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  • 1. Beyond Generation Y? Expectations of future leaders entering the labour market – a European-wide survey Wolfgang Mayrhofer, WU, Austria Carlos Obeso, ESADE, Spain Odd Nordhaug, Norwegian School of Economics and Business, Norway
  • 2. Point of departure
    • Recruiting experience: potential new employees seem to ‘tick’ in a different way
      • Changing career landscape
      • Changes in the relationship between individual and organisation
        • Less long-term relationships
        • More careers outside/alongside organisations
    • Global players compete for scarce human resources, especially ‘high potentials’
    • It is comparatively easy to find ‘spectacular’ examples of individuals where new developments are concentrated, but…
    • Do we see anything ‘significant’ in individuals following a quite traditional path of professional development?
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 3. The study
    • CEMS-L’Oreal fellowship
      • takes a closer look at CEMS-students from the CEMS Master‘s International management program as part of the pool for future leaders
      • Paints a portrait of these students
    • Quantitative analysis
      • questionnaire: 339 students
      • Response rate 26% from 37 countries; 53% male, 47% female; average age 24; 37 countries
    • Qualitative work
      • 34 interviews at ESADE and WU campus (15 men, 19 women, 16 different countries, average age 23)
      • Categorical content analysis
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 4. Identity
  • 5. Identity
    • Nationality
      • Own nationality plays a role
      • On deeper reflection and after exposure to other national cultures a broad supranational identity can be developing
      • Being European no strong category for their identity
      • But used as a label by people from other parts of the world
      • Local identification (Bavarians, Catalans etc.) very rare
    • Collective identities are very weak (class structure, religious groups, political party, Ideology…)
    • Show little interest in “grand concepts”: the definition of man as a “political animal” does not apply
    • Background and personal history allows them to pick from many sources to build an identity
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 6. Expectations towards organisations and work
  • 7. Role of work in one‘s life
    • Work is important and plays a major role
      • Prepared to work a lot: if inheriting enough money
        • 12% would do other things than work
        • 20% would still choose to work for an employer
        • 68% would prefer to run a business
      • Work has a moral meaning
    • Work-life balance is important but aware of a trade-off between the spheres
    C. Obeso/W. Mayrhofer/O. Nordhaug ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 8. Characteristics of first job and employer – ranking of importance
    • More than 9 Mean SD
    • (JP) Interesting work 9,37 0,981
    • (JP) Good opportunities to develop competence 9,16 1.085
    • (JP) Opportunities for personal development 9,13 1,273
    • Between 8 and 8.99
    • (WP) Good social relations among colleagues 8,93 1,260
    • (WP) Opportunities to work abroad in periods 8,69 1,535
    • (JP) A lot of variety in work tasks 8,60 1,341
    • (WP) The employer has a good reputation 8,31 1,297
    • (WP) High annual earning salary 8,21 1,452
    • Between 7 and 7.99
    • (WP) Good personnel policy 7.86 1,569
    • (JP) Opportunities for getting fast promotion 7,83 1,778
    • (JP) A lot of freedom in the job 7,68 1,592
    • (WP) Pay based on individual performance 7,53 2,018
    • (WP) Systematic career planning 7,41 1,955
    • Between 6 and 6.99
    • (JP) The position has a high status 6,93 1,961
    • (WP) High job security 6,88 2,050
    • (JP) Flexible working hours 6,82 2,208
    • (JP) Large amount of project work 6,30 2,063
    • Low
    • (JP) Opportunities to work at home 4,81 2,717
    • Scale from 1-low to 10-high
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 9. Expectations towards work
    • Give-and-take relationship with a more short-term focus
    • Work has a meaning if it’s related to individual competence development
    • Varied work content is of paramount importance
    • Work must be “meaningful” in term of results
    • Action and results must be perceived as “morally clean”
    • Individual responsibility highly valued
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 10. Expectations towards work
    • Less emphasis to freedom in the jog: Structured freedom
    • Don’t react negatively to leadership: being managed through trust and empowerment
    • A good place to work is not just a nice place but a challenging, positive and results oriented environment: To have fun just for the sake of it is not an issue
    • To gain recognition and admiration on the immediate work environment (family-like reward system)
    • Status and job security ranked low
    • Transactional and not relational relationship
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 11. Views on careers
  • 12. View on careers
    • Associated with progression, e.g. learning as a life-long process and hierarchical advancement or improved responsibilities
    • Career takes also place outside organizations
    • See themselves in a management position and often predetermined to become CEO
    • Internal locus of control
      • faith in competencies
      • recognition of efforts to achieve goals
      • great degree of self-confidence
    • Little emphasis on networks
      • assumption: we have it
      • family ties matter greatly
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 13. Career aspirations configuration of actors coupling to organisation tight loose stable unstable Company World Self-employed Chronic Flexibility Free-floating professionalism want to be under contract to one or a few organisations for special and challenging tasks, staying with the same organisation only for a limited time aspire to a “freelancer” career with different projects for various clients and ever-changing work contents seek “traditional“ self-employment, i.e. offering a range of quite standardized products and/or services to a relatively stable clientele strive for a position of responsibility and influence and a long-term career within one organisation 49.5% 34.1% 4.8% 11.6% Iellatchitch et al. 2003 ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 14. Career aspirations
    • Only half of the respondents opt for company world
      • Recruitment crisis?
