SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 6
Download to read offline
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
21
An Enhanced DSR Protocol for Improving QoS in
MANET
Khushboo Gupta
Assistant Professor
Department of CS/IT
Vidya College of Engineering,
Meerut- India
Neetu Bansla
Assistant Professor
Department of CS/IT
Vidya College of Engineering,
Meerut- India
Rajneesh
Assistant Professor
Department of ECE
Shivalik College of Engineering,
Dehradun- India
ABSTRACT
Ad hoc network is a network without centralized
administration in which different users can communicate and
exchange information. In such a structure, all the nodes
participate in order to achieve the network and ensure the
travel of the information. Hence, multihopping techniques are
used to achieve this task. The communication reliability
within an ad hoc network and how the different nodes act are
managed by routing protocols. Nowadays, different types of
protocols exist. Nevertheless, the source routing ones, based
on information known at the source of the communication,
seem to attract more studies. Source routing protocols had
shown interesting results in realistic scenarios in areas such as
military battlefields or airport stations.
This Paper deals with DSR Protocol and is focused on the
multipath aspect of this routing protocol. Since, it is necessary
to understand that multipath techniques enhance reliability
and can ensure security. We have simulated a new multipath
algorithm. The solution had been evaluated with the network
Simulator 2. Since we want to know how our protocol reacts
in different mobility cases, the random waypoint model which
allows us to present relevant results, due to the fact this
situation is taken into account.
Simulation results show that the multipath protocol behaves
better than DSR, the main actual reactive protocol. The
Proposed protocol MSR performs well in high mobility by
using much less overhead than DSR. Additionally, it is
interesting to see that DSR without any modifications manage
poorly in high mobility situation.
Keywords
Ad hoc Network; DSR Protocol; MSR Protocol; NS2
Network Simulator; QOS; MANET; etc
1. INTRODUCTION
An ad hoc network is a wireless network formed by wireless
nodes without any help of infrastructure. In such a network,
the nodes are mobile and can communicate dynamically in an
arbitrary manner. The network is characterized by the absence
of central administration devices such as base stations or
access points. Furthermore, nodes should be able to enter or to
leave the network easily. In these networks, the nodes act as
routers. They play an important role in the route discovery
and route maintenance from source to the destination or from
a node to another one. This is the principal challenge [1] to
such a network. If link breakages occur, the network has to
stay operational by building new routes. The main technique
used is the multi-hopping which increase the overall network
capacity and performances. By using multi-hopping, one node
can deliver data on behalf of another one to a determined
destination.
In addition to this, multipath routing is proposed as an
alternative to single shortest path routing to distribute load
and alleviate congestion the network. In multipath routing,
traffic bound to a destination is split across multiple paths to
that destination. In other words, multipath routing uses
multiple “good” paths instead of a single “best” path for
routing.
The objective of this work is to implement a multipath
protocol based on an existing one. We have chosen DSR for
its reliability and because it seems to impose itself as the best
in the ad hoc network field. To build this new algorithm,
multipath concept should be clearly assimilated. This new
algorithm has been evaluated and compared with other
algorithm which had shown a qualitative behavior.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The DSR protocol consists of two mechanisms: Route
Discovery and Route Maintenance. Route discovery is
initiated by a source whenever the source has a data packet to
send but does not have any routing information to the
destination. To establish a route, the source floods the
network with request messages carrying a unique request ID.
When a request message reaches the destination or a node that
has route information to the destination, the node sends a
route reply message containing path information back to the
source. In order to reduce overhead generated the ―”route
cache” at each node records routes that a node has learned and
overheard during this route discovery phase.
Route Maintenance is the mechanism by which a sender S of
a packet detects network topology changes that render useless
its route to the destination D (e.g., when two nodes listed in
the route have moved out of range of each other). When Route
Maintenance indicates a source route is broken, S is notified
with a ROUTE ERROR packet. The sender S can then
attempt to use any other route to D already in its cache or can
invoke Route Discovery again to find a new route [2].
3. MULTIPATH SOURCE ROUTING
PROTOCOL
Multipath Source Routing introduced, tries to find multiple
disjoint paths from a given source to a destination while
guaranteeing that these paths altogether can satisfy a given
end-to-end reliability (Figure. 3.1). First, source routing is so
flexible that messages can be forwarded on arbitrary paths,
which makes it very easy to dispatch messages to multiple
paths without any demanding path calculation at the
intermediate hops. Second, the on-demand nature of DSR
helps to reduce the routing storage and routing computation
greatly [3, 4].
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
22
Figure 3.1: Multipath Source routing with disjoint-paths
between Source and Destination
3.1. Path Finding
Each route discovered is stored in the route cache with a
unique route index. So it is easy to pick multiple paths from
the cache [5]. In multipath routing, path independence is an
important property because a more independent path set can
offer more aggregate physical resources between a node pair.
(When those resources are not shared, it is less likely that the
performance of one path would affect the performance of
others). To achieve high path independence, disjoint paths are
preferred in MSR. There is no looping problem in MSR, as
the route information is contained inside the packet itself;
routing loops, either short- or long-lived, cannot be formed as
they can be immediately detected and eliminated.
3.2. Packet Forwarding and load balancing
Since MSR uses source routing, intermediate nodes need not
do anything except to forward the packet as indicated by the
route in its header, thus adding no more processing
complexity than that in DSR. All the work for path calculation
is done in the source hosts. In MSR, source nodes are
responsible for load balancing .Within an ad hoc network,
