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Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Reflective Account 
Psychology – Learning and Performing 
Carl Page (1008889) 
University of Bedfordshire 
Mr. M Lambert
Contents 
Topic 1: Motor Performance ................................................................................................................... 3 
Principles ................................................................................................................................................. 3 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner ............................................................................ 4 
Personal Reflection.................................................................................................................................. 5 
References ............................................................................................................................................... 5 
Topic 2: Cognitive Models of Human Behaviour ..................................................................................... 7 
Principles ................................................................................................................................................. 7 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner ............................................................................ 8 
Personal Reflection................................................................................................................................ 10 
References ............................................................................................................................................. 10 
Topic 3: Perceptual and Input Processes .............................................................................................. 11 
Principles ............................................................................................................................................... 11 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner .......................................................................... 13 
Personal Reflection................................................................................................................................ 14 
References ............................................................................................................................................. 14 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
Topic 1: Motor Performance 
Figure 2.3 Hick’s Law the time it takes to make a decision increases as the number of the 
alternatives increases. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Principles 
Firstly motor is defined as relating to muscle activity, especially voluntary muscle activity, and the 
consequent body movements. While performance is the way in which somebody does a job, judged 
by its effectiveness. Consequently motor performance is known basically as the psychological factors 
that affect basic movements of performers. As motor performance is used for measurement of 
human performance, since each body movement is made up of four essential actions; firstly it 
becomes aware of a difficulty or aim, secondly judges the presented selections to resolve the 
difficulty or accomplish the aim. Thirdly make a decision on a choice, finally executes the specific 
choice. 
As in Hick’s Law it explains how motor performance of an individual can be affected. Since the law 
describes the stable relationship that exists between the number of stimulus response alternatives 
and choice reaction time; specifically, as the logarithm of the number of stimulus – response pairs 
increases, choice reaction time increases linearly. As a result Hick’s Law is appropriate to the third 
stage: making a decision on a choice. Plus the motor performance finding is exemplified in Figure 2.3 
Though with George A. Miller, he gave rise to offer two theoretical thoughts which are essential to 
cognitive psychology and the information processing structure which affect an individual’s motor 
performance. The primary idea in the Information Processing Theory (IPT) is "chunking" and the 
ability of short term functioning memory or an individual’s concentration duration. As Miller (1956)
presented the idea that an individual’s short term memory can simply retain five to nine chunks of 
information (seven plus or minus two) whereby a chunk is whichever significant element. 
Therefore a chunk is identified as "a collection of elements having strong associations with one 
another, but weak associations with elements within other chunks" (Gobet et al., 2001, p. 236). A 
chunk could refer to numbers, words and player’s positions on field of play or even individual faces. 
The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of 
all subsequent theories of memory. 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner 
The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: 
Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching 
Cognitive Processing Although needing to instruct appropriate movement on the field is used 
so that performers are assisted so they start attaining the awareness with 
the use of analysis, instinct, and awareness when executing a particular 
action or movement in their sport. 
Information Processing Also with motor performance it can be difficult for a foundation level 
participant as they need to spend a longer amount of time concentrating 
on what to do as the skill/movement isn’t autonomous compared to elite. 
Thus in coaching I would be required to demonstrate the skill and get the 
participants to focus on what they have to do to complete the 
skill/movement properly. 
Chunking However with Miller (1956) Chunking concept whereby someone can only 
retain seven plus or minus two chunks. I have to be aware of this when 
drilling as I make the participants are able to use it to their advantage as 
pick up relevant chunks of information in their game for instance digits, 
words, people positions, or people's faces. This will result in a positive 
effect to an individual’s motor performance since they can process 
information a lot quicker than previously. 
Reaction Time Likewise with Hick’s Law it affects a person’s motor performance as it’s 
determined on their reaction time. As a result I would create training 
sessions which are sport specific scenarios and decrease the number of 
the alternatives available to those and they’re able to make a decision on 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
the choices available which will result in improving their motor 
performance further. 
Personal Reflection 
Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my deliberation of motor 
performance can be used as a way of determining someone’s execution. As I will consider that Hick’s 
Law can be applied to approximate the total time taken for individuals to make a decision whenever 
offered with several alternatives. Since whichever age group I’m teaching everyone has to process 
information and that time required to make a decision is a function of the number of available 
options. Therefore I must be aware not to overwork information when coaching children and young 
people as tasks will become harder as misunderstanding sets in the mind. Also using Miller (1956) 
Information processing theory of Chunking, I must get individuals to focus on appropriate 5-9 chunks 
of information to perform the task efficiently and effectively. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
References 
Online Books 
Motor learning and performance: a situation-based learning approach By Richard A. Schmidt, Craig A. 
Wrisberg. Pages 32–33 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ejc27Wrg5rMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Schmidt+and+Wrisbe 
rg&source=bl&ots=IFdxuivVLU&sig=wX8vLOB6bh- 
YOq3oy938UbQGJew&hl=en&ei=8VgTTfPIGoOAhAflnvC2Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu 
m=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis By Richard A. Schmidt, Timothy Donald Lee. Pages 
64–66 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z69gyDKroS0C&pg=PA64&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=qVkTTcrm 
A8eHhQeW9Z23Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q 
=Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Universal principles of design: 100 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase 
Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design. 