      • Still a solid part of the overall population
    • Other half opts for career outside/alongside companies
      • Temporary relationships, “ Staying for a brief period in time – then I wouldn’t exclude any places”, RJ
      • It seems difficult to ‚bind‘ these people long-term to the company
      • Corroborates with the emphasis on job/position and not so much on workplace/employer
    • Free-floating professionalism very attractive
      • Building elements of this into classic organisations?
      • Are organisations able at all to get these people long-term?
    W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG ivm@Athens 2010
  • 15. Implications for the corporate world
  • 16. Finding your USP in recruiting
    • What do you “sell” as an organisation when trying to attract highly-qualified individuals who are in high demand in their early career?
    • Possible approaches
      • Emphasise the capacity of your organisation to emulate a setting characterised by a concrete series of projects and short-term career episodes compatible with different career aspirations;
      • Refrain from primarily selling the organisation, instead focusing on the tasks and projects you can offer.
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 17. An illustration The Economist, March 6, 2010 ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 18. Relationship building
    • How do you mould the relationship between the organisation and these individuals?
    • Possible approaches
      • As a starting point, acknowledge that they are highly mobile at least in the beginning of their careers
      • They are constantly looking for a better deal where they can get out the most for their future career – don’t necessarily expect them to be with you in the long run
      • Enter into a relaxed quid-pro-quo relationship where both sides – for the time being – enter a rewarding relationship by investing what they can offer
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 19. Rewarding and incentives
    • How do you reward these individuals with a high demand of feedback and recognition?
    • Possible approaches
      • Provide a sound material basis as well as ways of making them feel like a member of the family, e.g. by emphasising work-related personal relationships
      • Give them the spotlight they need, e.g. by explicit social recognition of performance
      • Offer clear benefits in terms of development of career capitals, e.g. technical and social competences, contacts and networks and future career opportunities
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 20. Leadership issues
    • How do you lead this generation of future leaders?
    • Possible approaches
      • Refrain from “talking the talk” before you are not able to “walk the walk”
        • sparse use of grand concepts, career plans, mission statements
        • emphasis on leading by example;
      • Make honest (“no bullshit”) and constant as well as thorough feedback (e.g. 360-degree appraisals) an integral part of your organisation’s leadership style
      • Use the readiness of these individuals to work hard by providing them with the opportunity to make a difference which is important to the organisation and to them
      • Try to build a strong sense of joint mission for the tasks or projects at hand
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 21. Performance – the project ‚Me‘
    • Readiness to work hard
    • Taking into account organisational goals
    • Primary importance: personal and competency development through
      • interesting work and
      • embeddedness in a peer network at work
    • Nevertheless, high income and hierarchical advancement important as expression of recognition
    • Private life has high value
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG
  • 22.
    • o. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Mayrhofer
    • Interdisziplinäre Abteilung für Verhaltenswissenschaftlich Orientiertes Management
    • WU
    • Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien
    • Vienna, Austria, Europe
    • [email_address]
    • www.wu-wien.ac.at/ivm/team/wiss_ma/w_mayrhofer
    • tel. ++43-1-313 36-4553, fax ++43-1-313 36-724
    • Postal address: Althanstrasse 51, A-1090 Wien, Austria, Europe
    ivm@Athens 2010 W. MAYRHOFER/C. OBESO/O. NORDHAUG