which is always an autonomous system acting as a stub
network, there is less heterogeneity in some sense when
compared to WAN and MAN.
For instance, in WAN or MAN, the maximal band widths that
every node can obtain vary little; so do the round-trip delays.
Therefore, we assume the bandwidth–delay product is a
constant. Thus, the available bandwidth is inversely
proportional to the RTT (Round Trip Time), so the traffic can
be distributed among multiple paths proportional to the
available bandwidth. The principle is inherently simple but
reasonable in wireless networks. In wire line networks, due to
the very different bandwidths, delay cannot be a definite
indicator of the available bandwidth.
When distributing the load, the weighted round-robin
scheduling strategy is used. To aid load balancing and to
decouple the interlayer dependence of delay measurement, a
network layer probing mechanism is employed. Probing is
also an enhancement to the DSR route maintenance
mechanism. Normally, in DSR, a link breakage can be noticed
only when a Route Error message is returned. However, in the
wireless mobile environment, there is a nontrivial chance that
the Route Error message cannot reach the original sender
successfully. Although, “as a last resort, a bit in the packet
header could be included to allow a host transmitting a packet
to request an explicit acknowledgment from the next-hop
receiver”, we found that probing one path constantly only to
test its validity is not cost effective. Therefore, the function of
probing in our MSR is twofold: to obtain the path delay status
and to test the validity of active paths [6].
4. SYSTEM DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENATATION
4.1. Main Design Criteria
Simulator Chosen: We have chosen to work with NS2 [9].
NS2 is available under Linux, with a GPL license. Some
standard algorithms are already implemented in this simulator,
and DSR is one of these.
NS2 is a network simulator; built with C++ and TCL. As
every simulator, the main purpose is to simulate different
networks, to test different protocols [6], and to find the
limitations of each. It has been developed in the California
University, by LBL, Xerox PARC, UCB, and USC/ISI
through the VINT project supported by DARPA.
The simulator is composed of two parts:
 The TCL code: it is used to communicate with the
simulator, and permits to define different simulation
parameters
 The C++ code: it is the main part of the project,
because it defines how the simulator has to behave.
Algorithms chosen: The implementation part is an important
part of the project. By implementing the different solutions,
we can test them, find some improvements and understand
why one works better than another.
One representative algorithm is DSR and the other is the
multipath aspect of the same protocol MSR. This would give
a broad picture of which type of the chosen algorithm
performs well in which environment. The specific algorithms
chosen within each category were DSR for traditional and
MSR for multipath
4.2. Implementation
Network Scenarios: In order to do conduct the tests in a
controlled way, we define a common scenario for both DSR
and MSR, by varying relevant parameters such as the terrain
size, rate of data sent max-speed, packet size node density and
pause time.
Some tools have been developed to build these scenarios. For
example, if we want to have a random model with several
nodes, it is possible to use ’setdest’. It is a tool that generates
random positions and random speeds for a number of nodes.
By doing this, it is easy to use different random models and to
test a protocol [7, 8].
Evaluation parameters: Below are the parameters used to
evaluate the performance of DSR and MSR:
 A choice of 50 random moving nodes on a squared
1000 m by 1000 m area has been used.
 Mobility model for nodes as the random waypoint
propagation mobility model.
 Simulation time is 250s.
 3 sets of velocity have been used: low mobility,
medium mobility and high mobility.
 Data traffic is generated by constant bit rate (CBR)
sessions
 Radio propagation, we use two-ray signal
propagation model
Routing Metrics:
 Packet delivery fraction: Ratio of data packets
received by the destinations to the packets sent by
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
23
the source. (Number of packet receives / number of
packet sends)
 Average end-to-end delay of data packets: The time
taken for the packet to reach the destination, it
includes queuing at the interface queue, delay
during route discovery (ARP) (sum of delay
experienced by each packet of the flow)/number of
packets).
 Throughput: It is the amount of data transferred
successfully over a link from one end to another in a
given period of time. (Number of bits transferred
/Observation duration)
5. SIMULATION AND RESULTS
Simulation is carried with 50 nodes randomly distributed in a
field of 1000 × 1000. A constant bit rate of 0.1Mbytes with a
packet size of 1500 Bytes is used. Mobility models for pause
time (0 to 100 s) are generated with .tcl scripts in ns2 [9]. The
simulation time is set to 250s.
Results have been organized according to the velocity. First
low, then medium and high mobility will be exposed. Three
graphics for each speed has been produced to evaluate the
overall performance: To evaluate MSR, a comparison has
been done between reactive ad hoc protocols, using DSR To
evaluate these two protocols, scenario with random mobility
models and random traffic models have been used.
A set of scenario has been produced, a total of 132 scenarios
have been studied. A summary of the number of scenario
done is shown in the table below.
Table 5.1: Scenario summary of DSR and MSR
Speed Traffic DSR MSR
1m/s 1src-1dst 11 11
1m/s 10src-10dst 11 11
10m/s 1src-1dst 11 11
10m/s 10src-10dst 11 11
20m/s 1src-1dst 11 11
20m/s 10src-10dst 11 11
5.1. Low Mobility (1M/SEC)
DSR is known to perform well in low mobility environment,
in this set of scenario close to the velocity of a pedestrian
(1m/s or 3.6 km/h); DSR and MSR will be analyzed.
 1 source 1 destination continuously sending data:
These scenarios are based on 1 source and 1
destination continuously sending data (CBR over
UDP) in a slow mobility environment.
Figure 5.1: Packet delivery ratio (1m/sec 1src-1dst)
Figure 5.2: Average end to end delay (1m/sec 1src-dst)
As seen on figure 5.1, MSR in low mobility seems to gives
worse results than DSR. MSR performs nearly 3 to 5% below
DSR.
The average end to end delay curves (figure 5.2) are similar
for DSR and MSR but MSR always introduced an additional
delay between 10 ms up to a maximum of 350 ms. These
results show that the mechanisms implicated to enhanced
DSR toward MSR are not sufficient by themselves to increase
DSR’s performance since it lower the results from 3 to 5% in
that specific case.
 These scenario below are based on 10 sources and
10 destinations randomly sending CBR traffic over
UDP) on a low mobility environment.
