Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter One: The Study of Sociology
  2. 2. Why study sociology? -to obtain factual information about our society and different aspects of our social life. -enable us to understand our society more objectively and to see our place in it.
  3. 3. Why study sociology? -broadens our experience as we learn to discard our prejudices and become more understanding of the customs of other people and as we realize that the truth is relative and “good” and “bad” behavior depends upon the norms of conduct of the society in which behavior takes place.
  4. 4. The promise of sociology, according to C. Wright Mills(1956:12) is that with all the problems and confusion of modern life it can help us understand what is happening to us and why such social phenomena occur.
  5. 5. Sociology performs its most important function when superstition and misinformation are replaced by accurate knowledge about human behavior.
  6. 6. The Science of Sociology All the fields of study started as definite attempts to answer questions about one’s environment, one’s relations to it and one’s own nature. Theologians have sought to explain our relationship with God and prescribe right actions in accordance with God’s will.
  7. 7. Theologians
  8. 8. Scientists have tried to understand and explain our physical environment and our physical being. Philosophers have sought through logic the causes a principle of reality and conduct of life.
  9. 9. Philosophers
  10. 10. Social philosophers contributed to our understanding and appreciation of our society initially through institutions, authority, traditions, and common sense. The “knowledge” derived from these sources were not always reliable at times they were partially true.
  11. 11. Between 18th and 19th centuries, the social sciences grew out of social philosophy. The social sciences drew heavily on the scientific logic of the physical sciences that were yielding fruitful results. The newest of these specialize social sciences was sociology.
  12. 12. Sociology is the science of society and the social interaction taking place. Sociology as a science tries to analyze and explain the patterns of group life and to discover the basic structure of human society and the forces that lead to social change. (Broom, Selsnick and Darrock 1981: 4)
  13. 13. All social sciences deal with the study of human behavior.
  14. 14. Areas of Sociology Sociology may be divided into seven areas for purposes of research and teaching. (Hauser 1962:909-919) These are: Social organization – this includes the investigation of social groups, social institutions, social stratification and mobility, ethnic relations and bureaucracy.
  15. 15. Areas of Sociology Social psychology – this field is concerned with the study of human nature as the outcome of group life, personality formation, and collective behavior. Social change – social organization and social disorganization.
  16. 16. Areas of Sociology Human Ecology – This is an area which is currently catching world awareness although it is one of the oldest fields in American sociology. Population Studies – This field is concerned with population count, composition, change, and quality as they influence the economic, political, and social systems, and vice versa.
  17. 17. Areas of Sociology Sociological theory and research – This field is concerned with the discovery, development, and replication of research tools that will test the applicability and usefulness of the principles of group life as basis for the regulation of the social environment.
  18. 18. Areas of Sociology Applied sociology – The findings of pure sociological research may be applied to such various fields as marriage and family counseling, child development, juvenile delinquency, criminology, penology, social work, education, communication, propaganda, industrial relations, marketing, mental health, ethnic relations, mass media, and environmental preservation.
  19. 19. The Relationship of Sociology to the Other Sciences Sciences may be categorized into two broad areas: natural sciences and the social sciences. The natural sciences include -the biological sciences, such as biology, botany, zoology, and bacteriology, which study both human and nonhuman living organisms -the physical sciences such as astronomy, geology, chemistry and physics, which examined the non living physical characteristics of the world.
  20. 20. The social sciences deal with human relationships, social systems, and societies but differ from each other in their emphasis and mode of analysis.  Economics - is concerned with the human activities related to the production, consumption, and distribution of goods, services, and wealth within societies.  Political science - is concerned with political processes, power struggle, and governments, voting patterns changes from previous elections and the nature of the voters.
  21. 21.  Anthropology - covers physical, cultural and social anthropology. Physical anthropologist study a wide range of cultures, from primitive to modern, through the examination of artifacts and the genetic changes of human and non human aspects of life.  Psychology - is mainly interested in a wide range of psychological and behavioral processes such as learning, human and personality development, perception, emotion, cognition, motivation, creativity, personality disorders and mental illness.
  22. 22.  History-is primarily descriptive of the chronology of significant past events. Sociology makes use of the data and information that is provided by historians, history uses the sociological approach. The natural and social sciences may be further divided into the “pure” and “applied” sciences. • Pure sciences - is mainly concerned with the pursuit of knowledge and truth for its own sake without considering its practical use. • Applied sciences - focuses on the search for solutions to practical problems
  23. 23. History of Scientific Sociology It was between 1760 and 1825 that Henri Saint- Simon wrote his ideas on the science of society based on the assumption that the law of human behavior could be determined in the same manner that the law of nature had been arrived at by astronomers, physicists, biologists, geologists, chemists, and other natural scientist.
