and/or obligation leads to joint decision making, budget – pooling,cooperative work roles and altruistic parenting within a framework of culturallyaccepted notions about the division of rights and responsibilities by sex andgenerational position (UN,1996).There are two main family types introduced by the sociologists. One is the nuclearfamily, which consists of two elders and their children. It is often referred to as the“immediate family”. Extended family is the other type. It consists of an old systemof family performances with the close connections of two or three generations ofrelations, such as grand parents, husbands of sisters and wives of brothers, aunts,uncles, nieces and nephews (Bilton et. al., 1996; Giddens, 1993).Irrespective of the size of family, the institution of family can again be seen intwo mutually exclusive categories, namely the family of orientation and the familyof procreation. The family into which a person is born can be referred to as thefamily of orientation and the family of procreation is constructed by the adultindividual who creates a family as he or she becomes an adult. In sociology, familysystems arecategorized by residence of the couple who formulate the family unit.For example, if a married couple moves to live with the parents of the bride or of
her house with close proximity to her kin, such family is recognized as a matrilocalfamily, while the inverse of this model is identified as the patrilocal family(Giddens, 1993).An accelerated creation of nuclear families occurred with the process ofindustrialization when large scale migration from rural to urban areas occurredlargely among young adults who left the remote villages and the extended familysystem, seekingemployment in urban centres, thus blurring their memory of extended family. Dueto large scale occupational mobility of younger generations and the associatederosion of the extended family system, a host of new social problems and disordersemerged, paving the way for long term demographic implications, such asdeclining fertility as demonstrated by low birth rates in urban areas and increasedage at marriage for both sexes. Thus the structure and functions of a nuclear familyhad a different form when compared to the extended family. According to Adoms(1986), as families move from being extended to being more isolated, nuclear andprivatized the relationship between wives and husbands tend to become moreegalitarian, with both partners working and sharing household tasks.Such a family is defined as “the symmetrical family” (Marsh, et al., 1996).NEW TRENDS AFFECTING FAMILIESSocial changes together with reorientation of social values and increasedparticipation of women in production of economic goods and services promotedfunctional and structural changes in the institution of the family. New patterns ofmarriages emerged superseding arranged marriages. A tendency on the part ofyounger generations, to overlook the consent of the “procreated” family forconduct of sexual behaviour; divorce and remarriage gained ground in mostcountries, especially in the Western World. Children born out of wedlock became acommon phenomenon. Cohabitation became popular among the young generations(De Silva, 1998). Some of them tended to think of such sexual behaviour as somekind of pre-marriage experiment. As much as in Western European countries, thisphenomenon is visible in Asian countries too (De Silva, 1998). This situation posesa strong potential to change the attitudes, particularly of the younger generation,who experience and experiment with the changes, causing a pattern of delayedmarriage. A resultant outcome is the decline in birth rate. Another issue arising outof such situations is the absence of a legal heir for property if one of the partnersmet with an accident. Overall increases in divorces almost in every region of theworld from the 1960’s is another important development in the demographicsphere. Two major reasons can be identified for this trend. New legislation hadbeen enacted making the procedures associated with the act of divorce easier, tomeet the newly emerging economic and development needs. The attitudes towardswomen and the social status of women underwent a change. Comprehension andconceptualization of gender equity and gender based discussions occurred duringthe period. Economic empowerment of women through employment tended toloosen their bonds to the patriarchal family and gave them the taste of economic
independence. Women experienced a greater confidence to discontinue a badrelationship with a married partner.Increases in divorce rates imply that the number of single parent families alsoincreases. This situation severely affects the socio-economic conditions of familieswith children which means that security, education and welfare of these childrenwould hardly be met. Most frequently single parent families are headed by women.Another new trend is the increasing number of childless families, improvement insocial status of women from about 1970’s, partly as a result of increased access tohigher education and the labour force have changed fundamentally family roles.Newly married couples have greater choice, thanks to the availability of variouscontraceptive methods, to have fewer children, or to delay child birth until theyhave their careers well established.As the number of children in families decrease the proportion of older familymembers increases. With this increase, the structure and functions attributed tovarious members of the family under go changes. Such a process places a burdenon the wider society in the form of need for provision of welfare services for olderpersons, and the need for provision of more capital. Generally the family as asocial institution provides lifetime emotional, social, economic and health supportfor each of its members.Therefore, the family has two different aspects in relation to the process ofpopulation ageing. First the family itself undergoes a transformation as a result ofdemographic changes, which are part of the ageing process. Second, the familyserves as a buffer lessening the social and economic impact of population ageingon its members (UN,1994).Another thing is that the ‘new’ family life became much more home centered invarious senses. The house had become a more pleasant place and people now hadincreased means with which to make themselves comfortable. Intra familyrelationship within the wider kin group were becoming less significant and thenuclear family household increased its importance. More and more home centricmen and women could be identified in a significant way.There is a need to identify various problems that emerged due to the changes infunctions and the structure of the family unit. Reduction of emotional and physicalsupport by the family would directly affect the personality development of childrenand their health.There are unmet needs of social security provisions and care for older persons,which result in additional social costs at macro-levels. These are key issues in thepolicy making process particularly in developing nations. There is a need forpolicy-making, taking in to consideration the needs of the family at the grass rootlevel, which would be different from a “top down” approach, but tending towards a“bottom up” technique of planning and the recognition of sociological aspects offamily life in policy makingWhat is the socialization process?