Figure 5.3: Packet Delivery fraction 1m/s -10src-10dst
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
24
Figure 5.4: Average end to end Delay 1m/s - 10src-10dst
Figure 5.5: Throughput in Kbps 1m/s - 10src-10dst
In this scenario 10 sources and 10 destinations are used. Data
packets are send in a random manner, which is much more
realistic than using 1 source and 1 destination continuously
sending data. In this scenario, the MSR’s PDR is 1 or 2%
higher than DSR.
In this topology the curve is quite similar for DSR and MSR,
but MSR’s end to end delay is significantly reduces at some
pause time (10 s 50s 70 s and 100 s).
Finally, the throughput is always higher with MSR (5 to 10%)
than with DSR.
5.2. Medium Mobility (10m/Sec)
DSR is known to perform well in low mobility environment,
but in high mobility DSR is not the best protocol to use.
Therefore in order to have a more accurate view of how DSR
and MSR are performing on various speeds, a medium
velocity is studied. 10m/s or 36 km/h is close to the speed of a
fast bicycle.
 1 source 1 destination continuously sending data:
The graphics shown below have been produced
with 1 source and 1 destination continuously
sending data (CBR over UDP) in a medium
mobility environment.
Figure 5.6: Packet Delivery fraction 10m/s - 1src-1dst
Figure 5.7: Average end to end Delay 10m/s - 1src-1dst
In medium mobility motion, MSR performs better than DSR
in a range of 3 to 5.
 10 sources 10 destinations randomly sending data:
In a medium mobility environment 10 sources and
10 destinations randomly sending data (CBR over
UDP) have been studied, and graphics have been
produced as shown below.
Figure 5.8: Packet Delivery fraction 10m/s - 10src-10dst
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
25
Figure 5.9: Average end to end Delay 10m/s - 10src - 10dst
Figure 5.10: Throughput 10m/s- 10src-10dst
In medium mobility motion, MSR performs better than DSR.
MSR is 20 to 25% higher than DSR for PDR (figure 5.8). The
average end to end delay (figure 5.9) is always higher both
with DSR and MSR. Due to the routing used with MSR, the
throughput (figure 5.10) is increased with MSR.
5.3. High Mobility (20m/Sec)
DSR, which has been designed to be used in low mobility
environment, has been simulated in a high mobility
environment. In this section the improvement of MSR over
DSR will be shown, for a high mobility velocity of 20m/s or
72 km/h, which is similar to the speed of a car.
 1 source 1 destination continuously sending data: In
a high mobility environment, the graphics shown
below have been produced with 1 source and 1
destination continuously sending data (CBR over
UDP).
Figure 5.11: Packet Delivery fraction 20m/s - 1src-1dst
Figure 5.12: Average end to end Delay 20m/s- 1src-1dst
DSR is known to perform better in low mobility environment,
with 1 source and 1 destination it is clearly shown on graphics
that MSR improves the packet delivery ratio (figure 5.11). As
seen on the medium mobility movement scenario, the PDR of
MSR increases gradually from 3 to 5% in medium mobility to
8 to 10% in high mobility scenario. Adding multipath to DSR
improves the packet delivery ratio in high mobility scenario.
For Both DSR and MSR the average end to end delay (figure
5.12) is highly correlated, but MSR always introduces an
additional delay up to 350 ms.
 10 sources 10 destinations randomly sending data:
To produce the graphics shown below 10 sources
and 10 destinations randomly sending data (CBR
over UDP) have been used.
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018
26
Figure 5.13: Packet Delivery fraction 20m/s - 10src-10dst
Figure 5.14: Average end to end Delay 20m/s - 10src-10dst
Figure 5.15: Throughput 20m/s - 10src - 10dst
In high mobility environment the performance of MSR is
clearly seen. The PDR (figure 5.13) is up to a maximum 30%
higher than in DSR.
The average end to end delay (figure 5.14) is almost the same
as in case of DSR.
The throughput (figure 5.15) still remains higher with MSR
by 20 than with DSR.
6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
Simulations have shown that MSR protocol can be considered
as reliable. The routing metric packet delivery fraction stays
above 30%, even in high mobility case.
Besides, the average end to end delay is improved on the
overall significantly along with multiple flows scenario and
increased mobility speed and at least highly similar to DSR
otherwise.
Characteristics and results for MSR were achieved after an
extensive design part in which the algorithm has been tested.
Indeed, it is that gradual validation of the algorithm and its
implementation that permitted to reduce routing overhead.
Design has been a key part to get reliable results.
This research work could be continued by, for instance,
developing the multipath aspect of our protocol. It could be
achieved by splitting data packets from the source to the
destination; the whole message would not be transmitted by
the same path or the same nodes all the time. Another solution
could be to enforce reliability adding some redundancy code;
in that case, it would allow not sending again packets in case
one link breaks.
7. REFERENCES
[1] Khushboo Gupta and Vaishali Sikka, “Design Issues and
challenges in Wireless Sensor network”, International
Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume
112 – No 4, February 2015
[2] D. Johnson, D. Maltz and Y-C. Hu, "The Dynamic
Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,"
IETF Internet-Draft, Apr. 2003.
[3] L. Almazaydeh, E. Abdelfattah, M. A. Bzoor and A.
Rahayfeh, "Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols
in Wireless Sensor Networks," International Journal of
Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol. 2,
No. 2, Apr. 2010.
[4] R. R. M. V.C . Patil, Rajashree. V. Biradar and S. R.
Sawant, "On-Demand Multipath Routing Protocols for
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Issues and Comparison,"
International Journal of Wireless Communication and
Simulation, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21-38, 2010.
[5] B. Yosi, F. Sharoni and F. Moran, “Dynamic
multipathallocation in Ad Hoc networks,” Computer
Journal, vol.54, no. 2, pp. 197-212, February 2011.
[6] A. Agarwal, K. Gupta, KP. Yadav, “A novel energy
efficiency protocol for WSN based on optimal chain
routing” In Proceedings of the 10th INDIACom;
INDIACom-2016; IEEE Conference ID: 37465
[7] B. Brian, S. Shaya, “Mobile ad hoc network
broadcasting: A multi-criteria approach”, International
Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 24, no. 4, pp.
438-460, April2011.
[8] Sachin Dnyandeo Ubarhande, "Performance Evolution of
AODV and DSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using
NS2", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering
Research Vol 3, Issue 5, May.2012
[9] The network simulator-ns 2.35.
http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns
IJCATM : www.ijcaonline.org

