Info processing, reaction time, memory 2013


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A Level PE - AS - WJEC

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Info processing, reaction time, memory 2013

  1. 1. A Level PE Information Processing
  2. 2. Information Processing  Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system.  Use a HIP model to analyse sports performance.  Use of memory and different memory stores.
  3. 3. Human Information Processing  Being skilled is not always enough.  Need to be able to select the appropriate skill.  Task – In pairs time each other to read the lists and note down the time.  Were there any differences? Why  What information did you need to process?
  4. 4. Simple Information Processing INPUT DECISION MAKING OUTPUT
  5. 5. Investigative Task  Watch the clip of a tennis serve and Forehand  Andy Murray (other)  Note down everything Andy Murray does or thinks in detail  Group the thoughts or actions into:- • Those concerned with identifying what is happening to the ball. Input • Those concerned with making decisions about where to move and what to do. Decision making • Those concerned with making an appropriate movement as a result of the decision Output
  6. 6. Answers Input Decision Making Output
  7. 7. Computer Analogy Inputting Information Processing Information Outputting Information Sensory Input Central Mechanism, (Brain) Effector Mechanism (Muscles)
  8. 8. Stages of Information Processing (Schmidt 2000) • Stimuli are detected by our senses • Proprioceptive information - Touch, equilibrium, kinaesthesis Stimulus (Input) • Patterns of movement are detected and processed (perceptual processes – Detection, Comparison and Recognition)Stimulus Identification • Decide which movement to make. • Concentrate on the stimuli that are important – Selective attentionResponse Selection • Messages are sent via the nerves to the muscles to carry out the required movement Response Programming • The action is carried out Movement (Output)
  9. 9. Welford
  10. 10. Whiting’s (1969) Model of Information Processing
  11. 11. Task  Complete the work sheet
  12. 12. Task  In pairs using the sport of your choice, give a practical example of what is happening at each stage of Whiting’s or Welford’s model.  Compare your example with another pair to check your analysis
  13. 13. Information Processing  Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system.  Name and explain the three stages of perception.  Explain at least 1 model of information processing and apply this to a sporting situation
  14. 14. Learning Objectives  Be able to name the 3 components of memory  Be able to describe at least 3 features of each component of memory  Be able to explain how you can use at least 2 strategies to improve memory applied to a sporting situation
  15. 15. Information Processing Recap 1. Sensory input is? 2. What are the three stages of perception? 3. What is selective attention? 4. Name the 3 information processing models we looked at? 5. What happens at the translatory mechanism stage of Whiting’s model? 6. What am I referring to if I talk about Effector mechanisms?
  16. 16. MEMORY  Memory is important for information processing, particularly when we rely on our previous experiences  It is important in determining the motor programme chosen to send information to the muscles  Memory can be divided into three components: Short Term Sensory Store STSS Short term Memory STM Long Term Memory LTM
  17. 17. Short Term Sensory Store  All stimuli enter the STSS but remain for a very short time; 0.25 – 1 second  The STSS has a very large capacity  It acts as a filter  The perceptual mechanism determines which information is relevant and attention is focused towards this. This is the recognition aspect of perception  Irrelevant information is filtered out, leaves the STSS and is quickly replaced by new information  The filtering process is known as selective attention  The process of focussing on the important and ignoring the irrelevant also helps us to react quickly  It is, therefore, very important to be able to recognise relevant cues
  18. 18. TASK  Kim’s Game
  19. 19. Short term memory  Referred to as the ‘work place’  Incoming information is compared to that stored in the ltm  Has a limited capacity: 5 – 9 pieces of information for approximately 30 seconds  The number of items can be increased by ‘chunking’  The period of time can be extended by repeating/ rehearsing the information  Information considered important is rehearsed or practised and passed to the long term memory – this process is known as ‘encoding’
  20. 20. SSTS -improving efficiency  EXPERIENCE – an experienced volleyballer knows which cues to look for when blocking  AROUSAL – the more alert you are the more likely you are to select relevant cues, e.g.. In tennis an alert player is more likely to notice the speed, spin and direction of the ball  QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION – beginners do not know which cues are relevant. Teachers/ coaches can direct attention to the correct cues  INTENSITY OF STIMULUS – the effectiveness of the senses when detecting speed, sound, size, shape, colour etc.