Socialization is the process by which children and adultslearn from others. We begin learning from others during theearly days of life; and most people continue their social learningall through life (unless some mental or physical disability slowsor stops the learning process). Sometimes the learning is fun, aswhen we learn a new sport, art or musical technique from afriend we like. At other times, social learning is painful, as whenwe learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine forspeeding. Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngstersexplore, play and discover the social world around them.Planned socialization occurs when other people take actionsdesigned to teach or train others -- from infancy on. Naturalsocialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almostany mammalian species (and some birds). Planned socializationis mostly a human phenomenon; and all through history, peoplehave been making plans for teaching or training others. Bothnatural and planned socialization can have good and badfeatures: It is wise to learn the best features of both natural andplanned socialization and weave them into our lives. Positive socialization is the type of social learning that isbased on pleasurable and exciting experiences. We tend to likethe people who fill our social learning processes with positivemotivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities. Negativesocialization occurs when others use punishment, harshcriticisms or anger to try to "teach us a lesson;" and often wecome to dislike both negative socialization and the people whoimpose it on us. There are all types of mixes of positive and negativesocialization; and the more positive social learning experienceswe have, the happier we tend to be - especially if we learn usefulinformation that helps us cope well with the challenges of life. A
high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make aperson unhappy, defeated or pessimistic about life. One of thegoals of Soc 142 is to show people how to increase the ratio ofpositive to negative in the socialization they receive from others-- and that they give to others. [Some people will defendnegative socialization, since painful training can prepare peopleto be ready to fight and die in battle, put themselves at great riskin order to save others, and endure torture and hardship. This istrue; but many people receive far more negative socializationthan they need, and hopefully fewer and fewer people will needto be trained for battle, torture and hardship.] Positive socialization, coupled with valuable informationabout life and the skills needed to live well, can be a powerfultool for promoting human development. We all have anenormous human potential, and we all could develop a largeportion of it if we had the encouragement that comes frompositive socialization and the wisdom that comes from valuableinformation about living. Information about both natural andplanned socialization can be especially useful. Our prior socialization helps explain a gigantic chunk -(hisse, parcha) of who we are at present -- what we think andfeel, where we plan to go in life. But we are not limited by thethings given to us by our prior social learning experiences; wecan take all our remaining days and steer our future sociallearning in directions that we value. The more that we knowabout the socialization process, the more effective we can be indirecting our future learning in the ways that will help us most. Because we were not able to select our parents, we werenot able to control much of the first 10 or 20 years of oursocialization. However, most people learn to influence their ownsocialization as they gain experience in life. It takes specialskills to steer and direct our own socialization, and many of uspick up some of those skills naturally as we go through life.
Having a course on socialization can help us understand whichskills are most effective in guiding our socialization toward thegoals we most value. It is important to know that we all come into life with avariety of psychology systems that foster self-actualization andfavor the development of our human potential. These are thebiosocial mechanisms that underlie natural socialization. We cansee and study natural socialization by examining thesocialization of primates and other mammals. Once we underthe natural biosocial processes, we can try to build strategies ofself-actualization that are compatible with the natural biosocialmechanisms we are born with to make self-development as easyand rewarding as possible. The study of behavior principles in everyday life is crucialto this, and that is why John and Janice Baldwin wrote a bookwith that name. If we understand the ways to create positivesocialization experiences, we can take our human potential anddevelop the happy and creative sides of that potential. If we hadtoo much negative socialization in the past and have learned tobe too sad or inhibited, knowledge about positive socializationcan help minimize some of the pain and allow us to build towarda more positive and creative future.TheoriesSocialization is the primary means by which human infants begin toacquire the skills necessary to perform as a functioning member of theirsociety, and is the most influential learning processes one canexperience. Although cultural variability is manifest in the actions,customs, and behaviors of whole social groups (societies), the mostfundamental expression of culture is found at the individual level. Thisexpression can only occur after an individual has been socialized by its
parents, family, extended family and extended social networks. Thisreflexive process of both learning and teaching is the how cultural andsocial characteristics attain continuity.Clausen claims that theories of socialization are to be found in Plato,Montaigne and Rousseau and he identifies a dictionary entry from 1828that defines socialize as to render social, to make fit for living insociety (1968: 20-1). However it was the response to a translation of apaper by Georg Simmel that the concept was incorporated into variousbranches of psychology and anthropology (1968: 31-52).In the middle of the 20th century, socialization was a key idea in thedominant American functionalist tradition of sociology. Talcott Parsons(Parsons and Bales 1956) and a group of colleagues in the US developeda notion of socialization.TypesPrimary socialization Primary socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. For example if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group, then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups.Secondary socialization Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. It is usually associated with teenagers and adults, and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization. e.g. entering a new profession, relocating to a new environment or society.Developmental socialization Developmental socialization is the process of learning behavior in a social institution or developing your social skills.