More Related Content

What's hot

IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...ijceronline
 
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANET
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANETPERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANET
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANETijasuc
 
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...IJNSA Journal
 
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in ManetOpportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in ManetIJTET Journal
 
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...IJERD Editor
 
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)Narendra Singh Yadav
 
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETS
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETSIMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETS
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETSIJCNCJournal
 
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETTHE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETIJCNCJournal
 
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANET
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANETDestination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANET
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANETEditor IJCATR
 
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)IJERD Editor
 
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...ijwmn
 
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)graphhoc
 
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORK
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORKCOMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORK
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORKpijans
 

What's hot (18)

Be31390392
Be31390392Be31390392
Be31390392
 
Ha3512291233
Ha3512291233Ha3512291233
Ha3512291233
 
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
 
Mq3624532158
Mq3624532158Mq3624532158
Mq3624532158
 
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANET
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANETPERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANET
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ON EXTENDED ROUTING PROTOCOL OF AODV IN MANET
 
D0441722
D0441722D0441722
D0441722
 
E010322531
E010322531E010322531
E010322531
 
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
 
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in ManetOpportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
 
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...
IJERD (www.ijerd.com) International Journal of Engineering Research and Devel...
 
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)
Influence of Clustering on the Performance of MobileAd Hoc Networks (MANETs)
 
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETS
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETSIMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETS
IMPROVED NETWORK CONNECTIVITY IN MANETS
 
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETTHE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET
THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET
 
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANET
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANETDestination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANET
Destination Aware APU Strategy for Geographic Routing in MANET
 
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
 
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF LINK, NODE AND ZONE DISJOINT MULTI-PATH ROUTING STR...
 
