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Global Hunger Index 2015


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Global Hunger Index 2015 "Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger"

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Global Hunger Index 2015

  1. 1. 2015 GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger
  2. 2. Why an annual Global Hunger Index (GHI)? • It raises awareness of regional and country differences in hunger. • It shows progress over time. • It highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction. • It provides incentives to act and improve the international ranking. • It focuses on one major hunger-related topic every year.
  3. 3. Rankings • …are a powerful tool used by many sectors. • …attract public and professional attention. • …can spur competition to improve one’s position.
  4. 4. GHI measures three dimensions of hunger
  5. 5. Background • The GHI is calculated for 117 countries where measuring hunger is most relevant and where data on the four component indicators are available. • The 2015 GHI is a reflection of the 2010 – 2016 period. It reflects data from 2010-2014—and for the proportion of undernourished projections for 2014-2016. • GHI combines three dimensions that have equal weight and is calculated using the values of four component indicators: 1. Inadequate food supply: Percentage of population that is undernourished 2. Child undernutrition: a. Percentage of children under five years old suffering from wasting (low weight for height) b. Percentage of children under five years old suffering from stunting (low height for age) 3. Child mortality: Percentage of children who die before the age of five (child mortality) • The standardized scores for the four indicators are aggregated to calculate the GHI score for each country • An increase in GHI scores = hunger situation is worsening. A decrease = an improvement.
  6. 6. Different types of childhood malnutrition (abstract)
  7. 7. Stunting (life)
  8. 8. Progress on stunting reduction Numbers of countries on course to meet global (WHA) targets Source: 2015 GNR
  9. 9. Some progress on wasting reduction Numbers of countries on course to meet global (WHA) targets Source: 2015 GNR
  10. 10. GHI severity scale ≤ 9.9 low 10.0-19.9 moderate 20.0-34.9 serious 35.0-49.9 alarming 50.0 ≤ extremely alarming 0 10 20 35 50 The minimum score is zero and the maximum score is 100. In practice neither of these extremes is reached.
  11. 11. GHI severity scale and number of countries ≤ 9.9 low 10.0-19.9 moderate 20.0-34.9 serious 35.0-49.9 alarming 50.0 ≤ extremely alarming 0 10 20 35 50 8 countries 42 countries 23 countries 44 countries
  12. 12. 2015 Global Hunger Index by severity
  13. 13. Regional GHI Scores (with contribution of components)
  14. 14. Country progress in reducing GHI scores % change in 2015 GHI compared with 2000 GHI
  15. 15. How countries fared since 2000
  16. 16. Key findings—Part 1 • The 2015 developing world GHI fell by 27 percent relative to the 2000 score, from 29.9 to 21.7 points. • Africa south of the Sahara and South Asia have the highest levels of hunger with regional scores of 32.2 and 29.4, respectively. • From the 2000 GHI to the 2015 GHI, 17 countries reduced their scores by 50 percent or more. • In terms of absolute progress between 2000 and 2015 Rwanda, Angola, and Ethiopia saw the biggest improvements in scores – however, despite considerable declines in GHI scores, their hunger levels remain high.
  17. 17. Key findings—Part 2 • The countries with the highest 2015 GHI scores, and therefore the highest hunger levels, were the Central African Republic, Chad, and Zambia. • People of the Central African Republic and Chad have faced violent conflict and instability and been plagued with high hunger levels. Armed conflict and hunger are strongly associated. • The countries with the highest GHI scores tend to be those engaged in or recently emerged from war.
  18. 18. 8 countries have still “alarming” hunger levels Country GHI score Central African Republic 46.9 Chad 46.4 Zambia 41.1 Timor-Leste 40.7 Sierra Leone 38.9 Haiti 37.3 Madagascar 36.3 Afghanistan 35.4
  19. 19. 2015 Global Hunger Index scores
  20. 20. Countries where lack of data obscures hunger levels • Undernourishment data were not available for Burundi, Comoros, Eritrea, South Sudan, and Sudan, among others. In the 2014 report these countries had very high (alarming or extremely alarming GHI scores). • Due to missing data, it has not been possible to calculate a GHI score for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (population: ~70 million) since 2011. The DRC had the highest GHI score of all countries in the 2011 GHI report. • Due to data constraints, GHI scores have never been calculated for Somalia, which the World Food Programme considers one of the most food insecure countries in the world.
  21. 21. Global death toll from great famines 1870s-2010s
  22. 22. World population growth and death toll from great famines, 1900 - 2015
  23. 23. Death toll from great famines, 1870s-2010 by continent
  24. 24. Essay - Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger: Is an end in sight? • Essay reveals a historic achievement: Calamitous famines (> 1 million deaths) have been eliminated. • Until recently, great famines (>100,000 deaths) were much more common. Deaths from these famines exceeded 15 million in five separate decades in the 20th century. In the 21st century, the death toll from great famines is near 600,000, still cause for concern, yet low by historical standards. • The end of communist regimes, the adoption of international human rights norms, and the rise of globalization are among key factors that may help us eliminate famine forever. • Despite a decrease in wars over recent decades, the number of violent conflicts and conflict-related deaths has increased from an all-time low in 2006. While the numbers are still low by historic standards, they suggest much more must be done to eliminate war and hunger.
