Animism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Africa, No holy book – mostly oral traditions Found among manyLatin America All things in nature have a soul (Trees, stones, pastoral nomadic tribal rivers, etc.) villages. No Founder Use of Shaman or Diviners who conducted Tribal masks inspired ceremonies and rituals and used fetishes Cubist art movement Ancestor Veneration – Your ancestor’s spirits watch over you and can protect you.
Hinduism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance India Brahman-supreme force: Gods are Caste System: Rigid3000 B.C.E. manifestations of Brahman (Vishnu- social structure, born preserver, Shiva-destroyer) into caste, must Spread Reincarnation. Dharma: rules and perform certain job, orthroughout India obligations. Karma: fate based on how Jati. Stationary dharma was met. Ganges is sacred river, Moshka: highest state of being, release of performance of rituals Religion soul Spawned Buddhism Vedas and Upanishads
Caste System Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas ShudrasPariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
Buddhism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance India, Nepal Founded by Siddhartha Guatama No Caste system, No Supreme Being– Buddha “Enlightened one” appealed to lower classes. 563 B.C.E. Four Noble Truths – Life is suffering caused by Not attached to social Spread structure, spread rapidly desire, follow Eight Fold Path throughout to other cultures.India, China, Nirvana, state of perfect peace and harmony path may take several lifetimes: Reincarnation, Ashoka adopted Japan, S.E. Buddhism. Asia Dharma, Karma Force of cultural diffusion Theraveda: meditation, harmony, Buddha not a Missionary via trade, Silk Road, god (Lesser Vehicle) Religion missionary Religion Mahayana: more complex, greater ritual, reliance on priests. Buddha a diety
Confucianism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance China Founded by Confucius (Kong Fu Tse) As a ethical, social, 500 Political-social philosophy, not religion political belief system it B.C.E. Moral, ethical, also practical – The Analects was compatible with other religions, couldSpread to Five Right relationships = right society: Parent practice Buddhism and Japan, to Child (Filial Piety), Ruler to Subject, Older toS.E. Asia Confucianism Younger, Husband to Wife, Friend to Friend. Embraced by Han, Education is valuable and everyone should be Tang, Song, Ming able to get one. Become a gentleman. Dynasties. Civil Put aside personal ambition for good of state Service Exam
Daoism-Taoism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books SignificanceChina Founded by Lao-tzu, philosopher Self-sufficient communities 500 Dao = “The Way” (of nature/cosmos) Counter to Confucian activismB.C.E. Wu wei- non-doing, harmony with nature Emphasis on harmony w/ Eternal principles, passive, yielding. nature leads gains: Like water, yet strong, shaping. astronomy, botany, chemistry Yin-Yang – symbol of balance in nature Co-existed w/Confucianism, Buddhism, Legalism Added to complexity of Chinese culture
Legalism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance China Founded by Han Feizi Accomplished swift reunification of China. 500 The Q’in Dynasty- Shi Huangdi Completion of projects B.C.E. Peace & order through centralized, tightly controlled state like the Great Wall. Mistrust of human nature; reliance on tough laws Caused widespread Punish those who break laws, reward those who resentment among common people, led to follow wider acceptance of 2 most worthy jobs: farmer, soldier Confucianism-Daoism.
Shintoism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Japan God in all of us and in all of nature. Our body is the Justified power of visible temple for the soul. Emperor500BCE Anaterasu is the Sun Goddess and main god or kami. Emperor is descendant and was seen as divine During Meiji Restoration, No “Tori” is the symbol of prosperity in Shintoism and the Shintoism was used tofounder sacred gates that are found in front of all Shinto temples unite Japanese in Japan. People write wishes on the Tori gates wishing for good health, wealth and prosperity. During WWII, Kamikaze There are no written doctrines pilots sacrificed There are gods in every object in nature (Kami) themselves for their Animist - Ancestor veneration Emperor
Judaism Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Middle Founded by Abraham, Moses The First East, Hebrews were chosen by God, special status Monotheistic Belief Caanan System Personal relationship with God – a covenantJerusalem Led to Christianity Afterlife, tradition, doctrines, philosophy, and Islam 3000 personal salvation. Forced migration – B.C.E. To honor, serve God, promote prophets – Exodus, Diaspora, Wailing Wall Holocaust A religion & culture – Torah, Talmud Like Hinduism – 10 Commandments, waiting for messiah Stationary faith
Christianity Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Middle Founded by Jesus of Nazareth - Bible Emphasis on East, Splinter group of Jews, quickly spread salvation, eternal lifeJerusalem throughout Roman Empire despite persecution after death appealed 30 C.E. to lower classes, Jesus, son of God, Messiah of Jewish prophecy women Spread Devotion to God, love of fellow man -north and monotheistic Combo of religion & west empire = huge impact Jesus sent to redeem man from sin on political, socialthroughout Europe, Salvation by faith in divinity, death, and development ofAmericas resurrection of Jesus. Europe Missionary Crucified by Roman gov’t 30 CE Religion
Islam Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books SignificanceMiddle East, Founded by Muhammad- Prophet – Koran Led to Islamic Mecca, Five Pillars of Faith: Empires Umayyad Medina, Allah is one true God, Prophet is Muhammad Caliphate, Abbasids, Jerusalem Ottoman, Mughal Pray Five times a day facing Mecca 622 C.E. Shiite-Sunni Split Almsgiving – give to the poorSpread North Crusades – Holy Ramadan – Fasting wars Africa,S.E.Asia, U.S. Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca Missionary religion Can not eat pork, gamble, drink alcohol, smoke Jihad – Struggle in God’s service
Big Picture Themes! Period 1 & 2 Period 3 Foundations and Classical Development of Empire and eras of civilization spread of civilizations Classical Era – achievements in Classical Civs collapse – Rise arts, architecture, science, Math, of Post Classical Civs - continue weapons, metals, literature to achieve in different ways. Nomads are major outside Golden Age of Nomads! threat to sedentary peoples Continue to be biggest outside and impact Civs. threat to civilization and Empire Religion and goods spread Religion and goods spread over the Silk Road over Silk Road Extensive land routes and Land and sea routes expand! regional water routes Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan, River networks in Russia and Africa World Religions of Judaism, Golden Age of Religion – Christianity, Hinduism and Power in government - Rise Buddhism are established and Spread of Islam