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)
GRAPH THEORETIC ROUTING ALGORITHM (GTRA) FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)
 
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORK
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORKCOMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORK
COMPARING THREE PROTOCOLS OF DODV, DSR, DSDV FOR VANET NETWORK
 

Similar to An Enhanced DSR Protocol for Improving QoS in MANET

Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...
Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...
Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...IJERA Editor
 
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)Narendra Singh Yadav
 
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETs
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETsA SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETs
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETspijans
 
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET  Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET pijans
 
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORKANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORKIJCSIT Journal
 
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...researchinventy
 
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSLOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSIJARIIT
 
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)IAESIJEECS
 
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)IAESIJEECS
 
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless NetworkStudy of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Networkijsrd.com
 
Paper id 252014153
Paper id 252014153Paper id 252014153
Paper id 252014153IJRAT
 
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...IJNSA Journal
 
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...IOSR Journals
 
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networks
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networksA survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networks
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networksMohammad Siraj
 
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr traffic
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr trafficPerformance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr traffic
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr trafficeSAT Journals
 
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocols
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing ProtocolsQoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocols
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocolsrahulmonikasharma
 

Similar to An Enhanced DSR Protocol for Improving QoS in MANET (20)

Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...
Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...
Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Net...
 
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)
Source routing in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)
 
J0935461
J0935461J0935461
J0935461
 
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETs
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETsA SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETs
A SURVEY OF ENHANCED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MANETs
 
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET  Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET
Multipath Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol in MANET
 
A02100108
A02100108A02100108
A02100108
 
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORKANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
 
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is publis...
 
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSLOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
LOAD BALANCING AND PROVIDING SECURITY USING RSA IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
 
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
 
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
20 16 sep17 22jul 8036 9913-2-ed(edit)
 
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless NetworkStudy of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
Study of Attacks and Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
 
Paper id 252014153
Paper id 252014153Paper id 252014153
Paper id 252014153
 
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
Quality of Service Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Node Mobility and ...
 
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...
Cross-layer based performance optimization for different mobility and traffic...
 
Ft3410671073
Ft3410671073Ft3410671073
Ft3410671073
 
10.1.1.258.7234
10.1.1.258.723410.1.1.258.7234
10.1.1.258.7234
 
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networks
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networksA survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networks
A survey on routing algorithms and routing metrics for wireless mesh networks
 
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr traffic
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr trafficPerformance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr traffic
Performance study of adhoc routing protocols for cbr traffic
 
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocols
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing ProtocolsQoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocols
QoS Issues in MANET: A Comparative Study over Different Routing Protocols
 

Recently uploaded

Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxRomil Mishra
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONjhunlian
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfDrew Moseley
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...Erbil Polytechnic University
 
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxCooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxmamansuratman0253
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSsandhya757531
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfManish Kumar
 
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptx
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptxTurn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptx
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptxStephen Sitton
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfAsst.prof M.Gokilavani
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solidnamansinghjarodiya
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfRajuKanojiya4
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxmalikavita731
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodManicka Mamallan Andavar
 
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsResearcher Researcher
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdfHafizMudaserAhmad
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating System
 
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ..."Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
"Exploring the Essential Functions and Design Considerations of Spillways in ...
 
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxCooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
 
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptx
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptxTurn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptx
Turn leadership mistakes into a better future.pptx
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
 
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptxDesigning pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solid
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
 
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptxInternship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
Internship PPT ukai thermal power station .pptx
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
 
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending ActuatorsNovel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
Novel 3D-Printed Soft Linear and Bending Actuators
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
 