  24. 24. Most significant of the forerunners of sociology are: Auguste Comte(1718-1857) a native of Southern France, was the son of a government worker. His studies in Paris focused on mathematical and natural sciences.
  25. 25. Auguste Comte(1718-1857) - was greatly influence by Saint-Simon’s ideas, a precursor of a Marxist version of socialism, a system where the means of production and industry are owned by the people. - advocated the idea of positivism or the use of the empirical investigation to understand social phenomena.
  26. 26. Auguste Comte(1718-1857) - The progressive develpoment of science was analyzed in his law of the three stages: - Theological or fictitious,metaphysical or abstract, and scientific or positive - Each mental stage of humanity has an accompanying type of social organization and political dominance. - The supernatural is the basis for explaining and understanding everything in the theological stage.
  27. 27. Auguste Comte(1718-1857) - he believed that social physics or positivism would be the key to humanity’s ongoing program. Being a product of the social revolution and social unrest of his time, he classified the existing sciences into a hierarchy, placing social physics at the top as the “queen of the sciences.” - he also believed that sociology was the means which a more rational and just society could be achieved.To him goes the credit of being the father of sociology,having a coined the term sociology.
  28. 28. Karl Marx(1818-1883) a native Germany descended from a lineage of rabbis. Although he went to college with the intension of practicing law, he shifted to philosophy after involvement with radical anti-religious group.
  29. 29. Karl Marx(1818-1883) – he went to Paris, met leading radical intellectuals and completely converted to socialism. With Friedrich Eagels, a long time friend, he wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1847. – he believed that social conflicts,stuggles and strifes were at the core of society and could cause social change.
  30. 30. Karl Marx(1818-1883) – he said that all history was branded with economic determinism, that all change, social conditions, and society itself were based on economic factors, and that economic inequality has resulted in class struggles between the bourgeoisie.
  31. 31. Herbert Spencer(1820-1905) the son of a school teacher, was born in England. His education consisted mainly of mathematical and the natural sciences. He shifted jobs from that of a railway engineer to a draftsman, and eventually a journalist and writer.
  32. 32. Herbert Spencer(1820-1905) – he argued that human societies go through an evolutionary process like the process Darwin described in his theory of natural selection and coined the concept “survival of the fittest.” – Spencer was concerned about the problem of objectivity in the social science---the problem of bias and other difficulties that sociologist often encounter in their work.
  33. 33. Emile Durkheim(1858-1917) was the first French academic sociologist to be conferred by the University of Paris the first doctors degree in sociology in1892,the first to hold a chair in sociology. He taught and became a prolific writer and critic.
  34. 34. Emile Durkheim(1858-1917) – he defined social phenomena as social facts that have distinctive social characteristics and determinants and social facts as “every way of acting, fixed, or not capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint.” such as customs, laws and the general rule of behavior which people accept without question.
  35. 35. Max Weber(1864-1920) a native of Germany, was the son of a wealthy German politician. His studies were in law and economics, he obtained his doctorate at the age of twenty five.
  36. 36. Max Weber(1864-1920) – he believed that qualitative, subjective methods as well as objective, quantitive methods should be used in the study of social actions. A “sympathetic understanding verstehen, of the mind of others” Weber said was understanding human action by examining the subjective meaning that people attach to their own behavior and behavior of others. – he also contented that these could be treated objectively and scientifically.
  37. 37. The Major Theoretical Perspectives Evolutionary Theory —Proposes that societies, like biological organisms, develop through phases of increasing complexity and, as ecologists point out, are interdependent with their environments. —Can provide the underpinnings for judging the outcome of varied social forces, understanding current changes, and predicting the future.
  38. 38. Structural Functional Theory —Referred to as the social system theory, equilibrium theory, or functionalism. —The component parts of a social structure are families, neighborhood, associations, schools, churches, banks, countries, etc. —Role expectations and behavior have to be learned through the socialization process.
  39. 39. Structural Functional Theory —Functionalists aver that each social system tends to have balance or equilibrium. —Merton identified the functions of a social system as what the system does and the outcomes arise from a certain type of structure and he claimed that not all functions of a social system ensure its equilibrium.
  40. 40. Conflict Theory —A series of class struggle between the owners of production and workers, the dominant and the dominated, the powerful and the powerless and that the structure of society was determined by economic organization, and ownership of property, in which personal beliefs, cultural values, religious dogmas, institutional organization, and class hierarchy were reflected.