  25. 25. Essay - Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger: Is an end in sight? • Today’s famines are complex humanitarian emergencies caused mostly by armed conflict. These “new wars” involve not only state armies and insurgents, but also paramilitaries and ethnic militia, criminal gangs, mercenaries, and international forces. Most new wars are civil wars, which increasingly spill over borders and disrupt livelihoods and food systems, forcing people to flee. • Although armed conflict and acute hunger have often travelled hand in hand, history has shown that hunger can be averted. Hunger need not result from conflict. • The end of calamitous famines is a big achievement, but our work is not done. Much more must happen before acute and chronic hunger are conquered. • The prevalence and persistence of armed conflict must be reduced, and preferably ended. • The needs and rights of both visible and invisible victims of violent conflict must be addressed.
  26. 26. The level of hunger in developing countries has fallen by 27 percent since 2000, and 17 countries reduced their hunger scores by 50 percent or more relative to the 2000 Global Hunger Index (GHI) scores. Brazil reduced its 2000 GHI score by roughly two-thirds, thanks in part to the government's Zero Hunger program, which improved nutrition and helped decrease child mortality. Despite the progress made, levels of hunger remain “serious” or “alarming” in 52 of the 117 countries with GHI scores. 795 million people are still chronically undernourished; more than one in four children are affected by stunting; and nine percent of children are affected by wasting. It is impossible to know exactly how severe hunger is in some of the world's poorest countries that lack GHI scores. Tremendous progress has been made toward eliminating global hunger 1
  27. 27. 2 Conflicts are strongly associated with severe hunger The countries with the highest GHI scores tend to be those engaged in or recently emerged from war. Central African Republic and Chad are the worst-scoring countries in this year’s GHI. Both have experienced violent conflict and political instability in recent years. In Angola, Ethiopia and Rwanda, hunger levels have fallen substantially since the large scale civil wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended. Severe hunger can exist even without conflicts: Several South Asian and African countries face serious or alarming levels of hunger despite being relatively stable and peaceful in recent history.
  28. 28. 3 All people, no matter where they live, have a right to be protected from famine. Humanitarian aid should not be subject to political interests. We need to address the root causes of conflict by fostering economic development and greater equity within and between countries while strengthening good governance. Food security policies, including targeted social safety nets, and health and nutrition specific programs, enable people to become more resilient to crises. With the current mass displacement, we need a global response to support those fleeing conflict and persecution within or outside of their home countries. Reducing armed conflict and extreme poverty – and addressing their consequences -- are key to ending hunger
  29. 29. • Available in English, German, French, Italian and Korean • Download from • Embed interactive world hunger map • Wikipedia and Google Books • Available as interactive e-book for Kindle, iPad, and mobile phone
  30. 30. Reserve
  31. 31. Country Trends for GHI scores: Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
  32. 32. Country Trends for GHI scores: South, East, and Southeast Asia
  33. 33. Country Trends for GHI scores: East Africa
  34. 34. Country Trends for GHI scores: South America
  35. 35. Country Trends for GHI scores: West Africa
  36. 36. Country Trends for GHI scores: Near East and North Africa
  37. 37. Country Trends for GHI scores: Central America and the Caribbean
  38. 38. Country Trends for GHI scores: Central and Southern Africa
  39. 39. “Marketing” of goals more directed to general public
  40. 40. Number of countries at various stages of progress against global targets on nutrition Source: 2015 GNR
  41. 41. Sustainable Development Goals 169 targets
  42. 42. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) better than Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? 1. The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are more globally collaborative than the millennium development goals (MDGs) 2. The private sector now has a greater role to play 3. The MDGs were not rooted in human rights standards 4. The SDGs are inclusive 5. The indicators present opportunities for civil society engagement 6. The UN can inspire the world with the SDGs
  43. 43. Hunger and nutrition barely register in the SDG Wordcloud of Draft outcome document of the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda
  44. 44. Donors? 4% of spending to nutrition Donor disbursements to nutrition in 2013 Total: $5bn •Specific: $1bn •Sensitive: $4bn
  45. 45. Hunger campaign in an American supermarket