An Enhanced DSR Protocol for Improving QoS in MANET

  • 1. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 21 An Enhanced DSR Protocol for Improving QoS in MANET Khushboo Gupta Assistant Professor Department of CS/IT Vidya College of Engineering, Meerut- India Neetu Bansla Assistant Professor Department of CS/IT Vidya College of Engineering, Meerut- India Rajneesh Assistant Professor Department of ECE Shivalik College of Engineering, Dehradun- India ABSTRACT Ad hoc network is a network without centralized administration in which different users can communicate and exchange information. In such a structure, all the nodes participate in order to achieve the network and ensure the travel of the information. Hence, multihopping techniques are used to achieve this task. The communication reliability within an ad hoc network and how the different nodes act are managed by routing protocols. Nowadays, different types of protocols exist. Nevertheless, the source routing ones, based on information known at the source of the communication, seem to attract more studies. Source routing protocols had shown interesting results in realistic scenarios in areas such as military battlefields or airport stations. This Paper deals with DSR Protocol and is focused on the multipath aspect of this routing protocol. Since, it is necessary to understand that multipath techniques enhance reliability and can ensure security. We have simulated a new multipath algorithm. The solution had been evaluated with the network Simulator 2. Since we want to know how our protocol reacts in different mobility cases, the random waypoint model which allows us to present relevant results, due to the fact this situation is taken into account. Simulation results show that the multipath protocol behaves better than DSR, the main actual reactive protocol. The Proposed protocol MSR performs well in high mobility by using much less overhead than DSR. Additionally, it is interesting to see that DSR without any modifications manage poorly in high mobility situation. Keywords Ad hoc Network; DSR Protocol; MSR Protocol; NS2 Network Simulator; QOS; MANET; etc 1. INTRODUCTION An ad hoc network is a wireless network formed by wireless nodes without any help of infrastructure. In such a network, the nodes are mobile and can communicate dynamically in an arbitrary manner. The network is characterized by the absence of central administration devices such as base stations or access points. Furthermore, nodes should be able to enter or to leave the network easily. In these networks, the nodes act as routers. They play an important role in the route discovery and route maintenance from source to the destination or from a node to another one. This is the principal challenge [1] to such a network. If link breakages occur, the network has to stay operational by building new routes. The main technique used is the multi-hopping which increase the overall network capacity and performances. By using multi-hopping, one node can deliver data on behalf of another one to a determined destination. In addition to this, multipath routing is proposed as an alternative to single shortest path routing to distribute load and alleviate congestion the network. In multipath routing, traffic bound to a destination is split across multiple paths to that destination. In other words, multipath routing uses multiple “good” paths instead of a single “best” path for routing. The objective of this work is to implement a multipath protocol based on an existing one. We have chosen DSR for its reliability and because it seems to impose itself as the best in the ad hoc network field. To build this new algorithm, multipath concept should be clearly assimilated. This new algorithm has been evaluated and compared with other algorithm which had shown a qualitative behavior. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW The DSR protocol consists of two mechanisms: Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. Route discovery is initiated by a source whenever the source has a data packet to send but does not have any routing information to the destination. To establish a route, the source floods the network with request messages carrying a unique request ID. When a request message reaches the destination or a node that has route information to the destination, the node sends a route reply message containing path information back to the source. In order to reduce overhead generated the ―”route cache” at each node records routes that a node has learned and overheard during this route discovery phase. Route Maintenance is the mechanism by which a sender S of a packet detects network topology changes that render useless its route to the destination D (e.g., when two nodes listed in the route have moved out of range of each other). When Route Maintenance indicates a source route is broken, S is notified with a ROUTE ERROR packet. The sender S can then attempt to use any other route to D already in its cache or can invoke Route Discovery again to find a new route [2]. 3. MULTIPATH SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL Multipath Source Routing introduced, tries to find multiple disjoint paths from a given source to a destination while guaranteeing that these paths altogether can satisfy a given end-to-end reliability (Figure. 3.1). First, source routing is so flexible that messages can be forwarded on arbitrary paths, which makes it very easy to dispatch messages to multiple paths without any demanding path calculation at the intermediate hops. Second, the on-demand nature of DSR helps to reduce the routing storage and routing computation greatly [3, 4].
  • 2. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 22 Figure 3.1: Multipath Source routing with disjoint-paths between Source and Destination 3.1. Path Finding Each route discovered is stored in the route cache with a unique route index. So it is easy to pick multiple paths from the cache [5]. In multipath routing, path independence is an important property because a more independent path set can offer more aggregate physical resources between a node pair. (When those resources are not shared, it is less likely that the performance of one path would affect the performance of others). To achieve high path independence, disjoint paths are preferred in MSR. There is no looping problem in MSR, as the route information is contained inside the packet itself; routing loops, either short- or long-lived, cannot be formed as they can be immediately detected and eliminated. 