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Social groups


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Social groups

  1. 1. Social Groupsand Social Organizations<br />
  2. 2. Social Groups<br />Social groups consists of a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and a certain common goals and shared norms.<br />“Social interaction takes place in the context of social groups” <br />
  3. 3. Social organization or social institution<br />is a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role. It can be also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to socialize the groups or people in it.<br />
  4. 4. Social organization or social institution<br />A large secondary groups, highly organized to accomplish a complex task or tasks and to achieved goals efficiently.<br />
  5. 5. Social <br />Group<br />Social <br />Organization<br />Interaction<br />
  6. 6. Other formation of people<br />Social Aggregates-a set of people who are in one area.<br /> example : People who are riding in a bus.<br />Social Category-a set of people who are share common characteristics.<br /> example : MET students in TUP.<br />Social statistics- is just referring to a numbered categorization of individuals.<br /> example : 10 topnotcher in Board exam <br />
  7. 7. Characteristic of a Group<br />Some group qualities are quite literally superhuman.<br />Groups are generally collectively stronger than even the strongest individual member.<br />Group are also segmentable.<br />
  8. 8. Group Size and Relationships<br />Dyad- group composed of two people.(one relationship)<br />Triad- groups composed of three people.(three relationships)<br />A group of four.(six relationships)<br />A group of five.(ten relationships)<br />
  9. 9. Group Size and Relationships<br />A<br />B<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Dyad<br />Triad<br />
  10. 10. Group Size and Relationships<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />E<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />D<br />C<br />A Group of Four<br />A Group of Five<br />
  11. 11. Function of Groups<br />Defining Boundaries <br />Choosing Leaders<br />Making Decisions<br />Setting Goals <br />Assigning Tasks<br />Controlling Members Behavior<br />
  12. 12. Defining Boundaries<br />Defining boundaries– To identify who are members of a group, some sort of devices must be used to mark the boundaries.<br />
  13. 13. Choosing Leader <br />Choosing Leaders– Groups by nature must resolve the issue of leadership. A leader according to Tischler is someone who occupies central role or position of dominance and influence in a group.<br />INSTRUMENTAL LEADERSHIP<br />EXPRESSIVE LEADERSHIP<br />
  14. 14. MAKING DECISION<br />Making Decision-- among foraging societies, making decisions are made by involving everyone else in the community. Among modern societies, avoid wasting precious time and energy, group use the less participative but popularly known voting o determine the decision of the group.<br />
  15. 15. Setting Goals<br />Setting Goals– All groups must have a goals. A goal maybe too general, such as protecting the environment or too narrow like getting to the beach resort. Goals change overtime depending on the challenges faced by the group.<br />
  16. 16. Assigning tasks<br />Assigning task– Goals, decision making, leadership are all important functions of groups but these are of no significance unless tasks are assigned to each member to perform.<br />
  17. 17. Controlling members behavior<br />Controlling members behavior– group members behavior must be controlled for the group to continuously. This is the reason why deviant behaviors of members of the group are considered dangerous and threatening. <br />
  18. 18. TYPES OF GROUPS<br />Classification:<br />According to the nature of social ties.<br />Primary( family, neighbor )<br />Secondary<br />According to social identification.<br />In-groups<br />Out-groups<br />Reference<br />
  19. 19. 3. According to Organization<br />Formal organization<br />( utilitarian , Coercive , Voluntary)<br />Informal organization<br />
  20. 20. Primary Group<br />Primary group are small in size and characterized by personal, intimate and non-specialized relationship between their members . <br />
  21. 21. Examples of Primary Group<br />Family<br />Basketball team<br />A pair of lovers<br />Clique<br />Etc. <br />
  22. 22. Some elements of primary group <br />Tend to be small and ordinarily composed of fewer than 15 to 20 individuals.<br />Interaction and communication among members in a primary group tend to of an intimate of personal nature.<br />Members commonly develop strong emotional bonds with other members.<br />Generally persist over extensive period of time.<br />
  23. 23. Secondary Group<br />Secondary groups refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding. Sullivan(2004) considered secondary groups as based on task oriented, impersonal and specialized ties with people, they maybe small, but often large.<br />
  24. 24. Examples of secondary group<br />Sociology class<br />Business organization<br />Political parties<br />Labor union<br />Etc.<br />
  25. 25. In-group<br />In-group feel strong identification and loyalty with the members of their own groups different, either culturally or racially<br />
  26. 26. Out-group<br />Out-group is a group or category to which people feel they do not belong. <br />
  27. 27. Reference Group<br />Reference group is a group that people use as a standard in evaluating or understanding themselves, their attitudes, and their behavior<br />
  28. 28. Formal Organization<br />Money is important part to these group, and the organization use money in fulfilling some objective. People belong to some type of formal organization because of some purpose.<br />
  29. 29. Types of Formal Organization<br />
  30. 30. Types of Formal Organization<br />
  31. 31. Informal Organization<br />Informal organization provide different but important things. They can provide relaxation and reduce stress. People can be involve in fun activities. Informal organizations are what help keep people in good social health and well being<br />
  32. 32. Bureaucracies<br />Bureaucracies is a rationally created formal organizations that are based on hierarchical authority and explicit rules of procedure.<br />Are large-scale, formal organizations which are highly differentiated and organized through elaborate policies and procedures in a hierarchy of authority.<br />
  33. 33. Five characteristic of Bureaucracy<br />Division of labor<br />Hierarchy of authority<br />Written rules and regulations<br />Impersonality<br />Employment based on technical qualification<br />
  34. 34. Division of Labor<br />Division of Labor – individuals in a bureaucratic organization occupy specific positions and perform specific tasks vis-à-vis other task performed by others in the organization.<br />
  35. 35. Hierarchy of Authority<br />Hierarchy of Authority – each position in a bureaucratic system falls under the supervision of one of it.<br />
  36. 36. Written Rules and Regulations<br />Written rules and regulations – rules and regulations provide member of a bureaucracy with clear and vivid norms of behavior and performance<br />
  37. 37. Impersonality<br />Impersonality – in a bureaucracy works are carried on “sine ira et studio.”- “without hatred and passion.”<br />
  38. 38. Employment based on Technical Qualifications<br />Employment based on technical qualifications – in a bureaucracy organization members are hired based on qualification not based on who knows within.<br />Peter Principle – every individual within the hierarchy tend to rise to his or her level of incompetency<br />
  39. 39. Characteristics of Bureaucracy<br />
  40. 40. Characteristics of Bureaucracy<br />
  41. 41. Characteristics of Bureaucracy<br />