Anticipatory (ilkin) socialization Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.Resocialization Resocialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life. This occurs throughout the human life cycle (Schaefer & Lamm, 1992: 113). Resocialization can be an intense experience, with the individual experiencing a sharp break with their past, and needing to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values. An example might be the experience of a young man or woman leaving home to join the military, or a religious convert internalizing the beliefs and rituals of a new faith. An extreme example would be the process by which a transsexual learns to function socially in a dramatically altered gender role.Organizational socialization Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learning the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role. As newcomers become socialized, they learn about the organization and its history, values, jargon, culture, and procedures. They also learn about their work group, the specific people they work with on a daily basis, their own role in the organization, the skills needed to do their job, and both formal procedures and informal norms. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.Agents/units of SocializationIn the social sciences, institutions are the structures and mechanisms ofsocial order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set ofindividuals within a given human collectivity. Institutions are identifiedwith a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual humanlives and intentions, and with the making and enforcing of rulesgoverning cooperative human behavior. Types of institution include:
• The Family • Religion • Education • Economic systems • Legal systems • Penal systems • Psychiatric hospitals and Asylums • Mass media and News media • Organizations Art and Culture • LanguageMedia and socializationTheorists like Parsons and textbook writers like Ely Chinoy (1960) andHarry M. Johnson (1961) recognized that socialization didn’t stop whenchildhood ends. They realized that socialization continued in adulthood,but they treated it as a form of specialized education. Johnson (1961),for example, wrote about the importance of inculcating members of theUS Coastguard with a set of values to do with responding to commandsand acting in unison without question.Later scholars accused these theorists of socialization of not recognizingthe importance of the mass media which, by the middle of the twentiethcentury were becoming more significant as a social force. There wasconcern about the link between television and the education andsocialization of children – it continues today – but when it came toadults, the mass media were regarded merely as sources of informationand entertainment rather than moulders of personality. According totheseSome sociologists and theorists of culture have recognized the power ofmass communication as a socialization device. Dennis McQuailrecognizes the argument:… the media can teach norms and values by way of symbolic rewardand punishment for different kinds of behaviour as represented in themedia. An alternative view is that it is a learning process whereby we alllearn how to behave in certain situations and the expectations which gowith a given role or status in society. Thus the media are continually
offering pictures of life and models of behaviour in advance of actualexperience.—McQuail 2005: 494)Gender socialization and gender rolesHenslin (1999:76) contends that "an important part of socialization is thelearning of culturally defined gender roles." Gender socialization refersto the learning of behavior and attitudes considered appropriate for agiven sex. Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls. This"learning" happens by way of many different agents of socialization.The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender roles, but so areone’s friends, school, work and the mass media. Gender roles arereinforced through "countless subtle and not so subtle ways" (1999:76).ResocializationRacial SocializationRacial socialization has been defined as "the developmental processesby which children acquire the behaviors, perceptions, values, andattitudes of an ethnic group, and come to see themselves and others asmembers of the group". The existing literature conceptualizes racialsocialization as having multiple dimensions. Researchers have identifiedfive dimensions that commonly appear in the racial socializationliterature: cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion ofmistrust, egalitarianism, and other. Cultural socialization refers toparenting practices that teach children about their racial history orheritage and is sometimes referred to as pride development. Preparationfor bias refers to parenting practices focused on preparing children to beaware of, and cope with, discrimination. Promotion of mistrust refers tothe parenting practices of socializing children to be wary of people fromother races. Egalitarianism (bərabərlik ideyası) refers to socializingchildren with the belief that all people are equal and should be treatedwith a common humanity.Other usesTo "socialise" may also mean simply to associate or mingle with peoplesocially. In American English, "socialized" has mistakenly come torefer, usually in a pejorative ( alçaldıcı) sense, to the ownership structure
of socialism or to the expansion of the welfare state. Traditionally,socialists and Marxists both used the term "socialization of industry" torefer to the reorganization of institutions so that the workers are allowners (cooperatives) and to refer to the implementation of workplacedemocracy.What is Deviation?Sociologists reserve the term deviance for violations of social norms thatoffend a large number of people in a position to influence socialjudgments. For example most people occasionally tell “ a white lie” when theywant to get out of a social engagement ( saying “I ‘ve got a cold” or “Iforgot I had other plans”) Other unconventional behavior is dismissed astrivial, eccentric, bohemian, accidental, and harmless.For example, many North Americans consider vegetarians a little odd,but do not condemn them as crazy or criminal.Deviance is any act that upsets social expectations, elicits socialdisapproval, and causes people to exclaim “ Something must be done!” The Absolutist and Moral Views.One common traditional view of deviance, often found in political andreligious context, is that deviance is both absolute and immoral. Thatis by their opinion extramarital sexual relations, homosexuality,criminal acts, dishonesty, use of drugs. The Medical and Social – Pathological Views.By medical view deviance is assumed to be essentially pathological,evidence that deviants are sick people and that society is unhealthy. Just
as healthy humans function efficiently without pain or need for drugs orcriminal activities, healthy societies are thought to function smoothlywithout social problems such as deviance. The prevalence of childabuse, rape, robbery, mental disorders, alcoholism, drug – addiction arethought to indicate that society is sick, and people who do these thingsneed to be cured. Like the absolutist and moral view, the medical viewassumes that people are either deviant or not – there is no gray area – butthis polarity is expressed in terms of health or illness, not good or evil. The Statistical View.According to statistical view, any variation from a statistical norm isdeviant. Thus a person who is left – handed, who has red hair, or belongto minority group is defined as deviant. Everyone fails to conform to theaverage in some respect, however, so according to this definition , weare all deviant. The Relative View.The relative view suggests that deviance can be interpreted only insociocultural context in which it happens. Is a person who is 7 feel tall adeviant in the context of professional basketball? Is a person without abathing suit a deviant at a nudist beach? Is taking opiate drugs to treatexcruciating pain deviant? Is killing deviant in the context of war?Context influences all these determinations. A behavior considered sick in one society could be thought of ashealthy in a different society. Deviance does not consist merely of actsor behaviors, but of group responses, definitions, and meanings attachedto behaviors, and we therefore can expect definitions of deviance to varywith differing circumstances. Some of the most important variations thataffect these definitions concern time, place, situation, and social status.
CriminalityCrime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms –cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behavenormally. Criminality and physical violence often go hand in hand.Changes in social, political, psychological, and economicconditions may affect person and be the reason of his behavior.Causes of Criminality:So what are the causes of criminality. Psychologist, Sociologists,and even Governments and Rulers have been concerned with thisquestion since ancient times.Efforts to control "bad" behavior go back to ancient BabylonsCode of Hammurabi some 3,700 years ago. By the twenty-firstcentury criminologists looked to a wide range of factors to explainwhy a person would commit crimes. These included biological,psychological, social, and economic.Usually a combination of these factors is behind a person whocommits a crime.Parental relations may also be the reason for criminality. A"cycle of violence" is where people who grow up with abuse orantisocial behavior in the home will be much more likely tomistreat their own children, who in turn will often follow the samepattern.Heredity and brain activitySearching for the origins of antisocial personality disorders andtheir influence over crime led to studies of twins and adoptedchildren in the 1980s. Identical twins have the exact same geneticmakeup. Researchers found that identical twins were twice aslikely to have similar criminal behavior than fraternal twins whohave similar but not identical genes, just like any two siblings.
