Presentation by Connell Foley, Director of Strategy, Concern Worldwide at 2013 Global Hunger Index Launch event held at IFPRI on October 18, 2013. "The Challenge of Hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food And Nutrition Security".
2013 Global Hunger Index Launch Event Concern Worldwide Presentation
Ethiopia 2012: Watershed and Land Regeneration, Walka Melho kebele, Delante woreda, North Wollo.
Operational Research: 3 hunger seasons (2010-12)
Focused on cash transfers as seasonal safety net, Tahoua Region
1. Cash transfers lead to more frequent meals for children and more legume
consumption. A large portion of cash transfers are spent on household food.
2. To improve or maintain nutritional status, cash transfers alone or with CMAM
are not enough and should be integrated with other interventions that
address the causes of malnutrition and food insecurity.
3. Nutrition and food security indicators such as number of hunger days, dietary
diversity scores or global acute malnutrition rate should be monitored to
account for cash transfers’ many uses and to measure the nutritional
success of the program.
Cash transfers and nutrition treatment programs that focused on
seasonal hunger needs were insufficient to create resilience to
periodic hunger crises.
Longer-term development interventions focused on building
absorptive and adaptive coping strategies would be required.
Ethiopia: South Wollo
Dessie Zuria woreda, South Wollo, Amhara Region, stunting =
54%, (national average = 44%).
Woreda chronically food insecure: c. 40% dependent on safety nets.
2000 and 2010 annual surveys: GAM reduced only once to <10%.
High dependence on Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP).
Coping mechanisms: PSNP, begging, eating unpalatable wild fruits, and
Livelihoods very vulnerable to risks and shocks: climate variability, human
and livestock diseases, pests, flooding and landslides.
Resilience building multi-sectoral interventions
Land and water management
Frost tolerant crops in highlands (potato)
Increasing and maintaining livestock assets
Water and sanitation
Early identification of malnutrition and CMAM response
Complementing the PSNP with Fresh Food Vouchers during the
hunger season and with IYCF support
Learning from Ethiopia
Use multisectoral approach to maximize linkages between sectors.
Use existing institutions’ coordination to promote a sense of ownership.
Map real-time, resilience outcomes to create evidence for policy change.
Address the environmental drivers of risk and use DRR technologies and practices for
sustainable food production (e.g. watershed management).
Address gender issues that are critical to achieving resilience.
Create a contingency plan - define surge capacity to help respond to small-scale
disasters or provide an initial response to large-scale disasters.
Support local governments with early warning systems and communicate during even
small disasters to ensure that food security is not threatened by the cumulative effects
of lesser shocks or stressors.
GAM Trends Northern Kenya 2010 and 2011
2010 and 2011 nutrition surveys were conducted between April and June.
Data from these surveys was used to construct maps
GAM & SAM Trends Northern Kenya
2010 and 2011
Global acute malnutrition
Severe acute malnutrition
2011 rate % change
Interventions in Moyale, Kenya
Livelihoods and Water interventions: introducing dryland farming (alongside
pastoralism) producing kale, onion, tomatoes and fruits; introducing drought
tolerant species such as cassava; improving irrigation systems; diversifying
livestock; rangeland management; conflict mitigation on pasture access; and
improved access to water.
Strengthened Gov capacity to respond to nutritional crises: supported the
District Health Management Team through technical training to staff, establishing
technical protocols and quality of care oversight systems, adopting interventions
with the highest impact on mortality, improving budgeting, setting
thresholds, strategies, and protocols for scale up and scale down, and situation
monitoring mechanisms aimed at informing triggers for scale-up.
Early scaling up of high impact nutrition interventions when warnings rang.
Coordination: Kenyan government services, WFP, World Vision (food and cash
Lessons from Kenya ASALS:
Strengthening of resilience at community level: contextually
appropriate, multisectoral interventions worked!
Strengthening government capacity to respond to a nutritional
emergency (―surge capacity model‖)
Early scaling up of high impact interventions
Coordination between government and other partners
Health system strengthening
Ongoing health systems
*Adapted from P. Hailey and D. Tewoldeberha, ENN, 2010, issue 39
Community Resilience to Acute Malnutrition (CRAM)
Linking Humanitarian and Development Programming
1. Conservation Agriculture
Community Resilience to Acute trees)
2. Soil Fertility (including Malnutrition (CRAM)
3. Integrated Pest
In an IntegratedManagement
4. Extension Messages
1. Increased access to safe
• Borehole drilling
• Water conveyancing
2. Promoting improved
• CLTS and PHAST
• Community Latrines
3. Community Water
5. Decreasing post harvest
6. Homestead Gardening
7. Support small scale irrigation
8. Support IGAs
9. Support the development of
1. Improved Community Health
• Community Case
Management and Care
• Effective MAM
2. Health System Strengthening
• Management of the health
• Mobile clinics
1. Increase capacity of
3. Changing Feeding Practices
community groups and
women's participation in
2. Community Conversations
3. Targeting Community
Leaders for attitude and
Concern and Welthungerhilfe Conclusions:
Guiding Principles for Resilience Building
Undertake systematic risk analysis incl. analysis and planning for future
uncertainty and worse case scenarios.
Reduce the causes of vulnerability by building assets and supporting
Address drivers of inequality.
Build up communities’ absorptive and adaptive capacities, including better
access to safety nets and deepening or diversifying livelihoods.
Support enhanced capacity for effective and timely emergency responses.
Build institutions for governance and risk management at local level.
A presentation to Karina Howley, KPMG — 4th April 2011
(Note: large overlaps across the target groups)
International development, humanitarian, and donor
Country-level policymakers in food-insecure countries.
Development and humanitarian practitioners.
Resilience is not a panacea!!
Selected policy recommendations:
int’l development, humanitarian & donor communities
• Break down the institutional, financial, and conceptual
walls separating development and humanitarian
assistance in donor and UN agencies to achieve greater
synergies in strategies and implementation plans.
• Support a coordinated approach to monitoring resiliencebuilding measures and building an evidence base on the
impact and effectiveness of such measures.
• Support a pro-poor resilience approach.
Selected policy recommendations:
country-level policymakers in food-insecure countries
• Develop national approaches to food and nutrition
security that are resilient to shocks and other stresses.
• Encourage and facilitate a multi-sectoral approach to
resilience, coordinating plans and programs across line
• Evaluate national sectoral strategies and action plans
using disaster-proofing and resilience-building lenses.
Selected policy recommendations:
development and humanitarian practitioners
• Focus on improving maternal and child nutrition in
developing regions, with interventions to address the
immediate and underlying causes of undernutrition.
• Support positive coping mechanisms that people already
use, such as community-level savings networks or banks.
• NGOs and their national partners should use their longterm experience in development programming more
proactively to lobby for resilience-enhancing policy