  41. 41. Conflict Theory —Dahrendorf and Coser said that the integrative and constructive feature of conflict lay in a state where people with common needs and interests unite to work for goals that bring about social change for their own welfare.
  42. 42. Symbolic Interaction Theory —Is reflected in every socialized individual and that its external forms and structures are likewise reflected through the social interactions occurring among individuals at the symbolic level. —Language consists of symbols representing physical objects that abstract ideas and is used for communication. —George Herbert Mead a significant contributor to the development of symbolic interactionism. —It provides the bases for decision-making or problem solving.
  43. 43. Exchange Theory —Its basic orientation is that life is a continual occurrence of rewards and costs exchanges. —The basic assumptions of this theory are: a. Most human stratifications are derived from the actions of other humans. b. New associations are started because they are expected to be rewarding, and old associations continue because they are rewarding.
  44. 44. Exchange Theory c. When we received rewards or benefits from others, we are obliged to reciprocate by supplying benefits to them in return. d. In general, giving is more blessed than receiving, because social credit is preferable to social indebtedness.
  45. 45. Exchange Theory —George Homans a proponent of the exchange theory, advocates a view congruent with that of behavioral psychologists. —Peter Blau’s assumption of the exchange theory is more symbolic interactionism, maintaining that exchanges happen within the symbolic level, being more subjective and interpretative. —Humans and Blau both believe that what is significant in exchange is the mutual expectation that equal reciprocation occurs.
  46. 46. Sociology in the Philippines —Three stages in development of sociology in the Philippines: the stage where sociology was viewed as social philosophy, when it was regarded as a problem or welfare oriented and when it finally geared more forward scientific orientation. —The transition of the Philippines from Spanish to an American Colony made anthropology and sociology the means of guiding colonial administrators and settlers, instead of scientific endeavors to monitor the change in Philippine society.
  47. 47. Sociology in the Philippines —Two significant conditions, the persistence of traditionalism and the lack of a strong belief science can be a strong force in studying and rendering social realities. —Fr. Valentin Marin- was introduced the sociology in the Philippines —Serafin N. Macaraig the first Filipino to acquire a doctorate degree in sociology and to write a sociology textbook, An Introduction to Sociology, in 1938.
  48. 48. Sociology in the Philippines —By the 1950s the scientific orientation started to seep slowly into sociology with the increased number of educational exchange program grantees, the establishment of social science research centers and councils, the growing frequency of conferences, and the publication of professional journals. —In 1952, Filipino educators and visiting professors in the Universities, the main objectives of which were to increase knowledge about social behavior, to gather data on social problems for their possible solutions, to train teachers and researchers, and to develop cooperation among social scientist from the Philippines and those from other countries.
  49. 49. Sociology in the Philippines —In 1957, the community Development Research Council (CDRC) wad created to conduct or support social science researches. —In 1960, the Institute of Philippine Culture was Founded at the Ateneo de Manila University by Fr. Frank Lynch, S.J. who was its moving spirit. —During 1960s and 1970s, empirical research was developed and this centered mostly in well-known colleges and universities.
  50. 50. Sociology in the Philippines —University of the Philippines was the first school to offer a major in sociology. —In 1968, the Philippine Social Science Council was formed to meet a felt need for improving the quality and relevance of the social science. —The PPSC Research Committee strongly believed that the Filipino social scientist has made significant contributions to society and urged them to continue with their tasks under the new social order.
  51. 51. Sociology in the Philippines —Leaders and Decision-makers need scientific knowledge as basis for policy-making and program implementation. —Gelia T. Castillio a rural sociologist, says that “ sociology’s greatest challenge lies in the creative translation of practical problems into researchable ones which will yield answer or solutions to practical questions which have been asked by developers. “ —Randolf David one of the prominent Filipino sociologist, succinctly depicts in his paper “Philippine Underdevelopment and Dependency Theory” , the social realities that Filipino sociologists have to grapple with.
  52. 52. Sociology in the Philippines —The main focus of sociologists is to take a firm and conscious position of neutrality. —Foremost task is to discover and organize knowledge about human behavior, and therefore they must remain value free. —The activist sociologist, on the other hand, challenge this position and argues that it is impossible to be “value-free” in contemporary society.
  53. 53. Sociology in the Philippines —In recent years, sociologist have become less hesitant to voice out their findings, thus helping shape public policy. —Each students and practitioner of sociology will have to decide for himself the role he or she will pursue: —One of deep involvement in social problems and in findings solutions to these problems, or that of discipline commitment to the development of reliable, valid, objective knowledge about society.