By William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler. Page 102 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=e4AaWB3QX6cC&pg=PA102&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=qVkTTc 
rmA8eHhQeW9Z23Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepag 
e&q=Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010)
Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: An Introduction By R. Lachman, J. L. Lachman, E. C. 
Butterfield. Pages 140–145 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UhtlyKk4vv8C&pg=PA140&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=vFsTTdb_ 
EtO7hAeHrf22Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage& 
q=Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. 
MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 28/12/2010) 
Idea Group Inc. (2005) Advanced methods in distance education: applications and practices for 
educators, trainers and learners. By Kim E. Dooley, James R. Lindner, Larry McCoy Dooley, Larry M. 
Dooley, Chapter 3 Learning Theories with Tim Murphy, Texas A&M University, USA Page 44 Available 
at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IOGgchlg748C&pg=PA38&dq=mind+Black+box+model&hl=en& 
ei=FM4dTfvrJ9C2hAfJpM24Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=5&ved=0CEUQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=mind%20Black%20box%20model&f=fals 
e (Accessed: 31/12/2010) 
Websites 
Originally published in The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp. 81-97 (reproduced here, with the 
author's permission, by Stephen Malinowski). Available at: http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/ 
(Accessed: 29/12/2010) 
Wikipedia (2010) Chunking (psychology). Available at: 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunking_(psychology) (Accessed: 29/12/2010) 
Theory Into Practice (TIP) (2010) Miller. Available at: http://tip.psychology.org/miller.html (Accessed: 
29/12/2010) 
The Theories Used in IS Research (2005) Information Processing Theory. Available at: 
http://www.istheory.yorku.ca/informationprocessingtheory.htm (Accessed: 29/12/2010) 
Classics in the History of Psychology, Miller. Available at: http (Accessed: 29/12/2010) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
Topic 2: Cognitive Models of Human Behaviour 
Figure 8.3 A basic adaptation of Welford’s information 
processing model. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Principles 
Cognitive is relating to the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or 
perception. Yet behaviour is the way in which a person, organism, or group responds to a specific set 
of conditions. The use then of cognitive models is an excellent means of being familiar with human 
behaviour. Hence the information processing method in psychology passes onto “the study of 
cognitive processes by analogy with the computer” (Jarvis 1994. P. 12). 
Therefore the earliest psychologist to 
relate the information processing 
method to skill acquisition was 
Welford (1968). For instance a 
computer operation is like human skill 
as it’s perceived as containing three 
stages. First the input of information 
(perception), secondly the thought 
process (decision making) and finally 
output (response). This information 
processing method is illustrated in Figure 8.3 
Also Welford regarded short term memory as not merely a supply of information yet known as the 
place in the information processing system where the thoughts and result deciding happens. As it 
utilises information from the perceptual processes and long term memory. While the result deciding 
happens when needed information has been through the procedure in the short term memory, then 
indicators are fired into the muscles so that it influences the suitable motor reaction. 
However with additional current research interested in information processing its shown particular 
matters aren’t dealt by Welford’s attempt. The matter of automatic processing such as its not 
adequately described. Likewise with the Welford model it doesn’t tackle the issues which place 
restrictions on the amount of information we’re able to handle at one time and react to with 
immediate performances.
Whereas in Figure 1 Skinner (1987, 
p. 782) proposes that every 
cognitive learning theory matches 
within the “black box”. As in nearly 
all Cognitive Information Processing 
(CIP) models, counting the adopted 
one by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968, 
1971), beginners deal with information 
Figure 1 Skinner “black box” theory. 
in the identical means like a computer performs this of which is parallel to Welford’s theory. Since 
information (or data) is “input” starting the environment all the way through the senses (or input 
systems), process, kept in memory and expressed (or output) in the appearance of behaviours. 
Figure 2 Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) comparing 
computing model to the common learning model. 
For example in Figure 2 it matches 
up to a simple computing model to 
the common learning model 
projected by Atkinson and Shiffrin 
(1968). Since both have five parts; 
input, short term memory, 
processing, long term memory, 
and output. 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner 
The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: 
Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching 
Short Term Memory Whenever trying to train the participants especially children and 
young people a new skill or movement I must make sure my 
instructions are short and sharp. This is because I don’t want to 
overload the information going into their mind in a short time frame. 
As this will in turn cause confusion on what to do as having to 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
remember each part. Therefore I ought to breakdown the 
movement/skill into small reachable targets and progress steadily to 
the completed action. 
Long Term Memory Whereas for elite performers their use of long term memory is better 
than beginners as their mind is trained and used for retaining key 
information permanently to do a movement/skill correctly 
repetitively. Consequently with lower skilled performers I have to 
teach the individuals to remember and perform the movement 
correctly so later in life false habits don’t occur which will affect their 
performances dramatically. 
Cognitive Anxiety & 
Cognitive Behavioural 
Although as a coach their purpose is to mentally and physically 
prepare the participant for optimum performance. Therefore with 
help from the coach the direct thought processes of an 
individual/group are able to react under a specific set of conditions in 
order to succeed. Since the mental processes decide on the 
behaviour and the stress placed thus their development is 
influenced. 
