50120130405022

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50120130405022

  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), pp. 189-193 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET ©IAEME FACTORS FOR DESIGNING ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANET Taniya Jain, Neeti Kashyap Computer science department, Institute of Technology and Management, India. Computer science department, Institute of Technology and Management, India. ABSTRACT Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a technique used for communication between source node and destination node. The communication between these two nodes is done with the help of intermediate mobile nodes which works as routers. Data transmission between mobile devices needs some routing mechanism for choosing optimal path. The classification of routing mechanism can be done on the basis of routing strategies (which includes proactive, reactive, hybrid and flow- control) and network structure (which has flat and hierarchical). On the other hand some of the factors that are being considered for designing of routing algorithms are location aided routing, effective routing, transmission efficiency, energy efficient routing etc. MANETs can be sub divided into (first) VANETs: are used for communication among vehicles considering each vehicle as a node in the network. (second) InVANETs: it includes artificial intelligence that helps vehicles to behave in critical situations like accidents, etc. Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), reach-ability, Location aided routing, energy efficient routing, transmission reliability. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Routing Routing means to choose a path. Routing in internet is the process of moving a packet of data from source to destination by choosing a right path. Routing is an important aspect of network communication because it enables messages to pass from one node or machine to another and eventually reach the target. Each intermediate node or machine performs routing by passing along the message to the node. The routing concept basically involves two steps: firstly, determining optimal routing path, secondly, sending the data (packets).Sending process affects the performance of any network, since other characteristics like reliability, congestion, throughput directly depends on it[1, 2]. 189
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME Routing has two basic types: first, Static Routing: is done by the administrator manually to forward the data packets in the network and is permanent as no any administrator can change its settings [4]. Second, Dynamic Routing: is automatically done by the choice of router. 1.2 MANETs Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have grown in popularity over the recent advancements in technology as it is a versatile and self-configuring infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected by wireless network. A network being self-configured infrastructure-less means that it has the ability to provide instant wireless networking in places where no pre-deployed infrastructure exists. Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. In this type of networking environment nodes and links can fail, and congestion can arise in some areas. Thus, the routing algorithm needs to modify its routes, redirecting traffic and updating databases very quickly and adaptively [1]. 1.3 MANET types 1.1.1 VANETs are vehicular Ad Hoc Network which are used for communication among vehicles on roads and between vehicles and roadside equipment. In this cars are treated as nodes in a network and allow cars approximately 100 to 300 metres away from each other to connect, hence create a network with a wide range. In this cars can drop out of the network when they fall out of signal and other cars can join in when they come in the range of signal. 1.1.2 In VANETs are intelligent vehicular ad hoc networks that are a kind of artificial intelligence that helps vehicles to behave in intelligent manners during vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, accidents, drunken driving etc. 2. ROUTING PROTOCOLS A routing protocol determines the appropriate path over which data is transmitted in a network for communication[2]. Routing protocol can be classified based on network structure as: 1. Flat routing 2. Hierarchical routing 3. Geographic position assisted routing Routing protocol can be classified based on routing strategies as: 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Proactive routing Reactive routing Hybrid routing Flow-oriented routing 190
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 2.1 Proactive routing Proactive protocols are also called as Table- driven protocol, because each node in the network maintains routing tables which contains fresh lists of destinations and their route information. Whenever a new node is removed or added in the network, control messages are sent to the neighbouring nodes and then they update their routing tables. This protocol is suitable for small networks. Ex. OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) The major disadvantages of such protocol are: • More overhead and more consumption of bandwidth. • Slow reaction on restructuring and failures [6,7]. 2.2 Reactive routing Reactive protocols are also called as on-demand protocol, because in this route between source and destination is found when there is need. Whenever there is demand, this routing protocol initiate route discovery, to find the route to the destination. Then it is used for further communication. This approach is suitable when the network is static and traffic is very low. Ex. AODV (Ad hoc on-demand distance vector).The major disadvantages of such protocol are: • High latency time in finding route. • Heavy traffic can lead to network clogging [6,7]. 