3.2. Packet Forwarding and load balancing Since MSR uses source routing, intermediate nodes need not do anything except to forward the packet as indicated by the route in its header, thus adding no more processing complexity than that in DSR. All the work for path calculation is done in the source hosts. In MSR, source nodes are responsible for load balancing .Within an ad hoc network, which is always an autonomous system acting as a stub network, there is less heterogeneity in some sense when compared to WAN and MAN. For instance, in WAN or MAN, the maximal band widths that every node can obtain vary little; so do the round-trip delays. Therefore, we assume the bandwidth–delay product is a constant. Thus, the available bandwidth is inversely proportional to the RTT (Round Trip Time), so the traffic can be distributed among multiple paths proportional to the available bandwidth. The principle is inherently simple but reasonable in wireless networks. In wire line networks, due to the very different bandwidths, delay cannot be a definite indicator of the available bandwidth. When distributing the load, the weighted round-robin scheduling strategy is used. To aid load balancing and to decouple the interlayer dependence of delay measurement, a network layer probing mechanism is employed. Probing is also an enhancement to the DSR route maintenance mechanism. Normally, in DSR, a link breakage can be noticed only when a Route Error message is returned. However, in the wireless mobile environment, there is a nontrivial chance that the Route Error message cannot reach the original sender successfully. Although, “as a last resort, a bit in the packet header could be included to allow a host transmitting a packet to request an explicit acknowledgment from the next-hop receiver”, we found that probing one path constantly only to test its validity is not cost effective. Therefore, the function of probing in our MSR is twofold: to obtain the path delay status and to test the validity of active paths [6]. 4. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENATATION 4.1. Main Design Criteria Simulator Chosen: We have chosen to work with NS2 [9]. NS2 is available under Linux, with a GPL license. Some standard algorithms are already implemented in this simulator, and DSR is one of these. NS2 is a network simulator; built with C++ and TCL. As every simulator, the main purpose is to simulate different networks, to test different protocols [6], and to find the limitations of each. It has been developed in the California University, by LBL, Xerox PARC, UCB, and USC/ISI through the VINT project supported by DARPA. The simulator is composed of two parts:  The TCL code: it is used to communicate with the simulator, and permits to define different simulation parameters  The C++ code: it is the main part of the project, because it defines how the simulator has to behave. Algorithms chosen: The implementation part is an important part of the project. By implementing the different solutions, we can test them, find some improvements and understand why one works better than another. One representative algorithm is DSR and the other is the multipath aspect of the same protocol MSR. This would give a broad picture of which type of the chosen algorithm performs well in which environment. The specific algorithms chosen within each category were DSR for traditional and MSR for multipath 4.2. Implementation Network Scenarios: In order to do conduct the tests in a controlled way, we define a common scenario for both DSR and MSR, by varying relevant parameters such as the terrain size, rate of data sent max-speed, packet size node density and pause time. Some tools have been developed to build these scenarios. For example, if we want to have a random model with several nodes, it is possible to use ’setdest’. It is a tool that generates random positions and random speeds for a number of nodes. By doing this, it is easy to use different random models and to test a protocol [7, 8]. Evaluation parameters: Below are the parameters used to evaluate the performance of DSR and MSR:  A choice of 50 random moving nodes on a squared 1000 m by 1000 m area has been used.  Mobility model for nodes as the random waypoint propagation mobility model.  Simulation time is 250s.  3 sets of velocity have been used: low mobility, medium mobility and high mobility.  Data traffic is generated by constant bit rate (CBR) sessions  Radio propagation, we use two-ray signal propagation model Routing Metrics:  Packet delivery fraction: Ratio of data packets received by the destinations to the packets sent by
  • 3. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 23 the source. (Number of packet receives / number of packet sends)  Average end-to-end delay of data packets: The time taken for the packet to reach the destination, it includes queuing at the interface queue, delay during route discovery (ARP) (sum of delay experienced by each packet of the flow)/number of packets).  Throughput: It is the amount of data transferred successfully over a link from one end to another in a given period of time. (Number of bits transferred /Observation duration) 5. SIMULATION AND RESULTS Simulation is carried with 50 nodes randomly distributed in a field of 1000 × 1000. A constant bit rate of 0.1Mbytes with a packet size of 1500 Bytes is used. Mobility models for pause time (0 to 100 s) are generated with .tcl scripts in ns2 [9]. The simulation time is set to 250s. Results have been organized according to the velocity. First low, then medium and high mobility will be exposed. Three graphics for each speed has been produced to evaluate the overall performance: To evaluate MSR, a comparison has been done between reactive ad hoc protocols, using DSR To evaluate these two protocols, scenario with random mobility models and random traffic models have been used. A set of scenario has been produced, a total of 132 scenarios have been studied. A summary of the number of scenario done is shown in the table below. Table 5.1: Scenario summary of DSR and MSR Speed Traffic DSR MSR 1m/s 1src-1dst 11 11 1m/s 10src-10dst 11 11 10m/s 1src-1dst 11 11 10m/s 10src-10dst 11 11 20m/s 1src-1dst 11 11 20m/s 10src-10dst 11 11 5.1. Low Mobility (1M/SEC) DSR is known to perform well in low mobility environment, in this set of scenario close to the velocity of a pedestrian (1m/s or 3.6 km/h); DSR and MSR will be analyzed.  1 source 1 destination continuously sending data: These scenarios are based on 1 source and 1 destination continuously sending data (CBR over UDP) in a slow mobility environment. Figure 5.1: Packet delivery ratio (1m/sec 1src-1dst) Figure 5.2: Average end to end delay (1m/sec 1src-dst) As seen on figure 5.1, MSR in low mobility seems to gives worse results than DSR. MSR performs nearly 3 to 5% below DSR. The average end to end delay curves (figure 5.2) are similar for DSR and MSR but MSR always introduced an additional delay between 10 ms up to a maximum of 350 ms. These results show that the mechanisms implicated to enhanced DSR toward MSR are not sufficient by themselves to increase DSR’s performance since it lower the results from 3 to 5% in that specific case.  These scenario below are based on 10 sources and 10 destinations randomly sending CBR traffic over UDP) on a low mobility environment. Figure 5.3: Packet Delivery fraction 1m/s -10src-10dst