Cognitive Learning & 
Cognitive Stage 
Also performances can be increased through guidance of a coach 
whenever being trained of a new skill. Seeing as with young people 
and children whilst they at the cognitive stage by instructing and 
performing each progression of actions should be gathered of skill 
acquisition will be improved. This emphasises involvement and 
analysis on the component of the leaner as the skills are being 
taught. 
Controlled & Automatic 
Processing 
Subsequently the participant through further coaching will be able to 
then be able to process information controlled or automatic. As with 
a semi pro player their able to do the skill with thoughts and control 
to accomplish the task, exclusive of doing not much or above. 
Whereas the progression through persistent training tasks is 
completed with no attentive processes as they have become 
accustom to it. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
Personal Reflection 
Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my thoughts on cognitive models of 
human behaviour is that it depends on an individual’s time taken and the attention limits of them to 
complete an action. Since I must acknowledge their movement is affected by their mental state and 
the stage of their skill acquisition. Therefore I must teach and get the individual or group to practice, 
so they learn the sequence of movements involved. Also this relates to the way of their cognitive 
process decides on movement and how they are able to be adapted and made use of developing 
accomplishment. Also I will prepare the participants to play under stress as this would be damaging 
to their performance if I don’t. Consequently I will help performers work their way from controlled 
processing to automatic processing and learn how to manage their behaviour skillfully. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
References 
Online Books 
Motor control and learning: a behavioural emphasis By Richard A. Schmidt, Timothy Donald Lee. 
Pages 92 – 106 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z69gyDKroS0C&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=Welford's+Theory&so 
urce=bl&ots=4TO_P_L_AF&sig=prt2JH826qqTIVR1byc7rnzC6gM&hl=en&ei=i40QTY3YLMqzhAffpvW2 
Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Welford's%20 
Theory&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
John Wiley & Sons Ltd (2004) Acquisition and performance of sports skills By Terry McMorris 
Chapter 2 Perception & Chapter 4 Reaction Time Available at: 
http://books.google.com/books?id=EoxZcI6lmIYC&pg=PA37&dq=Welford’s+Theory&hl=en&ei=pLQc 
TdnZA6KShAe5uv22Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=3&ved=0CC0Q6wEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Welford’s%20Theory&f=false 
(Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Idea Group Inc. (2005) Advanced methods in distance education: applications and practices for 
educators, trainers and learners. By Kim E. Dooley, James R. Lindner, Larry McCoy Dooley, Larry M. 
Dooley, Chapter 3 Learning Theories with Tim Murphy, Texas A&M University, USA Page 38-40 
Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IOGgchlg748C&pg=PA38&dq=mind+Black+box+model&hl=en& 
ei=FM4dTfvrJ9C2hAfJpM24Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=5&ved=0CEUQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=mind%20Black%20box%20model&f=fals 
e (Accessed: 31/12/2010)
Hodder Education (02/2002) Psychology in Practice : Sport Chapter 8 Attention and imagery in sport 
Page 114 By Barbara Woods. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10295041&p00=automatic%20proces 
sing (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Routledge, (09/1999), Sport Psychology, Skill acquisition, Pages 96-98 By Matt Jarvis. MyAthens 
(ebrary) Available at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10289033&p00=welford (Accessed: 
21/12/2010) 
A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. 
MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Topic 3: Perceptual and Input Processes 
Figure 2.2 Visual searches used in gymnastics. Reprinted 
from Human Movement Science, Vol, 7, J. Vickers, 
“Knowledge structures of elite-novice gymnasts,” pp. 
47-72, Copyright 1988, with permission from Elsevier. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Principles 
Perceptual is firstly identified as relating to or involving sensory perception. While input it’s known as 
something that enters a process or situation from the outside and is then acted upon or integrated 
(sensory input). Likewise with process is recognised as a series of actions directed towards a specific 
aim. Thus making use of perception your processing uses the senses to acquire information about 
the surrounding environment or situation to perform a task. As being able to anticipate what going 
to happen next, so through kinaesthesia sensing position of the body and perform accordingly. 
During a run of investigations (Allard, 
1984; Allard, Graham, & Paarsalu, 
1980; Allard & Starkes, 1980; Bard & 
Fleury, 1976; Bard, Fleury, Carriere, & 
Halle, 1980; Chase & Simon, 1973; 
Starkes & Deakin, 1984), performers 
being expected to search short 
movies then perceive, distinguish, or 
remember objects in prepared and 
unprepared positions in sporting
environment. The elite possess greater remembrance also identification of game particular 
sequences of performance (e.g. Allard & Starkes, 1980; Starkes & Deakin, 1984; Williams & Davids, 
1995). Also the elite are quicker in noticing plus understanding items for example a ball in the visual 
area (Allard & Starkes, 1980; Millslagle, 1988; Starkes, 1987). 
Figure 2.3 The visual-search paradigm as used in 
soccer. Reprinted, by permission, from A.M. Williams, 
K. Davids and J.G. Williams, 1999, Visual perception 
and action is sports (London: E &FN Spon), 149. 