2.3 Hybrid protocol Hybrid routing protocol consists of advantages of both proactive and reactive routing protocols. The routing is initially established with proactive routing protocol, because initially nodes have tables and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes by starting route discovery, i.e., reactive routing protocol. It balances the delay and control overhead in terms of control packages. Ex. ZRP (Zone routing protocol). The major disadvantages of this protocol are: • • The node with high level topology information requires more memory and power consumption (as they maintain more routing information). Complexity of organizing the network according to network parameters [6,8]. 2.4 Flow-oriented routing Flow-oriented routing protocol finds a route on demand by following present flows in the network. Routing in this can be done by sending data from one node to other node consecutively which leads to a new link. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are: • Without prior knowledge route exploration takes a long time [7]. 3. FACTORS OF ROUTING PROTOCOL DESIGN 3.1 Reach-ability It is the most basic requirement of routing algorithm which specifies the ability of routing algorithm to find at least one path from source node to destination node. The path is regardless of being the optimal in terms of number of hops, energy consumption, etc. 3.2 Location aided routing In a conventional routing algorithm data is flooded across the node which requires high bandwidth and high energy. Lee et al. proposed routing algorithm which utilizes GPS (Global 191
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME Positioning System) information and provides a cost effective approach to obtain real-time node location information. For example, when a mobile device sends a packet then it can utilize the location information of neighbouring mobile devices to select the next hop nodes that are to be sent the packet as specified by the particular location aided MANET routing algorithm [9]. 3.3 Energy efficient routing Power efficiency is one of the most important goals for MANET routing algorithm because when energy decreases, a point is reached where transmission and connection drops and packets are lost. An improved energy efficient algorithm is introduced by using a balanced load routing approach, which says, if one node is constantly receiving and transmitting packets then the node tends to use more power than the idle nodes. To overcome this packet transmission is spread along nodes in the transmission path and it will reduce battery utilisation [9]. 3.4 Transmission reliability Transmission reliability is the key challenge for the commercially deployed MANETS. In a routing algorithm these days, additional reliability is achieved by packet receipt acknowledgement notification. When this notification not received by the source node within the specified time then the source node will re-transmit the data packets [9]. 3.5 Effective routing This is very important requirement of a routing protocol and to achieve this, we need to successfully discover and deliver the packet from the source to the destination. Some measures for effective routing include: • • Packet delivery ratio: it is ratio of data packets delivered to the packets that are generated by source node. Routing overhead: it is the ratio of total number of routing packets to the data packets. 4. CONCLUSION The study presented in this paper gives MANET routing protocols and the major factors for designing of algorithms. These factors give an optimal algorithm. Further study can be done to determine more factors of MANET routing algorithm design. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Dr.D.Sivakumar, B.Suseela, R.Varadharajan: A Survey of Routing Algorithms for MANET : IEEE-International Conference on Advances in Engineering, Science and Management (ICAESM -2012) March 30, 31, 2012. Atul yadav, parag Joshi :Performance of flat Routing Protocols in MANET: International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering ISSN- 2277-1956. Amit shrivastava, nitin chander: Overview of routing protocol in MANETs and Enhancements I reactive protocols :department of computer science, LAMNAR UNIVERSITY. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/ static routing.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_ad_hoc_network, last viewed on 2013-08-22 Manjeet Gupta and Sonam Kaushik: performance comparison study of AODV, OLSR and TORA Routing Protocol for MANETS: International Journal of Computational Engineering Research/ ISSN : 2250-3005. 192
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ad_hoc_routing_protocols. Patil V.P : Efficient AODV routing protocol for MANET with enchanced packet delivery ratio and minimized end to end delay : International Journal of scientific and research publications, volume 2, issue 8, august 2012 ISSN 2250-3153. Farukh Mahmudur Rahman and Mark A Gregory: 4-N Intelligent MANET Routing Algorithm : Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), 2011s. Aarti Bairagi and Shweta Yadav, “A New Parameter Proposed for Route Selection in Routing Protocol for MANET”, International Journal of Information Technology and Management Information Systems (IJITMIS), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 31 - 37, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6405, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6413. Sunita Kushwaha, Bhavna Narain, Deepti Verma and Sanjay kumar, “Effect of Scenario Environment on the Performance of MANETS Routing Protocol: AODV”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 33 - 38, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. V.Ramesh and Dr.P.Subbaiah, “Energy Efficient Preemptive Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for MANET”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 213 - 222, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. Saloni Singla and Tripatjot Singh Panag, “Evaluating the Performance of MANET Routing Protocols”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 125 - 130, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Prerna Malhotra, “A Survey of Energy Efficient AODV Routing Algorithms in MANET”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 213 - 220, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 193

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