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  1. 1. The Nature andMeaning of Culture
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: State operational definition of culture Discuss the characteristics Enumerate the components of culture and giveexamples of each components Explain the different views on culture; Identify the categories of culture in thePhilippines society Give the causes of culture change Show the similarities and differences in culture Identify the factors or causes that bring aboutsimilarities and difference in culture.
  3. 3. The Culture It shapes as well as guides people’sperception of reality since it provides rules ofproper conduct for living in society. It includes the values, norms, language,tools, and other shared products of societythat provide a plan for social life and arepassed on from generation to generation. The complex whole which includesknowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals,customs and other capabilities and habitsacquired by people as members of society. It prescribes what one can and cannot do andhow one should do things in varioussituations. Culture is a way of life.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned Culture is socially transmitted throughlanguage Culture is a social product Cultures is a source of gratification Cultures is adaptive Culture is the distinctive way of life of agroup of people Culture is material and non-material Culture has sanctions and control Culture is stable yet dynamic Culture is an established pattern of behavior
  5. 5. Componentsof CultureCOMMUNICATIONLanguageSymbolsIdeasKnowledgeBeliefsValuesAccountsNormsMoresLawsFolkwaysRitualsMATERIALToolsBooksTransportaionTechnologiesMedicineCOGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL
  6. 6. Communication Ispokening Inglis Slang
  7. 7. Communication Comes from the Latin wordcommunicare, “to share, impartthat which is common” the major transmitter of culture not limited to spoken language
  8. 8. Language Ano ang punto mo Epic Fail Attack of the Jejemon
  9. 9.  Language systematize usage of speech andhearing to convey, communicate orexpress feelings. written and spoken words that representobjects or ideas the core of all culture
  10. 10. Symbols anything that carries a particular meaningrecognized by people who share culture. represent something concrete orsomething abstract (a concept or idea) that which represents something else
  11. 11. Cognitive Knowledge The total range of what has beenlearned or perceived as true. The storehouse where we accumulaterepresentations, information, facts,assumptions, etc. Body of information accumulatedthrough experiences, study orinvestigation.
  12. 12. Types of Knowledge Natural knowledge – accumulated factsabout the natural worlds. Supernatural knowledge – perceptionabout actions of gods, goddesses,demons angels or spirit. Technological knowledge – knowledgewhich in nature is useful in dealing withpractical problems. Magical knowledge – perceptionsabout methods influencing supernaturalevents.
  13. 13.  Ideas Mental representations (concepts,categories, metaphors) used toorganize stimulus. Basic units out of which knowledge isconstructed and a world emerges. Beliefs. Ideas that people hold about theuniverse or any part of the total realitysurrounding them. Convictions as to what “is” or “is not”.
  14. 14. Superstitious Beliefs Mga Pamahiing Pinoy
  15. 15. Values Person’s ideas about worth anddesirability. Values are concerned withstandards of worthiness of whatis good” or bad, what “should be”or “should not be”. Serve as broad guidelines forsocial living
  16. 16. FILIPINO VALUES Magalang na Filipino Utang na Loob Hate Late
  17. 17. Accounts Are how people use the commonlanguage to explain, justify,rationalize, excuse, or legitimize ourbehavior to themselves and others.
  18. 18. Behavioral Components Norms. Standards or rules of behaviorexpected to follow. Societal prescription on how oneis to act on a given situation. Specific guidelines for action
  19. 19. NORMS Social Networking Etiquette
  20. 20. Types of norms: Mores. Standards of conduct that are highly respected andvalued by the group and their fulfillment is felt to benecessary and vital to group welfare. Special type of folkways and represent obligatorybehavior Folkways.The customary rules of conduct that are seen asappropriate for given situations. LawsBody of rules, made by the government,interpreted by the courts and backed by the power ofthe state.The function is social engineering RitualsHighly scripted ceremonies or strips ofinteraction that follow a specific sequence of actions.Occur at predetermined times or triggered byspecific cues.