  21. 21. LONG TERM MEMORY  Holds information that has been well learned and practised  Its capacity is thought to be limitless  Information is held for a long time – perhaps permanently  Motor programmes are stored in the LTM as a result of practice – this is why you never forget how to swim or ride a bike even if you have not done so for a long time.  The LTM is the recognition part of the perceptual process when the stored information in the LTM is retrieved and compared to the new information which is then recognised
  22. 22. Task – Experiment – In pairs  1 person writes down 7 four-letter nonsense words made up of consonants e.g. grtp  Allow your partner to view the words for 10 seconds  See how many she/he can remember (record)  If you partner fails to remember all words – let them have another go and record  Repeat experiment with 7 words related to sport (also four letters e.g. Ball). Is there a difference? If there is why do you think this is?
  23. 23. Strategies to improve retention and retrieval  REHEARSAL/ PRACTICE –carries the skill to and fro between the STM and LTM establishing a memory trace. Elite performers practice their skills until they have been ‘over learned’ / ‘grooved’ and become automatic  ASSOCIATION/ LINKING – new information should be linked with that previously learned e.g. Sports specific skills linked with fundamental motor skills – javelin throw linked with overarm throw  SIMPLICITY – new information should be kept simple, more complex information can be added later. Avoid teaching similar skills at the same time as may interfere with each other.  ORGANISATION – A trampoline sequence should be learned in the order movements will be performed  IMAGERY –mental picture aids memory. Demonstrating skills allows a performer to create an image of the movement  MEANINGFUL – if the learner considers information relevant it is more likely to be remembered  CHUNKING – items of information are more easily remembered if grouped together  UNIQUENESS – if information is presented in an unusual or different way it is more likely to be remembered  ENJOYMENT – if the learner is having fun the experience is more likely to be remembered  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT – praise and encouragement when learning can aid retention. This can also be motivational and includes rewards such as badges and certificates
  24. 24. Model of Memory Process
  25. 25. Exam Qs
  26. 26. Answers
  27. 27. Exam Qs 4. (a) During practice for sport, describe two strategies that could be used to improve the longterm memory. [4]
  28. 28. Answers
  29. 29. Learning Objectives  Be able to name the 3 components of memory  Be able to describe at least 3 features of each component of memory  Be able to explain how you can use at least 2 strategies to improve memory applied to a sporting situation
  30. 30. Learning Objectives  Be able to define reaction time, response time and movement time and explain the relationship between these terms  Be able to apply a sporting example to these terms.  Be able to explain Hick’s law  Be able to demonstrate how the single channel hypothesis can be used to a sports persons advantage
  31. 31. Reaction Time  Reaction Time  Movement Time  Response Time  How are they linked? REACTION TIME + MOVEMENT TIME = RESPONSE TIME
  32. 32. 100m race • 0.2 seconds to react to the gun, • 12 seconds to run the race, • Total response time of 12.2 seconds Tennis Serve • See serve going to your left and deciding to go that way takes about 0.2 seconds, • Moving to intercept and play the return shot takes a further 0.3 seconds • Total response time of 0.5 seconds
  33. 33. Little experiment……..  Time your partner organising the cards in to the following sets:  Colours (Red and black)  In to suites (Diamonds, Clubs, Hearts, Spades)  In to suites and in order (Ace, 2, 3…..Jack, King, Queen)  Discuss why there was difference in response time.
  34. 34. Types of Reaction Time  Simple - One stimulus with only one correct response e.g. reacting to a starters gun by beginning to run down the track towards the finish  Choice - Either, several stimuli, which may have any number of possible responses  Or, one stimuli with a number of possible responses
  35. 35. Hick’s Law  The more stimuli that there are, the longer it will take to choose the correct response   Hick’s Law (1952) “Choice reaction time is related to the amount of information that must be processed to resolve uncertainty about the various possible stimulus response alternatives”
  36. 36. Strategies – shortages of time Anticipation Fake – how does this work? Door thing……
  37. 37. Single Channel Hypothesis
  38. 38. Psychological Refractory Period
  39. 39. Exam question