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GHI 2014 The Challenge of Hidden Hunger


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2014 Global Hunger Index The Challenge of Hidden Hunger". Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI & Concern Worldwide

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GHI 2014 The Challenge of Hidden Hunger

  1. 1. 2014 GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX The Challenge of Hidden Hunger 2014-1.0
  2. 2. Why an annual Global Hunger Index (GHI)? • It raises awareness of regional and country differences in hunger. • It shows progress over time. • It highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction. • It provides incentives to act and improve the international ranking. • It focuses on one major hunger-related topic every year. --- --
  3. 3. Rankings • …are a powerful tool used by many sectors. • …attract public and professional attention. • …can spur competition to improve one’s position.
  4. 4. --- -- GHI measures three dimensions of hunger • Undernourishment • Child underweight • Child mortality GHI score = Proportion of the population that is undernourished (in %) + Prevalence of underweight in children under age five (in %) Mortality rate of children under age five (in %) 3 +
  5. 5. --- -- Countries are ranked on a 100 point scale The minimum score (zero) and maximum score (100) are not reached in practice
  6. 6. --- -- 2014 Global Hunger Index by severity
  7. 7. --- -- Contribution of components to GHI scores (by years and region)
  8. 8. --- -- Country progress in reducing GHI scores
  9. 9. --- -- Winners and losers from 1990 to 2014 GHI
  10. 10. --- -- Background • The GHI is calculated for 120 countries where measuring hunger is most relevant and for which data on the three indicators of hunger are available. • The 2014 GHI reflects data from 2009-2013—it is thus a snapshot of the recent past. • The GHI combines these three equally weighted indicators into one score: the proportion of people who are undernourished, the proportion of children under five who are underweight, and the mortality rate of children younger than age five. • An increase in a country’s GHI score indicates that the hunger situation is worsening. A decrease in the GHI score indicates improvement in the country’s hunger situation.
  11. 11. --- -- Key findings—Part 1 • The 2014 world GHI fell by 39 percent from the 1990 world GHI, from a score of 20.6 to 12.5. • Africa south of the Sahara and South Asia have the highest levels of hunger with regional scores of 18.2 and 18.1, respectively. • From the 1990 GHI to the 2014 GHI, 26 countries reduced their scores by 50 percent or more. • In terms of absolute progress, Angola, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, Rwanda, Thailand, and Vietnam saw the greatest improvements, with their scores decreasing by more than 14 points from the 1990 to 2014 GHI.
  12. 12. --- -- Key findings—Part 2 • Sixteen countries still have levels of hunger that are “extremely alarming” or “alarming.” • Most of the countries with alarming GHI scores are in Africa south of the Sahara. The only exceptions are Haiti, Laos, Timor- Leste, and Yemen. • The two countries with “extremely alarming” 2014 GHI scores— Burundi and Eritrea—are in Africa south of the Sahara. • For the Democratic Republic of the Congo (population about 70 million) and other likely hunger hotspots, such as Afghanistan and Somalia, reliable data on undernourishment are badly needed.
  13. 13. --- -- Number of countries by hunger level
  14. 14. --- -- 2 countries “extremely alarming” / 14 “alarming” Country GHI Country GHI Country GHI Burundi 35.6 Timor Leste 29.8 Madagascar 21.9 Eritrea 33.8 Comoros 29.5 Central African Rep. 21.5 Sudan/South Sudan 26.0 Niger 21.1 Chad 24.9 Mozambique 20.5 Ethiopia 24.4 Lao PDR 20.1 Yemen, Rep. 23.4 Zambia 23.2 Haiti 23.0 Sierra Leone 22.5 No complete data are available for Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bhutan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, Myanmar, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, and Somalia
  15. 15. --- -- Good news, but … • The GHI has declined somewhat since 1990, but ... …it remains “serious” at 12.5 and warrants continued concern. • In South Asia (India) underweight in children fell by almost 13 percentage points between 2005–2006 and 2013–2014, but… …much work still needs to be done at the national and state levels so that a greater share of the population will enjoy nutrition security. • Africa has made progress: advances in the fight against HIV/AIDS, malaria, better access to clean water and sanitation, but… …the situation in the Sahel and conflict-stricken countries remains precarious.