  21. 21. 2 Kinds of Mores:1. Positive Mores or Duty “Thou shall behavior”- Refers to the behavior, whichmust and ought to be donebecause the are ethically andmorally good.
  22. 22. Negative Mores “Taboo” “Thou shall not behavior” Taboo refers to societalprohibitions on certain actswhich must not be done. Example: Cannabalism
  23. 23. Material Component Physical objects of culture The nature of the material cultureproduced by a given society is afunction of the society’s level oftechnology, available and needsof the people.
  24. 24. The Organization of Culture Cultural Traits.- Represents a single element ora combination of elements related toa specific situation.- Either a material or non-material Culture complexes- Clusters of culture traits Culture patterns- Group of clusters of culturetraits
  25. 25. Transmission of Culture Enculturation Process of learning culture of one’sown group. AcculturationProcess of learning some new traits fromanother culture. AssimilationProcess in which an individual entirelyloses any awareness of his/her previousidentity and takes on the culture andattitudes of another group.
  26. 26. Importance and Functions ofCulture Culture helps people adapt to thedemands of the surroundingphysical environment. Culture compensate for manyhuman physical limitations. Culture provides ways and meansto regulate human collectiveexistence. Culture increased understanding,prediction, and appreciation of thevarieties of human behavior foundwithin societies both past andpresent.
  27. 27. Sub-Concepts related toCulture
  28. 28. Cultural Relativism States that cultures, differ, sothat a cultural traits, act, or ideahas no meaning of function byitself bus has a meaning onlywithin its cultural setting (Hortonand Hunt 1985) Notion that each culture should be evaluated fromthe standpoint of its own setting rather than from thestandpoint of a different culture
  29. 29. Culture Shock Refers to a feeling of disbelief Disorganization Frustrations one experienceswhen he encounters culturalpatterns
  30. 30. Enthnocentrism It refers to the tendency to seebehaviors, belief, values, andnorms of own group as the onlyright way of living. Judging others standards Superiority of one’s culture Others cultures as inferior
  31. 31. Xenocentrism Referring to the idea that what isforeign is best and that one’slifestyle, products, ideas areinferior to the others. Westren culture Imported products are superior
  32. 32. Noble Savage Mentality Refers to the evaluation of one’sculture and that of others basedon the romantic notion that theculture: Primitive Simple is better More Acceptable More Orderly
  33. 33. Subculture This refers to a social groupwhich develop norms, values,belief, and special languageswhich can make the distinctfrom broader society Examples: Tagalogs, Ilokanos, Teen-agers, Senior citizens, exclusive villages
  34. 34. Counterculture orContra Culture Refers to a subgroups whosestandards come conflict withand oppose the conventionalstandards of the dominantculture. Examples: Criminals, Drug Addicts,Deviant, Prostitutes, and terrorist
  35. 35. Culture Lag Refers to a gap between thematerial and non-materialculture. Examples: New inventions is introducedbefore the skills to utilize it.
  36. 36. Universal Pattern of Culture Refers to a broad areas of socialliving found in all societies. Refers to features and elementscommon to all culture ratherthan to the special culture traits Examples: Courtship, Dancing, Food,Taboos, Games, Gestures, Languages,Hair stylefs
  37. 37. Variations of Man’s Behaviora. Crazesb. Fadsc. Fashion
  38. 38.  Social Experiment
  39. 39. Factors that accounts for diversitiesor differences in CultureFactors that account for thedevelopment of Culture
  40. 40. Factors account for thedevelopment of culture: Human biological needs anddrives Psychological Processes Man’s highly developed nervoussystem Man’s highly developed vocalapparatus Man’s Upright posture Physical and Social environment
  41. 41. Factors that accounts fordiversities or differences inCulture Cultural Variability Cultural Relativity Environmental Differences Human ingenuity and ability toabsorb and expand new culture
  42. 42. Are you born into aCulture or with aCulture?