Other research indicated that adopted children had greater similarities of crime rates to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. These studies suggested a genetic basis for some criminal behaviorWhat is Euthanasia?Euthanasia – is a right for suicide. Last decades the debates aboutEuthanasia are becoming more and more actual. How to be if a patient who is hopelessly stuck to bed for many yes,without any move, whose life is a real torture asking you to liberate himfrom this suffering by switching off the aggregate supporting hismiserable life or giving him a poison? Some Religious people say that euthanasia and killing even with a purpose to relief pain is also against the God. Some Muslim people say that the pain they are feeling is sent from god and person have no right to kill himself in order to pacify the pain. Would it be assassination or an act of mercy?!!!This is so contradictive issue! Since 1937 assisted suicide has not been illegal in Switzerland as long as the person who assists has no personal motive or gain. In 1993, the Netherlands decriminalized, under a set of restricted conditions, voluntary positive euthanasia (essentially, physician- assisted suicide) for the terminally ill, and in 2002 the country legalized physician-assisted suicide if voluntarily requested by seriously ill patients who face ongoing suffering. Belgium has also legalized (2002) euthanasia for certain patients who have requested it.
There were created unforgettable movies like The English Patient(starring with brilliant actors Ralf Fiennes and Juliette Binoche) and TheSea Inside (starring with Xavier Barden) touching this problem. What do you think about it! Substantiate your opinion.The gender issues. Sex and gender differentiation. Sex – refers to biological characteristics, thegenetic, hormonal, and anatomical differences between males and females.Gender is a social status. It refers to social differences between the sexes,specifically to the cultural concepts of masculinity and femininity.Our culture traditionally defines masculinity to mean strong, competent, rational,and unemotional (is that true?). It defines femininity to be nurturant, caring, andable to deal with the emotional side of relationship. Gender roles refer to the behaviors that are expected of men and woman. Forexample, men are supposed to work hard to get ahead, run the nation’sindustries, make tough political and economic decisions, and, of course, earn aliving for their families. Women are expected to cook, clean, and care for their families, as well as earnadditional income if their families require it. But in nowadays these roles arechanging sometimes. Cross - Cultural Gender Differentiation.
In some cultures role of women is limited by their bio – difference. According bythe Holy Quran God gave men some superiority over women by nature. But insome other cultures the roles are shared equally. In society of New Guinea, for example the women are the workers. They do thefishing, weaving, planting, harvesting and cooking; all the while they are caring fortheir children. The men on the other hand are more involved in producing artsand crafts and in planning ceremonies. They tend to be more emotional than thewomen and also more responsive to the needs of others. Structural Functional Theory. Structural functionalists believe that society consists of interrelated parts, eachof which performs functions in maintaining the whole system. They assumeaccordingly, that women have traditionally made important contributions tosociety. They raised children, maintained the home, and provided food. Thetraditional function of the male was to play instrumental role of protecting andproviding for his wife and children. He was the head of the household, controllingwhere the family lived, how money was spent, and making other decisionsimportant to the survival of the family. He also made the political and economicdecisions in the community by serving in the powerful decision – makingpositions. Structural functional theorists believe that many traditional family functionshave moved from the family to other social institutions. Most families no longerfind support through work at home. Instead, work is more likely to take place inthe factory or office. Recreation has also moved away from the family and issponsored by little leagues, clubs and other organizations at recreation centers.Structural functionalists believe that because of changing of socializationpractices and changing belief about work, play, recreation, and other functions offamily, the complimentary roles of husbands and wives are changing to parallelroles, where their roles are similar. The change has been gradual but bothhusbands and wives are now likely to work outside the home, and both areincreasingly sharing household duties. Conflict theory.
A conflict theory of gender differentiation focuses on the power and authoritydiscrepancies. Between men and women. Conflict theorists believe that womenhave low status because they have been exploited by more powerful men. Veryearly in the development of horticultural (yığıcılıq) society’s military force wasused to protect land and other valuable private property and also to capturewomen from other tribes. Women were prized possession who could work fortheir captors to increase wealth, provide children who would grow into futureworkers, and increase the prestige of the men who owned them. Men neededchildren to look after property when they grew old and inherit it when they died.To know who his children were, a man needed to isolate his women from othermen. Thus, women became the protected property of men, so that men couldaccumulate wealth and have children to inherit it. According to this perspective,from earliest times women were exploited by men for the work they did and forthe children they bore and reared. The process industrialization removed work from the family, but, conflicttheorists argue, men were not willing to lose their control over the labor ofwomen. They either tried to keep women out of the work force entirely or usedthem as a surplus labor force, moving them in and out of the lowest paying jobsas the economy required. They passed laws regulating the kind of work thatwomen could do and the hours they could work. Men forbade women fromjoining unions and from entering professions. Legally and by tradition, theyprevented women from gaining high position in the work force. The existence of alabor force of poorly paid women meant that men who asked for higher wagescould easily be replaced by low – paid women. As can be seen, these two theories of gender differentiation lead sociologiststo diverse approaches in the study and understanding of the behavior and roles ofmen and women. According to a structural functional perspective, as industrialsociety develops, women should move into the work force and attain equalitywith men. According to a conflict perspective, as industrial society creates morewealth and power for men, men will use their wealth and power to improve theirown position, and women will lag farther and farther behind. The influence of culture.