  • 4. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 24 Figure 5.4: Average end to end Delay 1m/s - 10src-10dst Figure 5.5: Throughput in Kbps 1m/s - 10src-10dst In this scenario 10 sources and 10 destinations are used. Data packets are send in a random manner, which is much more realistic than using 1 source and 1 destination continuously sending data. In this scenario, the MSR’s PDR is 1 or 2% higher than DSR. In this topology the curve is quite similar for DSR and MSR, but MSR’s end to end delay is significantly reduces at some pause time (10 s 50s 70 s and 100 s). Finally, the throughput is always higher with MSR (5 to 10%) than with DSR. 5.2. Medium Mobility (10m/Sec) DSR is known to perform well in low mobility environment, but in high mobility DSR is not the best protocol to use. Therefore in order to have a more accurate view of how DSR and MSR are performing on various speeds, a medium velocity is studied. 10m/s or 36 km/h is close to the speed of a fast bicycle.  1 source 1 destination continuously sending data: The graphics shown below have been produced with 1 source and 1 destination continuously sending data (CBR over UDP) in a medium mobility environment. Figure 5.6: Packet Delivery fraction 10m/s - 1src-1dst Figure 5.7: Average end to end Delay 10m/s - 1src-1dst In medium mobility motion, MSR performs better than DSR in a range of 3 to 5.  10 sources 10 destinations randomly sending data: In a medium mobility environment 10 sources and 10 destinations randomly sending data (CBR over UDP) have been studied, and graphics have been produced as shown below. Figure 5.8: Packet Delivery fraction 10m/s - 10src-10dst
  • 5. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 25 Figure 5.9: Average end to end Delay 10m/s - 10src - 10dst Figure 5.10: Throughput 10m/s- 10src-10dst In medium mobility motion, MSR performs better than DSR. MSR is 20 to 25% higher than DSR for PDR (figure 5.8). The average end to end delay (figure 5.9) is always higher both with DSR and MSR. Due to the routing used with MSR, the throughput (figure 5.10) is increased with MSR. 5.3. High Mobility (20m/Sec) DSR, which has been designed to be used in low mobility environment, has been simulated in a high mobility environment. In this section the improvement of MSR over DSR will be shown, for a high mobility velocity of 20m/s or 72 km/h, which is similar to the speed of a car.  1 source 1 destination continuously sending data: In a high mobility environment, the graphics shown below have been produced with 1 source and 1 destination continuously sending data (CBR over UDP). Figure 5.11: Packet Delivery fraction 20m/s - 1src-1dst Figure 5.12: Average end to end Delay 20m/s- 1src-1dst DSR is known to perform better in low mobility environment, with 1 source and 1 destination it is clearly shown on graphics that MSR improves the packet delivery ratio (figure 5.11). As seen on the medium mobility movement scenario, the PDR of MSR increases gradually from 3 to 5% in medium mobility to 8 to 10% in high mobility scenario. Adding multipath to DSR improves the packet delivery ratio in high mobility scenario. For Both DSR and MSR the average end to end delay (figure 5.12) is highly correlated, but MSR always introduces an additional delay up to 350 ms.  10 sources 10 destinations randomly sending data: To produce the graphics shown below 10 sources and 10 destinations randomly sending data (CBR over UDP) have been used.
  • 6. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 181 – No. 15, September 2018 26 Figure 5.13: Packet Delivery fraction 20m/s - 10src-10dst Figure 5.14: Average end to end Delay 20m/s - 10src-10dst Figure 5.15: Throughput 20m/s - 10src - 10dst In high mobility environment the performance of MSR is clearly seen. The PDR (figure 5.13) is up to a maximum 30% higher than in DSR. The average end to end delay (figure 5.14) is almost the same as in case of DSR. The throughput (figure 5.15) still remains higher with MSR by 20 than with DSR. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Simulations have shown that MSR protocol can be considered as reliable. The routing metric packet delivery fraction stays above 30%, even in high mobility case. Besides, the average end to end delay is improved on the overall significantly along with multiple flows scenario and increased mobility speed and at least highly similar to DSR otherwise. Characteristics and results for MSR were achieved after an extensive design part in which the algorithm has been tested. Indeed, it is that gradual validation of the algorithm and its implementation that permitted to reduce routing overhead. Design has been a key part to get reliable results. This research work could be continued by, for instance, developing the multipath aspect of our protocol. It could be achieved by splitting data packets from the source to the destination; the whole message would not be transmitted by the same path or the same nodes all the time. Another solution could be to enforce reliability adding some redundancy code; in that case, it would allow not sending again packets in case one link breaks. 7. REFERENCES [1] Khushboo Gupta and Vaishali Sikka, “Design Issues and challenges in Wireless Sensor network”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 112 – No 4, February 2015 [2] D. Johnson, D. Maltz and Y-C. Hu, "The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IETF Internet-Draft, Apr. 2003. [3] L. Almazaydeh, E. Abdelfattah, M. A. Bzoor and A. Rahayfeh, "Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks," International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, Apr. 2010. [4] R. R. M. V.C . Patil, Rajashree. V. Biradar and S. R. Sawant, "On-Demand Multipath Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Issues and Comparison," International Journal of Wireless Communication and Simulation, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21-38, 2010. [5] B. Yosi, F. Sharoni and F. Moran, “Dynamic multipathallocation in Ad Hoc networks,” Computer Journal, vol.54, no. 2, pp. 197-212, February 2011. [6] A. Agarwal, K. Gupta, KP. Yadav, “A novel energy efficiency protocol for WSN based on optimal chain routing” In Proceedings of the 10th INDIACom; INDIACom-2016; IEEE Conference ID: 37465 [7] B. Brian, S. Shaya, “Mobile ad hoc network broadcasting: A multi-criteria approach”, International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 438-460, April2011. [8] Sachin Dnyandeo Ubarhande, "Performance Evolution of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using NS2", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol 3, Issue 5, May.2012 [9] The network simulator-ns 2.35. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns IJCATM : www.ijcaonline.org