However equally elite and beginner 
performers found extra trouble in ball 
recognition for reversed non sport films 
when contrasted to appropriate 
associated sport ones. Likewise 
volleyball performers didn’t display 
greater signal recognition ability in non 
volleyball conditions or for non-ball 
goals in volleyball conditions (Allard & 
Starkes, 1980). Millslagle (1988) 
implemented Prinz’s (1977) obstacle 
practice to consider if signal 
recognition in sport environment is in 
circumstance or goal management. Recognition of the obstacle will believe a circumstance influence 
search. Nevertheless Millslagle’s information contain showing to together elite and beginner 
performers function in goal management. 
During the visual search procedure it’s understood to a focus is primarily noticed through peripheral 
vision this offers information regarding “where it is”. Whereas the foveal phase of functioning is 
believed to be mindful or concentration challenging it’s named the “attentive” phase of the visual 
search procedure (Neisser 1967). 
The visual system hardware terms; 
Visual acuity (static) 
Visual acuity (dynamic) 
Contrast sensitivity 
Colour vision 
Eye movement (ocular motility) 
Focus flexibility (accommodation) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
Fusion Flexibility (Binocularity) 
Depth Perception (Stereopsis) 
Visual reaction time 
Central peripheral awareness 
Eye hand body coordination 
Visual adjustability 
Visualisation 
The visual system hardware adapted Table 3.1 Explanations of the most common terms used in 
sport vision. (Source: Planer, P.M. (1994) Sports Vision Manual, PA: International Academy of 
Sport Vision.) 
Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner 
The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: 
Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching 
Exteroceptor Additionally when coaching I need to be aware that the participants of all 
levels are able to receive outside stimuli so that they can perform the desired 
task successfully. As their ability to see and to anticipate possible future events 
and developments improves performance. Also their process of hearing vital 
information helps direct them in good stead too. 
Perception However the information that peripheral vision can as well be utilised 
knowingly throughout the visual search process (Williams and Davids 1998b). 
Therefore training somebody/group who are learning an activity with little skill 
in it they eventfully be able to process information using their senses to 
acquire information about the surrounding environment or situation to their 
advantage. Compared to elite whereby they have a great deal of knowledge 
and skill of using perception in game situations through experience in their 
sport. 
Spatial (Or Event) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
& Temporal 
Anticipation 
Equally through mentoring an individual/group of participants they'll start the 
feeling of something that is going to happen in the activity they are 
participating in successfully. Since they’re gaining knowledge of predicting 
what is going to happen before the signal is presented. Plus start to become 
skilled at predicting the time-course of a sequence of events more efficiently.
Kinesthesia While through guidance the participant’s ability will improve more by assisting 
them to make intelligent decisions with a particular sense or move than one 
sense. As they will be able to start sensing the motion of their body parts to 
create swift movement to complete a specific task. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 14 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Advanced Cue 
Utilisation 
However it’s been identified for particular time that the visual search guidance 
shown by elite performers aren’t done in a disorderly way. Yet are supported 
by conscious perceptual approaches (Bard and Fleury 1981). Therefore when 
preparing athletes for optimum performance they’re trained to make use of 
any stimulus consciously perceived through specific learned behavioural 
responses effectively. Plus when at a higher stage development than other 
people they can process this information quicker. 
Personal Reflection 
Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my consideration on perceptual and 
input processes of an individual at any skill level have three issues which affect their reaction time 
and decision making. Firstly is the amount of stimulus-response options; secondly is the preparation 
of the individual. Also there’s stimulus-response as being able to work together without difficulty. 
Consequently the advantage is if correct the response will be faster, while the disadvantage is if 
incorrect their response is slower by the error. Furthermore I have discovered that participants need 
good awareness of their surroundings which is received from sensation and the use of their sense 
organs to help better themselves/groups performance. 
References 
Online Books 
Signal detection: Speed of detecting and locating objects of relevance in the visual field. Routledge 
(1999) A. M. Williams, K. Davids and J.G. Williams Chapter 3 Sport functional properties & Chapter 5 
Visual search strategy in sport. Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_1QOAAAAQAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&ots=ZlygqnuIRC 
&sig=ot8Wb4YPqnlq_2Aeb3rMCwMzC4E#v=onepage&q&f=false 
Motor learning and performance: a situation-based learning approach By Richard A. Schmidt, Craig A. 
Wrisberg. Pages 35 – 38 Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ejc27Wrg5rMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Schmidt+and+Wrisbe 
rg&source=bl&ots=IFdxuivVLU&sig=wX8vLOB6bh-
YOq3oy938UbQGJew&hl=en&ei=8VgTTfPIGoOAhAflnvC2Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu 
m=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) 
Essential readings in sport and exercise psychology By Daniel Smith, Michael Bar-Eli, Page 109 , 
Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IE6IMsD-FhwC& 
pg=PA109&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei=P1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_re 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 15 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
sult&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6wEwAg#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false 
(Accessed: 17/01/2011) 
International handbook of personality and intelligence By Donald H. Saklofske, Moshe Zeidnerm Page 
696, Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tNMTKjUjuHEC&pg=PA696&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei= 
P1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6wEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false 
(Accessed: 17/01/2011) 
Perception, cognition, and decision training: the quiet eye in action By Joan N. Vickers Chapter 2 
Measuring What Athletes See, Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2iVyZNLnVxMC&pg=PA36&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei=P 
1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& 
resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false 
(Accessed: 17/01/2011) 
Cognitive issues in motor expertise By Janet L. Starkes, Fran Allard Chapter 3 The role of three 
dimensional analysis in the assessment of motor expertise By Heather Carnahan, Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ohr9hVbJ_eYC&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&s 
ource=bl&ots=umXiw17zAV&sig=iGOR9xa8Fx8f3IXULjkV7ZKid4A&hl=en&ei=gVs0Tfy3AtGLhQeztJ3YC 
w&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 
(Accessed: 17/01/2011) 
A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. 
MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 28/12/2010)

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Movement Psychological Theories/Factors That Influence Sport and Their Interaction

  • 1. Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Reflective Account Psychology – Learning and Performing Carl Page (1008889) University of Bedfordshire Mr. M Lambert
  • 2. Contents Topic 1: Motor Performance ................................................................................................................... 3 Principles ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner ............................................................................ 4 Personal Reflection.................................................................................................................................. 5 References ............................................................................................................................................... 5 Topic 2: Cognitive Models of Human Behaviour ..................................................................................... 7 Principles ................................................................................................................................................. 7 Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner ............................................................................ 8 Personal Reflection................................................................................................................................ 10 References ............................................................................................................................................. 10 Topic 3: Perceptual and Input Processes .............................................................................................. 11 Principles ............................................................................................................................................... 11 Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner .......................................................................... 13 Personal Reflection................................................................................................................................ 14 References ............................................................................................................................................. 14 Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 3. Topic 1: Motor Performance Figure 2.3 Hick’s Law the time it takes to make a decision increases as the number of the alternatives increases. Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Principles Firstly motor is defined as relating to muscle activity, especially voluntary muscle activity, and the consequent body movements. While performance is the way in which somebody does a job, judged by its effectiveness. Consequently motor performance is known basically as the psychological factors that affect basic movements of performers. As motor performance is used for measurement of human performance, since each body movement is made up of four essential actions; firstly it becomes aware of a difficulty or aim, secondly judges the presented selections to resolve the difficulty or accomplish the aim. Thirdly make a decision on a choice, finally executes the specific choice. As in Hick’s Law it explains how motor performance of an individual can be affected. Since the law describes the stable relationship that exists between the number of stimulus response alternatives and choice reaction time; specifically, as the logarithm of the number of stimulus – response pairs increases, choice reaction time increases linearly. As a result Hick’s Law is appropriate to the third stage: making a decision on a choice. Plus the motor performance finding is exemplified in Figure 2.3 Though with George A. Miller, he gave rise to offer two theoretical thoughts which are essential to cognitive psychology and the information processing structure which affect an individual’s motor performance. The primary idea in the Information Processing Theory (IPT) is "chunking" and the ability of short term functioning memory or an individual’s concentration duration. As Miller (1956)
  • 4. presented the idea that an individual’s short term memory can simply retain five to nine chunks of information (seven plus or minus two) whereby a chunk is whichever significant element. Therefore a chunk is identified as "a collection of elements having strong associations with one another, but weak associations with elements within other chunks" (Gobet et al., 2001, p. 236). A chunk could refer to numbers, words and player’s positions on field of play or even individual faces. The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory. Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching Cognitive Processing Although needing to instruct appropriate movement on the field is used so that performers are assisted so they start attaining the awareness with the use of analysis, instinct, and awareness when executing a particular action or movement in their sport. Information Processing Also with motor performance it can be difficult for a foundation level participant as they need to spend a longer amount of time concentrating on what to do as the skill/movement isn’t autonomous compared to elite. Thus in coaching I would be required to demonstrate the skill and get the participants to focus on what they have to do to complete the skill/movement properly. Chunking However with Miller (1956) Chunking concept whereby someone can only retain seven plus or minus two chunks. I have to be aware of this when drilling as I make the participants are able to use it to their advantage as pick up relevant chunks of information in their game for instance digits, words, people positions, or people's faces. This will result in a positive effect to an individual’s motor performance since they can process information a lot quicker than previously. Reaction Time Likewise with Hick’s Law it affects a person’s motor performance as it’s determined on their reaction time. As a result I would create training sessions which are sport specific scenarios and decrease the number of the alternatives available to those and they’re able to make a decision on Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 5. the choices available which will result in improving their motor performance further. Personal Reflection Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my deliberation of motor performance can be used as a way of determining someone’s execution. As I will consider that Hick’s Law can be applied to approximate the total time taken for individuals to make a decision whenever offered with several alternatives. Since whichever age group I’m teaching everyone has to process information and that time required to make a decision is a function of the number of available options. Therefore I must be aware not to overwork information when coaching children and young people as tasks will become harder as misunderstanding sets in the mind. Also using Miller (1956) Information processing theory of Chunking, I must get individuals to focus on appropriate 5-9 chunks of information to perform the task efficiently and effectively. Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching References Online Books Motor learning and performance: a situation-based learning approach By Richard A. Schmidt, Craig A. Wrisberg. Pages 32–33 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ejc27Wrg5rMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Schmidt+and+Wrisbe rg&source=bl&ots=IFdxuivVLU&sig=wX8vLOB6bh- YOq3oy938UbQGJew&hl=en&ei=8VgTTfPIGoOAhAflnvC2Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis By Richard A. Schmidt, Timothy Donald Lee. Pages 64–66 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z69gyDKroS0C&pg=PA64&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=qVkTTcrm A8eHhQeW9Z23Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q =Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Universal principles of design: 100 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design. By William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler. Page 102 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=e4AaWB3QX6cC&pg=PA102&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=qVkTTc rmA8eHhQeW9Z23Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepag e&q=Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010)
  • 6. Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: An Introduction By R. Lachman, J. L. Lachman, E. C. Butterfield. Pages 140–145 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UhtlyKk4vv8C&pg=PA140&dq=Hick’s+law&hl=en&ei=vFsTTdb_ EtO7hAeHrf22Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage& q=Hick’s%20law&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 28/12/2010) Idea Group Inc. (2005) Advanced methods in distance education: applications and practices for educators, trainers and learners. By Kim E. Dooley, James R. Lindner, Larry McCoy Dooley, Larry M. Dooley, Chapter 3 Learning Theories with Tim Murphy, Texas A&M University, USA Page 44 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IOGgchlg748C&pg=PA38&dq=mind+Black+box+model&hl=en& ei=FM4dTfvrJ9C2hAfJpM24Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=5&ved=0CEUQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=mind%20Black%20box%20model&f=fals e (Accessed: 31/12/2010) Websites Originally published in The Psychological Review, 1956, vol. 63, pp. 81-97 (reproduced here, with the author's permission, by Stephen Malinowski). Available at: http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/ (Accessed: 29/12/2010) Wikipedia (2010) Chunking (psychology). Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunking_(psychology) (Accessed: 29/12/2010) Theory Into Practice (TIP) (2010) Miller. Available at: http://tip.psychology.org/miller.html (Accessed: 29/12/2010) The Theories Used in IS Research (2005) Information Processing Theory. Available at: http://www.istheory.yorku.ca/informationprocessingtheory.htm (Accessed: 29/12/2010) Classics in the History of Psychology, Miller. Available at: http (Accessed: 29/12/2010) Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 7. Topic 2: Cognitive Models of Human Behaviour Figure 8.3 A basic adaptation of Welford’s information processing model. Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Principles Cognitive is relating to the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or perception. Yet behaviour is the way in which a person, organism, or group responds to a specific set of conditions. The use then of cognitive models is an excellent means of being familiar with human behaviour. Hence the information processing method in psychology passes onto “the study of cognitive processes by analogy with the computer” (Jarvis 1994. P. 12). Therefore the earliest psychologist to relate the information processing method to skill acquisition was Welford (1968). For instance a computer operation is like human skill as it’s perceived as containing three stages. First the input of information (perception), secondly the thought process (decision making) and finally output (response). This information processing method is illustrated in Figure 8.3 Also Welford regarded short term memory as not merely a supply of information yet known as the place in the information processing system where the thoughts and result deciding happens. As it utilises information from the perceptual processes and long term memory. While the result deciding happens when needed information has been through the procedure in the short term memory, then indicators are fired into the muscles so that it influences the suitable motor reaction. However with additional current research interested in information processing its shown particular matters aren’t dealt by Welford’s attempt. The matter of automatic processing such as its not adequately described. Likewise with the Welford model it doesn’t tackle the issues which place restrictions on the amount of information we’re able to handle at one time and react to with immediate performances.
  • 8. Whereas in Figure 1 Skinner (1987, p. 782) proposes that every cognitive learning theory matches within the “black box”. As in nearly all Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) models, counting the adopted one by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968, 1971), beginners deal with information Figure 1 Skinner “black box” theory. in the identical means like a computer performs this of which is parallel to Welford’s theory. Since information (or data) is “input” starting the environment all the way through the senses (or input systems), process, kept in memory and expressed (or output) in the appearance of behaviours. Figure 2 Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) comparing computing model to the common learning model. For example in Figure 2 it matches up to a simple computing model to the common learning model projected by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Since both have five parts; input, short term memory, processing, long term memory, and output. Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching Short Term Memory Whenever trying to train the participants especially children and young people a new skill or movement I must make sure my instructions are short and sharp. This is because I don’t want to overload the information going into their mind in a short time frame. As this will in turn cause confusion on what to do as having to Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 9. remember each part. Therefore I ought to breakdown the movement/skill into small reachable targets and progress steadily to the completed action. Long Term Memory Whereas for elite performers their use of long term memory is better than beginners as their mind is trained and used for retaining key information permanently to do a movement/skill correctly repetitively. Consequently with lower skilled performers I have to teach the individuals to remember and perform the movement correctly so later in life false habits don’t occur which will affect their performances dramatically. Cognitive Anxiety & Cognitive Behavioural Although as a coach their purpose is to mentally and physically prepare the participant for optimum performance. Therefore with help from the coach the direct thought processes of an individual/group are able to react under a specific set of conditions in order to succeed. Since the mental processes decide on the behaviour and the stress placed thus their development is influenced. Cognitive Learning & Cognitive Stage Also performances can be increased through guidance of a coach whenever being trained of a new skill. Seeing as with young people and children whilst they at the cognitive stage by instructing and performing each progression of actions should be gathered of skill acquisition will be improved. This emphasises involvement and analysis on the component of the leaner as the skills are being taught. Controlled & Automatic Processing Subsequently the participant through further coaching will be able to then be able to process information controlled or automatic. As with a semi pro player their able to do the skill with thoughts and control to accomplish the task, exclusive of doing not much or above. Whereas the progression through persistent training tasks is completed with no attentive processes as they have become accustom to it. Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 10. Personal Reflection Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my thoughts on cognitive models of human behaviour is that it depends on an individual’s time taken and the attention limits of them to complete an action. Since I must acknowledge their movement is affected by their mental state and the stage of their skill acquisition. Therefore I must teach and get the individual or group to practice, so they learn the sequence of movements involved. Also this relates to the way of their cognitive process decides on movement and how they are able to be adapted and made use of developing accomplishment. Also I will prepare the participants to play under stress as this would be damaging to their performance if I don’t. Consequently I will help performers work their way from controlled processing to automatic processing and learn how to manage their behaviour skillfully. Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching References Online Books Motor control and learning: a behavioural emphasis By Richard A. Schmidt, Timothy Donald Lee. Pages 92 – 106 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z69gyDKroS0C&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=Welford's+Theory&so urce=bl&ots=4TO_P_L_AF&sig=prt2JH826qqTIVR1byc7rnzC6gM&hl=en&ei=i40QTY3YLMqzhAffpvW2 Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Welford's%20 Theory&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) John Wiley & Sons Ltd (2004) Acquisition and performance of sports skills By Terry McMorris Chapter 2 Perception & Chapter 4 Reaction Time Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=EoxZcI6lmIYC&pg=PA37&dq=Welford’s+Theory&hl=en&ei=pLQc TdnZA6KShAe5uv22Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=3&ved=0CC0Q6wEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Welford’s%20Theory&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Idea Group Inc. (2005) Advanced methods in distance education: applications and practices for educators, trainers and learners. By Kim E. Dooley, James R. Lindner, Larry McCoy Dooley, Larry M. Dooley, Chapter 3 Learning Theories with Tim Murphy, Texas A&M University, USA Page 38-40 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IOGgchlg748C&pg=PA38&dq=mind+Black+box+model&hl=en& ei=FM4dTfvrJ9C2hAfJpM24Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=5&ved=0CEUQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=mind%20Black%20box%20model&f=fals e (Accessed: 31/12/2010)
  • 11. Hodder Education (02/2002) Psychology in Practice : Sport Chapter 8 Attention and imagery in sport Page 114 By Barbara Woods. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10295041&p00=automatic%20proces sing (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Routledge, (09/1999), Sport Psychology, Skill acquisition, Pages 96-98 By Matt Jarvis. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10289033&p00=welford (Accessed: 21/12/2010) A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Topic 3: Perceptual and Input Processes Figure 2.2 Visual searches used in gymnastics. Reprinted from Human Movement Science, Vol, 7, J. Vickers, “Knowledge structures of elite-novice gymnasts,” pp. 47-72, Copyright 1988, with permission from Elsevier. Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Principles Perceptual is firstly identified as relating to or involving sensory perception. While input it’s known as something that enters a process or situation from the outside and is then acted upon or integrated (sensory input). Likewise with process is recognised as a series of actions directed towards a specific aim. Thus making use of perception your processing uses the senses to acquire information about the surrounding environment or situation to perform a task. As being able to anticipate what going to happen next, so through kinaesthesia sensing position of the body and perform accordingly. During a run of investigations (Allard, 1984; Allard, Graham, & Paarsalu, 1980; Allard & Starkes, 1980; Bard & Fleury, 1976; Bard, Fleury, Carriere, & Halle, 1980; Chase & Simon, 1973; Starkes & Deakin, 1984), performers being expected to search short movies then perceive, distinguish, or remember objects in prepared and unprepared positions in sporting
  • 12. environment. The elite possess greater remembrance also identification of game particular sequences of performance (e.g. Allard & Starkes, 1980; Starkes & Deakin, 1984; Williams & Davids, 1995). Also the elite are quicker in noticing plus understanding items for example a ball in the visual area (Allard & Starkes, 1980; Millslagle, 1988; Starkes, 1987). Figure 2.3 The visual-search paradigm as used in soccer. Reprinted, by permission, from A.M. Williams, K. Davids and J.G. Williams, 1999, Visual perception and action is sports (London: E &FN Spon), 149. However equally elite and beginner performers found extra trouble in ball recognition for reversed non sport films when contrasted to appropriate associated sport ones. Likewise volleyball performers didn’t display greater signal recognition ability in non volleyball conditions or for non-ball goals in volleyball conditions (Allard & Starkes, 1980). Millslagle (1988) implemented Prinz’s (1977) obstacle practice to consider if signal recognition in sport environment is in circumstance or goal management. Recognition of the obstacle will believe a circumstance influence search. Nevertheless Millslagle’s information contain showing to together elite and beginner performers function in goal management. During the visual search