Some people are thinking that there are some differencies in a way of wearingand decorations. But there are some exceptions as well. In many nations to insultthe males they are recommend to wear a skirt but fealess Scottish males are proudof skirt wearing. In XIX – XX centuries many Europeans and especiallyconservative Brittish coudn’t accept wearing of ear – rings and long plaits buttoday it considered to be as a normal. The labour division between the sexes plays quite conditional role somesociologists argue. Ina western society is thought that men fit for the hardestworks. But in the South of Sahara women are dragging the hard trees for bonfire,and they even constructing the houses. In some villages of Dagestan women are gathering for the collective constructionof house, while males are sitting in tea- house. In eastern and some werstern countries men are considered to be the best cookers.The most of phisicians in Russia are women. This list can be prolonged. Thestratification varies depending on culture! The exploitation of women. Some historians argue that women’s exploitation began in a Bronze Age. Even indemocracies of the Ancient Greece and Rome women were deprived of manyrights. Women could undergo to the death sentence for visiting the OlympicGames. In Azerbaijan the movement against the Arabian occupation called theKhurramites required the equiality between men and women. It’s unbelievable butthe Vikings who were famous of their cruelty and wildness included their womenin a Council consisting of 12 persons. In the beginning of XX century there appeared the movement for women’srights in US, called suffrage movement. They were fighting for voting right amongwomen. The suffrage movement activists became the heralds of feminizm.Feminizm – is a movement for women’s rights.
Some extremist feminists positions are not accepted even by Western women. Forexample extremist feminists arque that marriage is a real slavery for womenbecause their husbands are exploiting their wives. The feminist convinced thatwomen can have access to any of profession and must care of their childrenwithout males’ interference. One of the deep gender problems today is domestic violence when women arebeaten by their husbands or brothers. These facts are existing even in developedcountries of West. In Germany they set a number of facilities where females whoundergo to domestic violence can find a shelter.Economic sociologyEconomic sociology studies both the social effects and thesocial causes of various economic phenomena. The field can bebroadly divided into a classical period and a contemporary one.The classical period was concerned particularly with modernityand its constituent aspects (rationalization, secularization,urbanization, social stratification, and so on). As sociology aroseprimarily as a reaction to capitalist modernity, economics playsa role in much classic sociological enquiry. The specific term"economic sociology" was first coined by William StanleyJevons in 1879, later to be used in the works of ÉmileDurkheim, Max Weber and Georg Simmel between 1890 and1920. Webers work regarding the relationship betweeneconomics and religion and the cultural "disenchantment" of themodern West is perhaps most iconic of the approach set forth inthe classic period of economic sociology.The contemporary period of economic sociology, also known asnew economic sociology, was consolidated by the 1985 work ofMark Granovetter titled "Economic Action and Social Structure:The Problem of Embeddedness". This work elaborated theconcept of embeddedness, which states that economic relationsbetween individuals or firms take place within existing socialrelations (and are thus structured by these relations as well as the
greater social structures of which those relations are a part).Social network analysis has been the primary methodology forstudying this phenomenon. Granovetters theory of the strengthof weak ties and Ronald Burts concept of structural holes aretwo best known theoretical contributions of this field.• Classical economic sociologyEconomic sociology arose as a new approach to the analysis ofeconomic phenomena; emphasizing particularly the roleeconomic structures and institutions play upon society, and theinfluence a society holds over the nature of economic structuresand institutions. The relationship between capitalism andmodernity is a salient issue, perhaps best demonstrated inWebers The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism(1905) and Simmels The Philosophy of Money (1900).Economic sociology may be said to have begun withTocquevilles Democracy in America (1835–40) and The OldRegime and the Revolution (1856). Marxs historicalmaterialism would attempt to demonstrate how economic forcesinfluence the structure of society on a fundamental level. ÉmileDurkheims The Division of Labour in Society was published in1922, whilst Max Webers Economy and Society was released inthe same year. New economic sociologyContemporary economic sociology focuses particularly on thesocial consequences of economic exchanges, the socialmeanings they involve and the social interactions they facilitateor obstruct. Influential figures in modern economic sociologyinclude Fred L. Block, James S. Coleman, Mark Granovetter,Harrison White, Paul DiMaggio, Joel M. Podolny, RichardSwedberg and Viviana Zelizer in the United States, as well as
Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thévenot, or Jens Beckert in Europe. Tothis may be added Amitai Etzioni, who has popularised the ideaof socioeconomics, and Chuck Sabel, Wolfgang Streeck andMichael Mousseau who work in the tradition of politicaleconomy/sociology.The focus on mathematical analysis and utility maximizationduring the 20th century has led some to see economics as adiscipline moving away from its roots in the social sciences.Many critiques of economics or economic policy begin from theaccusation that abstract modeling is missing some key socialphenomenon that needs to be addressed.Economic sociology is an attempt by sociologists to redefine insociological terms questions traditionally addressed byeconomists. It is thus also an answer to attempts by economists(such as Gary Becker) to bring economic approaches - inparticular utility maximization and game theory - to the analysisof social situations that are not obviously related to productionor trade. Karl Polanyi, in his book The Great Transformation,was the first theorist to come up with the idea of the"embeddedness", meaning that the economy is "embedded"(keçmişdir) in social institutions which is vital so that the marketdoes not destroy other aspects of human life.Marxist sociologyModern Marxist thought has focused on the social implicationsof capitalism (or "commodity fetishism" - əmtəə sitayişi)) andeconomic development within the system of economic relationsthat produce them. Important theorists include Georg Lukács,Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, GuyDebord, Louis Althusser, Nicos Poulantzas, Ralph Miliband,Jürgen Habermas, Raymond Williams, Fredric Jameson,Antonio Negri, and Stuart Hall.