  16. 16. --- -- How the GHI correlates with measures of hidden hunger Spearman rank correlation coefficients can range from 0 (no association) to 1 (perfect association). N indicates the number of countries for which the correlation coefficients could be computed.
  17. 17. ----- Prevalence of anemia among preschool-age children 1993-2005
  18. 18. --- -- Percentage of population with selected micronutrient deficiencies
  19. 19. --- -- Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies throughout the life cycle Adapted from ACC/SCN (2000)
  20. 20. --- -- Selected micronutrient deficiencies and their effects Sources: Allen (2001); Andersson, Karumbunathan, and Zimmermann (2012); de Benoist et al. (2008); Micronutrient Initiative (2009); Wessels and Brown (2012); and WHO (2009; 2014a)
  21. 21. --- -- Cycle of hidden hunger, poverty, and stalled development Sources: Black et al. (2013); IFPRI (2014); FAO (2013); von Grebmer et al. (2010)
  22. 22. - ---- Integrated approaches toward improved nutrition outcomes Concern Worldwide: Realigning Agriculture to Improve Nutrition (RAIN) Project in Zambia Welthungerhilfe: Linking Agriculture, Natural Resource Management and Nutrition in Asia (India and Cambodia)
  23. 23. --- -- Concern’s program areas in Zambia
  24. 24. --- -- Welthungerhilfe’s program areas in India
  25. 25. --- -- Welthungerhilfe’s program areas in Cambodia
  26. 26. --- -- 1 Make it a priority to eliminate hidden hunger • Targets and indicators must build on existing national and international nutrition commitments. • Regional, national, and community-based agendas and action plans must reflect these commitments. Policy analysis should go beyond consideration of energy intake and highlight the importance of dietary quality. • Ensure hidden hunger is not overlooked. Micronutrient deficiencies cannot stay in the shadows.
  27. 27. --- - -2Policies must be appropriate, adequate, and connected to each other • Integrate approaches across relevant ministries and stakeholders. • Enhance girls’ access to education. • Increase access to nutritious foods by endorsing targeted social safety nets and support for the poorest. • Each country needs to define the best set of interventions necessary. • Create an enabling environment to improve access to and local availability of micronutrient-rich foods. • Increase support for improved access to local markets and the development of local food processing facilities.
  28. 28. --- - -3Invest in human capacity building and allocate the necessary funds to build expertise and capacity in nutrition at all levels • Invest in increasing the number of nutrition and health experts, and build their capacity, at national and subnational levels, supporting greater coordination and joint interventions. • Expand coordination within and across multilateral institutions, including CGIAR, FAO, WFP, WHO, UNICEF, and civil society organizations.
  29. 29. --- - -4Enhance accountability: Governments and international institutions must create a regulatory environment that promotes adequate nutrition • National governments must translate voluntary codes of conduct into national legislation to ensure that the marketing does not undermine health and diets. Governments should enforce rules. • International organizations and national governments must educate consumers about the nutritional value of foods. • Governments must incentivize private sector entities, such as seed and food companies, to develop more nutritious seeds and foods. • Governments must require companies to communicate nutrition-related information, practices, and performance in a transparent way.
  30. 30. --- - -5Expand monitoring, research, and evidence base to increase accountability • Standardize and regularize data collection on micronutrient deficiencies. Good policies must be backed by reliable data. • Build further evidence of efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and scalability of food-based solutions for fighting hidden hunger.
  31. 31. • Available in English, German, French, and Italian • Download from • Embed interactive world hunger map • Wikipedia and Google Books • Available as interactive e-book for Kindle, iPad, and mobile phone