procedure it’s understood to a focus is primarily noticed through peripheral vision this offers information regarding “where it is”. Whereas the foveal phase of functioning is believed to be mindful or concentration challenging it’s named the “attentive” phase of the visual search procedure (Neisser 1967). The visual system hardware terms; Visual acuity (static) Visual acuity (dynamic) Contrast sensitivity Colour vision Eye movement (ocular motility) Focus flexibility (accommodation) Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 13. Fusion Flexibility (Binocularity) Depth Perception (Stereopsis) Visual reaction time Central peripheral awareness Eye hand body coordination Visual adjustability Visualisation The visual system hardware adapted Table 3.1 Explanations of the most common terms used in sport vision. (Source: Planer, P.M. (1994) Sports Vision Manual, PA: International Academy of Sport Vision.) Key Principles Application Sport/Activity Practitioner The subsequent key principles that is appropriate to sport coaching: Key Principles Application To Sport Coaching Exteroceptor Additionally when coaching I need to be aware that the participants of all levels are able to receive outside stimuli so that they can perform the desired task successfully. As their ability to see and to anticipate possible future events and developments improves performance. Also their process of hearing vital information helps direct them in good stead too. Perception However the information that peripheral vision can as well be utilised knowingly throughout the visual search process (Williams and Davids 1998b). Therefore training somebody/group who are learning an activity with little skill in it they eventfully be able to process information using their senses to acquire information about the surrounding environment or situation to their advantage. Compared to elite whereby they have a great deal of knowledge and skill of using perception in game situations through experience in their sport. Spatial (Or Event) Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching & Temporal Anticipation Equally through mentoring an individual/group of participants they'll start the feeling of something that is going to happen in the activity they are participating in successfully. Since they’re gaining knowledge of predicting what is going to happen before the signal is presented. Plus start to become skilled at predicting the time-course of a sequence of events more efficiently.
  • 14. Kinesthesia While through guidance the participant’s ability will improve more by assisting them to make intelligent decisions with a particular sense or move than one sense. As they will be able to start sensing the motion of their body parts to create swift movement to complete a specific task. Carl Page (1008889) Page 14 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Advanced Cue Utilisation However it’s been identified for particular time that the visual search guidance shown by elite performers aren’t done in a disorderly way. Yet are supported by conscious perceptual approaches (Bard and Fleury 1981). Therefore when preparing athletes for optimum performance they’re trained to make use of any stimulus consciously perceived through specific learned behavioural responses effectively. Plus when at a higher stage development than other people they can process this information quicker. Personal Reflection Currently I’m an undergraduate doing a F.D. in Sports Coaching, my consideration on perceptual and input processes of an individual at any skill level have three issues which affect their reaction time and decision making. Firstly is the amount of stimulus-response options; secondly is the preparation of the individual. Also there’s stimulus-response as being able to work together without difficulty. Consequently the advantage is if correct the response will be faster, while the disadvantage is if incorrect their response is slower by the error. Furthermore I have discovered that participants need good awareness of their surroundings which is received from sensation and the use of their sense organs to help better themselves/groups performance. References Online Books Signal detection: Speed of detecting and locating objects of relevance in the visual field. Routledge (1999) A. M. Williams, K. Davids and J.G. Williams Chapter 3 Sport functional properties & Chapter 5 Visual search strategy in sport. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_1QOAAAAQAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&ots=ZlygqnuIRC &sig=ot8Wb4YPqnlq_2Aeb3rMCwMzC4E#v=onepage&q&f=false Motor learning and performance: a situation-based learning approach By Richard A. Schmidt, Craig A. Wrisberg. Pages 35 – 38 Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ejc27Wrg5rMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Schmidt+and+Wrisbe rg&source=bl&ots=IFdxuivVLU&sig=wX8vLOB6bh-
  • 15. YOq3oy938UbQGJew&hl=en&ei=8VgTTfPIGoOAhAflnvC2Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 21/12/2010) Essential readings in sport and exercise psychology By Daniel Smith, Michael Bar-Eli, Page 109 , Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IE6IMsD-FhwC& pg=PA109&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei=P1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_re Carl Page (1008889) Page 15 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching sult&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6wEwAg#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false (Accessed: 17/01/2011) International handbook of personality and intelligence By Donald H. Saklofske, Moshe Zeidnerm Page 696, Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tNMTKjUjuHEC&pg=PA696&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei= P1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6wEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false (Accessed: 17/01/2011) Perception, cognition, and decision training: the quiet eye in action By Joan N. Vickers Chapter 2 Measuring What Athletes See, Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2iVyZNLnVxMC&pg=PA36&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&hl=en&ei=P 1w0TfvWO4yKhQfIz6jaCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail& resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6wEwBA#v=onepage&q=Allard%20and%20Starkes&f=false (Accessed: 17/01/2011) Cognitive issues in motor expertise By Janet L. Starkes, Fran Allard Chapter 3 The role of three dimensional analysis in the assessment of motor expertise By Heather Carnahan, Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ohr9hVbJ_eYC&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=Allard+and+Starkes&s ource=bl&ots=umXiw17zAV&sig=iGOR9xa8Fx8f3IXULjkV7ZKid4A&hl=en&ei=gVs0Tfy3AtGLhQeztJ3YC w&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 17/01/2011) A. and C. Black Publishers, (07/2006), Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science, A & C Black, 1-225. MyAthens (ebrary) Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10196632 (Accessed: 28/12/2010)