SocioeconomicsEconomic sociology is sometimes synonymous withsocioeconomics. In most cases, however, socioeconomists focuson the social impact of very specific economic changes, such asthe closing of a factory, market manipulation, new natural gasregulation, and so on. Industrial and organizational psychologyIndustrial and organizational psychology (also known as I–O psychology,industrial–organizational psychology, industrial psychology, work psychology,organizational psychology, or personnel psychology) is the scientific study ofemployees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrial–organizational psychologistscontribute to an organizations success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An I–O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviorsand attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, andfeedback systems. I–O psychology can also be viewed as the equivalent of theeconomics concept of human capital.An applied science, I–O psychology is represented by Division 14 of the AmericanPsychological Association, known formally as the Society for Industrial andOrganizational Psychology (SIOP).OverviewGuion (1965) defines I–O psychology as "the scientific study of the relationshipbetween man and the world of work: ... in the process of making a living" (p. 817).Blum & Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension ofpsychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beingsoperating within the context of business and industry" (p. 4). I–O psychology hashistorically subsumed two broad areas of study, as evident by its name, althoughthis distinction is largely artificial and many topics cut across both areas. It hasroots in social psychology; organizational psychologists examine the role of thework environment in performance and other outcomes including job satisfactionand health. Sometimes, I–O psychology is considered a sister field or branch oforganizational studies, organizational science, organizational behavior, humanresources, and/or management, but there is no universally accepted classificationsystem for these related fields.Common research and practice areas for I–O psychologists include:• Job performance
• Job analysis/competency modeling• Personnel recruitment and selection• Student/educational selection and assessment• Judgment and decision making• Performance appraisal/management• Individual assessment (knowledge, skills, and ability testing, personality assessment, work sample tests, assessment centers)• Psychometrics• Compensation• Training and training evaluation• Employment law• Work motivation• Job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship, and retaliation)• Occupational health and safety• Work/life balance• Human factors and decision making• Organizational culture/climate• Organizational surveys• Leadership and executive coaching• Ethics• Diversity• Job design• Human resources• Organizational development (OD)• Organizational Research Methods• Technology in the workplace• Group/team performanceI–O psychologists are trained in the "scientist-practitioner" model. The trainingenables I–O psychologists to employ scientific principles and research-baseddesigns to generate knowledge. They use what they have learned in appliedsettings to help clients address workplace needs. I–O psychologists are employedas professors, researchers, and consultants. They also work within organizations,often as part of a human resources department where they coordinate hiring andorganizational development initiatives from an evidence-based perspective.HistoryThe "industrial" side of I–O psychology has its historical origins in research onindividual differences, assessment, and the prediction of performance. This branchof the field crystallized during World War I, in response to the need to rapidlyassign new troops to duty stations. After the War, the growing industrial base inthe US added impetus to I–O psychology. Walter Dill Scott, who was electedPresident of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1919, was arguably
the most prominent I–O psychologist of his time, although James McKeen Cattell(elected APA President in 1895) and Hugo Münsterberg (1898) were influential inthe early development of the field. Organizational psychology gained prominenceafter World War II, influenced by the Hawthorne studies and the work ofresearchers such as Kurt Lewin and Muzafer Sherif.Research methodsAs described above, I–O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitionermodel. I–O psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizationalresearch. Study designs employed by I–O psychologists include surveys,experiments, quasi-experiments, and observational studies. I–O psychologists relyon diverse data sources including human judgments, historical databases, objectivemeasures of work performance (e.g., sales volume), and questionnaires andsurveys.I–O researchers employ both quantitative and qualitative research methods.Quantitative methods used in I–O psychology include both descriptive statisticsand inferential statistics (e.g., correlation, multiple regression, and analysis ofvariance). More advanced statistical methods employed by some I–O psychologistsinclude logistic regression, multivariate analysis of variance, structural equationmodeling, and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM; also known as multilevelmodeling). HLM is particularly applicable to research on team- and organization-level effects on individuals. I–O psychologists also employ psychometric methodsincluding methods associated with classical test theory (CTT), generalizabilitytheory, and item response theory (IRT). In the 1990s, a growing body ofempirical research in I–O psychology was influential in the application of meta-analysis, particularly in the area of the stability of research findings acrosscontexts. The most well-known meta-analytic approaches are those associated withHunter & Schmidt, Rosenthal, and Hedges & Olkin. With the help of meta-analysis, Hunter & Schmidt advanced the idea of validity generalization, whichsuggests that some performance predictors, specifically cognitive ability tests (seeespecially Hunter  and Hunter & Schmidt ) have a relatively stableand positive relation to job performance across all jobs. Although notunchallenged, validity generalization has broad acceptance with regard to manyselection instruments (e.g. cognitive ability tests, job knowledge tests, worksamples, and structured interviews) across a broad range of jobs.Qualitative methods employed in I–O psychology include content analysis, focusgroups, interviews, case studies, and several other observational techniques. I–Oresearch on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniquesand participant observation to collect data. One well-known qualitative techniqueemployed in I–O psychology is John Flanagans Critical Incident Technique,which requires "qualified observers" (e.g., pilots in studies of aviation,construction workers in studies of construction projects) to describe a work
