Learning Objectives: State operational definition of culture Discuss the characteristics Enumerate the components of culture and giveexamples of each components Explain the different views on culture; Identify the categories of culture in thePhilippines society Give the causes of culture change Show the similarities and differences in culture Identify the factors or causes that bring aboutsimilarities and difference in culture.
The Culture It shapes as well as guides people’sperception of reality since it provides rules ofproper conduct for living in society. It includes the values, norms, language,tools, and other shared products of societythat provide a plan for social life and arepassed on from generation to generation. The complex whole which includesknowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals,customs and other capabilities and habitsacquired by people as members of society. It prescribes what one can and cannot do andhow one should do things in varioussituations. Culture is a way of life.
Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned Culture is socially transmitted throughlanguage Culture is a social product Cultures is a source of gratification Cultures is adaptive Culture is the distinctive way of life of agroup of people Culture is material and non-material Culture has sanctions and control Culture is stable yet dynamic Culture is an established pattern of behavior
Communication Comes from the Latin wordcommunicare, “to share, impartthat which is common” the major transmitter of culture not limited to spoken language
Language Ano ang punto mo Epic Fail Attack of the Jejemon
Language systematize usage of speech andhearing to convey, communicate orexpress feelings. written and spoken words that representobjects or ideas the core of all culture
Symbols anything that carries a particular meaningrecognized by people who share culture. represent something concrete orsomething abstract (a concept or idea) that which represents something else
Cognitive Knowledge The total range of what has beenlearned or perceived as true. The storehouse where we accumulaterepresentations, information, facts,assumptions, etc. Body of information accumulatedthrough experiences, study orinvestigation.
Types of Knowledge Natural knowledge – accumulated factsabout the natural worlds. Supernatural knowledge – perceptionabout actions of gods, goddesses,demons angels or spirit. Technological knowledge – knowledgewhich in nature is useful in dealing withpractical problems. Magical knowledge – perceptionsabout methods influencing supernaturalevents.
Ideas Mental representations (concepts,categories, metaphors) used toorganize stimulus. Basic units out of which knowledge isconstructed and a world emerges. Beliefs. Ideas that people hold about theuniverse or any part of the total realitysurrounding them. Convictions as to what “is” or “is not”.
Values Person’s ideas about worth anddesirability. Values are concerned withstandards of worthiness of whatis good” or bad, what “should be”or “should not be”. Serve as broad guidelines forsocial living
FILIPINO VALUES Magalang na Filipino Utang na Loob Hate Late
Accounts Are how people use the commonlanguage to explain, justify,rationalize, excuse, or legitimize ourbehavior to themselves and others.
Behavioral Components Norms. Standards or rules of behaviorexpected to follow. Societal prescription on how oneis to act on a given situation. Specific guidelines for action
Types of norms: Mores. Standards of conduct that are highly respected andvalued by the group and their fulfillment is felt to benecessary and vital to group welfare. Special type of folkways and represent obligatorybehavior Folkways.The customary rules of conduct that are seen asappropriate for given situations. LawsBody of rules, made by the government,interpreted by the courts and backed by the power ofthe state.The function is social engineering RitualsHighly scripted ceremonies or strips ofinteraction that follow a specific sequence of actions.Occur at predetermined times or triggered byspecific cues.
2 Kinds of Mores:1. Positive Mores or Duty “Thou shall behavior”- Refers to the behavior, whichmust and ought to be donebecause the are ethically andmorally good.
Negative Mores “Taboo” “Thou shall not behavior” Taboo refers to societalprohibitions on certain actswhich must not be done. Example: Cannabalism
Material Component Physical objects of culture The nature of the material cultureproduced by a given society is afunction of the society’s level oftechnology, available and needsof the people.
The Organization of Culture Cultural Traits.- Represents a single element ora combination of elements related toa specific situation.- Either a material or non-material Culture complexes- Clusters of culture traits Culture patterns- Group of clusters of culturetraits
Transmission of Culture Enculturation Process of learning culture of one’sown group. AcculturationProcess of learning some new traits fromanother culture. AssimilationProcess in which an individual entirelyloses any awareness of his/her previousidentity and takes on the culture andattitudes of another group.
Importance and Functions ofCulture Culture helps people adapt to thedemands of the surroundingphysical environment. Culture compensate for manyhuman physical limitations. Culture provides ways and meansto regulate human collectiveexistence. Culture increased understanding,prediction, and appreciation of thevarieties of human behavior foundwithin societies both past andpresent.
Cultural Relativism States that cultures, differ, sothat a cultural traits, act, or ideahas no meaning of function byitself bus has a meaning onlywithin its cultural setting (Hortonand Hunt 1985) Notion that each culture should be evaluated fromthe standpoint of its own setting rather than from thestandpoint of a different culture
Culture Shock Refers to a feeling of disbelief Disorganization Frustrations one experienceswhen he encounters culturalpatterns
Enthnocentrism It refers to the tendency to seebehaviors, belief, values, andnorms of own group as the onlyright way of living. Judging others standards Superiority of one’s culture Others cultures as inferior
Xenocentrism Referring to the idea that what isforeign is best and that one’slifestyle, products, ideas areinferior to the others. Westren culture Imported products are superior
Noble Savage Mentality Refers to the evaluation of one’sculture and that of others basedon the romantic notion that theculture: Primitive Simple is better More Acceptable More Orderly
Subculture This refers to a social groupwhich develop norms, values,belief, and special languageswhich can make the distinctfrom broader society Examples: Tagalogs, Ilokanos, Teen-agers, Senior citizens, exclusive villages
Counterculture orContra Culture Refers to a subgroups whosestandards come conflict withand oppose the conventionalstandards of the dominantculture. Examples: Criminals, Drug Addicts,Deviant, Prostitutes, and terrorist
Culture Lag Refers to a gap between thematerial and non-materialculture. Examples: New inventions is introducedbefore the skills to utilize it.
Universal Pattern of Culture Refers to a broad areas of socialliving found in all societies. Refers to features and elementscommon to all culture ratherthan to the special culture traits Examples: Courtship, Dancing, Food,Taboos, Games, Gestures, Languages,Hair stylefs
Variations of Man’s Behaviora. Crazesb. Fadsc. Fashion
Factors that accounts for diversitiesor differences in CultureFactors that account for thedevelopment of Culture
Factors account for thedevelopment of culture: Human biological needs anddrives Psychological Processes Man’s highly developed nervoussystem Man’s highly developed vocalapparatus Man’s Upright posture Physical and Social environment
Factors that accounts fordiversities or differences inCulture Cultural Variability Cultural Relativity Environmental Differences Human ingenuity and ability toabsorb and expand new culture