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Infecting Python Bytecode

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A method of infecting python bytecode with self-spreading mechanism. …

A method of infecting python bytecode with self-spreading mechanism.
Presented at the November 2011 meeting of the DC9723.

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  • 1. Spoils of the HackathonLeon FedotovJoey GeralnikItzik Kotler
  • 2. Hackathon:● The hackathon was really awesome● Next "Spoils of the Hackathon" presentation could be given by YOU!● Seriously: come, code, crack, create. It is really fun.
  • 3. pytroj
  • 4. Python’s execution○ Python file is interpreted.○ Bytecode is stored in a file with the same name but with the pyc extension.○ The file is signed with the original file’s system timestamp and executed.○ Next time you run the same file, python will look for a pyc file and check it’s timestamp against the original.○ If they match we are good to go and python only executes the bytecode without reinterpretation.
  • 5. Goals of pytroj○ Self infecting payload.○ Once an infected file is executed pytroj looks for pyc files and prepends itself to them.○ Then the infected file executes its original bytecode.○ If at any time the .py file is updated, the .pyc will be automatically recompiled. This is intentional: the updated code must run or pytroj will be easily detectable.○ However, because pytroj infects all .pyc files on each run it should quickly be reinfected
  • 6. Flow
  • 7. How?○ pytroj opens the file it’s been executing from.○ Reads the bytecode, and finds itself with a string trick - we bound out payload with two strings.○ then it looks for pyc files, and uses the same technique to inject what it found into the files.○ saves the files without touching the timestamp that “signs” the pyc file.
  • 8. Getting started● Code must be able to reproduce.● Quine? No, we cheat.● Program reads itself, locates malicious part, and copies to other .pyc files.
  • 9. Tampering with pyc files● Python marshal module reads pyc files (less magic number and timestamp) and returns code object.● Code object is read only :-(.● Open source to the rescue! Byteplay reads new Code object that can be converted to marshal code objects and are easy to work with.● Include byteplay in pytroj● Payload is now ~30KB.
  • 10. Restructuring - but first!● Cant count the number of times I entered `rm *.pyc` to remove infected pyc files and start again -_-● All it would take is one mistake to enter `rm *.py` instead.● Summary: use version control. Plus, github is free hosting.
  • 11. Restructuring - payload size● How can we decrease size of payload?● Once again, open source to the rescue.● pyminifier takes input file, zips it, converts result to base64, produces output file with: exec zlib.decompress(base64.b64decode ("base64_program_here"))● Minifying byteplay brings payload size down to ~7KB.● For comparison, .pyc files in my /usr/lib/python2.7 range between 100B and 170KB, with most being above 10. 7KB will usually not be noticeable.● can be gunzipped and minimized further but we wanted to keep the logic open and easy to understand.
  • 12. Automatically detecting length of exploit● Simple hack - begin and end code with: signature = "DC9723"● Gets translated into: 0 LOAD_CONST 0 (DC9723) 3 STORE_NAME 0 (signature)● if data.code[1][1] == signature: #Code is already infected return● To find exploit size, iterate over own code until you come to the second signature, easy!
  • 13. Live example!
  • 14. Less than legal next steps:● Infect package on pypi. Installing the package with `pip install infected_django` could infect the whole system.● Malicious code instead of our harmless payload could do anything: keylog, spyware, etc.
  • 15. linx● https://github.com/jgeralnik/Pytroj● http://news.ycombinator.com/item? id=3039439● http://www.symantec. com/connect/blogs/python-has-venom● http://www.google.co.il/search?q=pytroj
  • 16. FIN

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