situation that resulted in a good or bad outcome. Objectivity is ensured whenmultiple observers identify the same incidents. The observers are also asked toprovide information about what the actor in the situation could have donedifferently to influence the outcome. This technique is then used to describe thecritical elements of performance in certain jobs and how worker behavior relates tooutcomes. Most notably, this technique has been employed to improveperformance among aircraft crews and surgical teams, literally saving thousands oflives since its introduction. An application of the technique in research on copingwith job stress comes from ODriscoll & Cooper.I–O psychologists sometimes use quantitative and qualitative methods in concert.For example, when constructing behaviorally-anchored rating scales (BARS), a jobanalyst may use qualitative methods, such as critical incidents interviews and focusgroups to collect data bearing on performance. Then the analyst would have SMEsrate those examples on a Likert scale and compute inter-rater agreement statisticsto judge the adequacy of each item. Each potential item would additionally becorrelated with an external criterion in order to evaluate its usefulness if it were tobe selected to be included in a BARS metric.Job analysisJob analysis is often described as the cornerstone of successful employee selectionefforts and performance management initiatives. A job analysis involves thesystematic collection of information about a job. Job-analytic methods are oftendescribed as belonging to one of two approaches. One approach, the task-orientedjob analysis, involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competenciesrequired by a job. The second approach, a worker-oriented job analysis, involvesan examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics(KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work. These two approaches are notmutually exclusive. Various adaptations of job-analytic methods includecompetency modeling, which examines large groups of duties and tasks related toa common goal or process, and practice analysis, which examines the way work isperformed in an occupation across jobs.Job-analytic data are often collected using a variety of quantitative and qualitativemethods. The information obtained from a job analysis is then used to create job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and criteria, or trainingprograms. Additional uses of job-analytic information include job evaluations forthe purpose of determining compensation levels and job redesign.Personnel recruitment and selectionI–O psychologists typically work with HR specialists to design (a) recruitmentprocesses and (b) personnel selection systems. Personnel recruitment is the processof identifying qualified candidates in the workforce and getting them to apply forjobs within an organization. Personnel recruitment processes include developing
job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, andscreening out unqualified applicants.Personnel selection is the systematic process of hiring and promoting personnel.Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine themost qualified candidates. Personnel selection involves both new hires andindividuals who can be promoted from within the organization. Common selectiontools include ability tests (e.g., cognitive, physical, or psychomotor), knowledgetests, personality tests, structured interviews, the systematic collection ofbiographical data, and work samples. I–O psychologists must evaluate evidenceregarding the extent to which selection tools predict job performance, evidence thatbears on the validity of selection tools.Personnel selection procedures are usually validated, i.e., shown to be job relevant,using one or more of the following types of validity: content validity, constructvalidity, and/or criterion-related validity. I–O psychologists adhere to professionalstandards, such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologys(SIOP) Principles for Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Proceduresand the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. The EqualEmployment Opportunity Commissions Uniform Guidelines are also influentialin guiding personnel selection although they have been criticized as outdated whencompared to the current state of knowledge in I–O psychology.I–O psychologists not only help in the selection and assessment of personnel forjobs, but also assist in the selection of students for admission to colleges,universities, and graduate and professional schools as well as the assessment ofstudent achievement, student aptitude, and the performance of teachers and K–12schools. Increasingly, I–O psychologists are working for educational assessmentand testing organizations and divisions.A meta-analysis of selection methods in personnel psychology found that generalmental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and trainingperformance.Performance appraisal/managementPerformance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process of measuring anindividuals work behaviors and outcomes against the expectations of the job.Performance appraisal is frequently used in promotion and compensationdecisions, to help design and validate personnel selection procedures, and forperformance management. Performance management is the process of providingperformance feedback relative to expectations and improvement information (e.g.,coaching, mentoring). Performance management may also include documentingand tracking performance information for organization-level evaluation purposes.
An I–O psychologist would typically use information from the job analysis todetermine a jobs performance dimensions, and then construct a rating scale todescribe each level of performance for the job. Often, the I–O psychologist wouldbe responsible for training organizational personnel how to use the performanceappraisal instrument, including ways to minimize bias when using the rating scale,and how to provide effective performance feedback. Additionally, the I–Opsychologist may consult with the organization on ways to use the performanceappraisal information for broader performance management initiatives.Individual assessment and psychometricsIndividual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. I–Opsychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differencesamong candidates for employment as well as differences among employees. Theconstructs measured pertain to job performance. With candidates for employment,individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. Theseassessments can include written tests, physical tests, psychomotor tests, personalitytests, work samples, and assessment centers.Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological variables, such asknowledge, skills, and abilities. I–O psychologists are generally well-trained inpsychometric psychology.Remuneration and compensationCompensation includes wages or salary, bonuses, pension/retirement contributions,and perquisites that can be converted to cash or replace living expenses. I–Opsychologists may be asked to conduct a job evaluation for the purpose ofdetermining compensation levels and ranges. I–O psychologists may also serve asexpert witnesses in pay discrimination cases when disparities in pay for similarwork are alleged.Training and training evaluationMost people hired for a job are not already versed in all the tasks required toperform the job effectively. Similar to performance management (see above), an I–O psychologist would employ a job analysis in concert with principles ofinstructional design to create an effective training program. A training program islikely to include a summative evaluation at its conclusion in order to ensure thattrainees have met the training objectives and can perform the target work tasks atan acceptable level. Training programs often include formative evaluations toassess the impact of the training as the training proceeds. Formative evaluationscan be used to locate problems in training procedures and help I–O psychologistsmake corrective adjustments while the training is ongoing.Motivation in the workplace
Understanding what motivates an organizations employees is central to the studyof I–O psychology. Motivation, at its core, can be defined as the energy a personputs toward work-related behaviors. While motivation can often be used as a toolto help predict behavior, it varies greatly among individuals and must often becombined with ability and environmental factors to actually influence behavior andperformance. Because of motivations role in influencing workplace behavior andperformance, it is key for organizations to understand and to structure the workenvironment to encourage productive behaviors and discourage those that areunproductive.There is general consensus that motivation involves three psychological processes:arousal, direction, and intensity. Arousal is what initiates action. It is fueled by apersons need or desire for something that is missing from their lives at a givenmoment, either totally or partially. Direction refers to the path employees take inaccomplishing the goals they set for themselves. Finally, intensity is the vigor andamount of energy employees put into this goal-directed work performance. Thelevel of intensity is based on the importance and difficulty of the goal. Thesepsychological processes result in four outcomes. First, motivation serves to directattention, focusing on particular issues, people, tasks, etc. It also serves tostimulate an employee to put forth effort. Next, motivation results in persistence,preventing one from deviating from the goal-seeking behavior. Finally, motivationresults in task strategies, which as defined by Mitchell & Daniels, are "patterns ofbehavior produced to reach a particular goal."A number of various theories attempt to describe employee motivation within thediscipline of I–O psychology. Most of these theories can be divided into the fourbroad categories of need-based, cognitive process, behavioral, and job-based.Need-based theoriesNeed-based theories of motivation focus on an employees drive to satisfy a varietyof needs through their work. These needs range from basic physiological needs forsurvival to higher psychoemotional needs like belonging and self-actualization.Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsMaslows Hierarchy of Needs (1943) was applied to offer an explanation of howthe work environment motivates employees. In accordance with Maslows theory,which was not specifically developed to explain behavior in the workplace,employees strive to satisfy their needs in a hierarchal order.At the most basic level, and employee is motivated to work in order to satisfy basicphysiological needs for survival, such as having enough money to purchase food.The next level of need in the hierarchy is safety, which could be interpreted tomean adequate housing or living in a safe neighborhood. The next three levels inMaslows theory relate to intellectual and psycho-emotional needs: love and
belonging, esteem (which refers to competence and mastery), and finally thehighest order need, self-actualization.Although Maslows theory is widely known, in the workplace it has proven to be apoor predictor of employee behavior. Maslow theorized that people will not seekto satisfy a higher level need until their lower level needs are met. There has beenlittle empirical support for the idea that employees in the workplace strive to meettheir needs only in the hierarchical order prescribed by Maslow.Building on Maslows theory, Alderfer (1959) collapsed the levels in Maslowstheory from five to three: existence, relatedness and growth. This theory, called theERG theory, does not propose that employees attempt to satisfy these needs in astrictly hierarchal manner. Empirical support for this theory has been mixed.Need for AchievementAtkinson & McClellands Need for Achievement Theory is the most relevant andapplicable need-based theory in the I–O psychologists arsenal. Unlike other need-based theories, which try to interpret every need, Need for Achievement allows theI–O psychologist to concentrate research into a tighter focus. Studies show thosewho have a high need for achievement prefer moderate levels of risk, seekfeedback, and are likely to immerse themselves in their work. Achievementmotivation can be broken down into three types: Achievementseeks position advancement, feedback, and sense of accomplishment; Authority –need to lead, make an impact and be heard by others; and Affiliation – need forfriendly social interactions and to be liked. Because most individuals have acombination of these three types (in various proportions), an understanding ofthese achievement motivation characteristics can be a useful assistance tomanagement in job placement, recruitment, etc.The theory is referred to as Need for Achievement because these individuals aretheorized to be the most effective employees and leaders in the workplace. Theseindividuals strive to achieve their goals and advance in the organization. They tendto be dedicated to their work and strive hard to succeed. Such individuals alsodemonstrate a strong desire for increasing their knowledge and for feedback ontheir performance.The Need for Achievement is in many ways similar to the need for mastery andself-actualization in Maslows hierarchy of needs and growth in the ERG theory.The achievement orientation has garnered more research interest as compared tothe need for affiliation or power.The political sociology
With the division of labour, industrialization, and the quest for thedevelopment of the nation-state, a new philosophical challenge emergedin the form of one question: What comes first, society or the individual?In the ancient Western world of Greece and Rome, the individual wasnot so much a factor. Rather, a person made commitments to the virtuesof various institutions and traditions such as the family. But with thestruggle for the creation of the European nation, especially in France, theconcept of the individual greatly challenged definitions of society. Onthe one hand, the more conservative view of kings retained the idea ofsociety as a given, as a complete whole functioning in accord with thewill of God; individuals would simply obey the laws of society and workto maintain this equilibrium. On the other hand, the more radical viewsof French revolutionaries saw the individual as the center of the universewith a variety of inalienable rights. Within a government there are always individuals who oppose eachother and who are fighting for control or for a position of power. Usuallythese divides exist because of differences in political views. A person’spolitical view can not be determined by the party that they alignthemselves with, however there are trends that exist, and generally aperson who identifies with a political party shares the opinions that themajority of the party holds on the issues.Politics Within a government there are always individuals who oppose eachother and who are fighting for control or for a position of power. Usuallythese divides exist because of differences in political views. A person’spolitical view can not be determined by the party that they alignthemselves with, however there are trends that exist, and generally a
person who identifies with a political party shares the opinions that themajority of the party holds on the issues. The requirement for any system involving politics is that the individuals within that system is able to function according to their natural character. If that is not the case, it is though that they will either rebel or the system will eventually collapse. Politics is a process in which a group of people comes to a collective agreement by making a decision; usually that system is majority rules although there are other ways of determining this. A politic does not just refer to government elections. Politics can also be recognized in other group interactions including those of an academic, religious, or corporate nature. Politics are supposed to put the power into the hands of the general population. Political news tends to dominate the medium airwaves because of the importance of staying updated about the current political climate. During times of war and economic crisis such as the issues that American is currently facing, this barrage of political news increases even more. In the past few years, political news has been dominated by the Iraq war. The more localized that the political news is, the more interest that society will be in it. Because of the fact that so many Americans have a strong political stance on the war, the political news that is available about it takes precedent over other political news items. Another example of that is the state of the United States economy. In the previous presidential political polls, the state of the economy was of top importance to voter’s, along with the Iraq war.
Political polls are used during any local, regional and nationalelections. Different candidates use a political poll to measure theirsuccess. Political polls give a candidate an estimation of how likelythey are to win an election or how popular they are at any giventime. Political polls are samplings of political opinions fromindividuals. When used correctly, political polls are a way todetermine the mind-set of the individuals voting in an election.