Successfully reported this slideshow.

Indian Independence

19,858 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Indian Independence

  1. 1. THE BIRTH OF TWO NATIONS INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
  2. 2. India Under the British Raj: 1858-1947 India was the “Jewel of the Crown” of the British EmpireIndia was the “Jewel of the Crown” of the British Empire Ruled by a Viceroy, or Governor, appointed by the British Ruled by a Viceroy, or Governor, appointed by the British Indian citizens had limited political role or say inIndian citizens had limited political role or say in
  3. 3. The Indian National Congress Formed in 1885Formed in 1885 Claimed to represent all Indians! Hindus outnumbered Muslims 2:1 Claimed to represent all Indians! Hindus outnumbered Muslims 2:1 Middle class, Western educated, professionalsMiddle class, Western educated, professionals Led to rise of nationalism!Led to rise of nationalism!
  4. 4. India: Indian National Congress •Wanted social equality with British Wanted ____________________– voice in the government Wanted to prevent mass peasant uprising Wanted to use peaceful methods to reach goals – had faith in British system •Wanted social equality with British Wanted ____________________– voice in the government Wanted to prevent mass peasant uprising Wanted to use peaceful methods to reach goals – had faith in British system Local Self-rule
  5. 5. India: The Muslim League Forms Formed in 1906Formed in 1906 Concerned about Muslim minority!Concerned about Muslim minority! Middle class, Western educated, professionalsMiddle class, Western educated, professionals Led to rise of Muslim nationalism!Led to rise of Muslim nationalism! Muslims mistrust Hindu domination in the Congress PartyMuslims mistrust Hindu domination in the Congress Party
  6. 6. Middle class, Western educated, professionalsMiddle class, Western educated, professionals Led to rise of Muslim nationalism!Led to rise of Muslim nationalism! •Protect the interests, liberties and rights of Muslims •Wanted representation in Local Self rule •Promote an understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians – discourage violence. •Educate the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government •Protect the interests, liberties and rights of Muslims •Wanted representation in Local Self rule •Promote an understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians – discourage violence. •Educate the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government India: The Muslim League Forms
  7. 7. INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION LEADERS OF THE MOVEMENT
  8. 8. B.G. TilakB.G. Tilak "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it!" "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it!" •Radical Hindu Activist •Wanted Total Independence •Supported use of violence •Inspired Hindu Nationalism
  9. 9. Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah •Practical Muslim Lawyer •Wanted Local-Self Rule and remain part of British Commonwealth •Supported use of political negotiations •Inspired Hindu-Muslim Unity The Hindus and the [Muslims] should stand united and use every constitutional and legitimate means to affect that transfer [of power] as soon as possible.” The Hindus and the [Muslims] should stand united and use every constitutional and legitimate means to affect that transfer [of power] as soon as possible.”
  10. 10. FilmFilm Mohandas K. Gandhi •Idealist Hindu Lawyer •Wanted Local-Self Rule and remain part of British Commonwealth •Supported use of non- violent people’s movement •Inspired Hindu-Muslim Unity “I object to violence because it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent.” “I object to violence because it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent.”
  11. 11. INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION MAJOR EVENTS
  12. 12. The Lucknow Pact: 1916 Jinnah proposed the Lucknow Pact –  Would have given Indians self-government, more parliamentary freedoms, equality in the army, and remain a part of the British Commonwealth  Congress and Muslim League agreed to give voice to areas where each was a minority  Rejected by the British due to World War I – No time to deal with India Jinnah proposed the Lucknow Pact –  Would have given Indians self-government, more parliamentary freedoms, equality in the army, and remain a part of the British Commonwealth  Congress and Muslim League agreed to give voice to areas where each was a minority  Rejected by the British due to World War I – No time to deal with India
  13. 13.  WWI: 1914-1919 1. Britain promises India self-rule if they help fight in the war 2. Gandhi supports war effort in hopes of achieving self-rule for India 3. When war ends, Britain made a few reforms and refused to grant India self-government 4. _________________ - placed restrictions on Indian Civil Rights - stricter control of the press, arrests without warrant, indefinite detention without trial, no public gatherings. World War I Gandhi was a stretcher-bearer with the Ambulance Corps. This picture is in South Africa, 1899 during the Boer War. The Rowlatt Act
  14. 14.  The Amritsar Massacre - 1919  British general banned public meetings in the city of Amritsar  Many people ignored the order and conducted an independence meeting  The General and his troops opened fire of the crowd killing 379 and wounding 1100 General Dyer How did the Amritsar massacre change the attitude and goal of the Indian National Congress and Muslim League? Amritsar Massacre
  15. 15. Gandhi said, “Cooperation in any shape or form with this satanic government is sinful.”
  16. 16. INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION GANDHI AND SATYAGRAHA
  17. 17. According to Gandhi, what are his three goals to win independence from Great Britain? Message to the Masse 3. Must defy the British – Not through violence3. Must defy the British – Not through violence 1. Hindu-Muslim Unity1. Hindu-Muslim Unity 2. Must end untouchability2. Must end untouchability
  18. 18.  Gandhi emerges as spiritual leader for Indian Independence  A. _________________ refusing to obey unjust laws and purposely breaking them  B.__________________ Non-violent protests using two major aspects:  Satyagraha = “soul force” Opponents must be weaned from error by patience and compassion  Ahimsa = Love for all Mohandas K. Gandhi, The “Mahatma” or Great Soul “Satyagraha is a weapon of the strong; it admits of no violence under any circumstance whatsoever; and it ever insists upon truth.” “Satyagraha is a weapon of the strong; it admits of no violence under any circumstance whatsoever; and it ever insists upon truth.” Civil disobedience Passive resistance
  19. 19.  Boycotts British goods – especially textiles. He encouraged _____________ clothing and wore a __________, simple white garment traditionally worn by villagers.  Goes on Hunger strikes in prison and to stop violent protests. Homespun Movement dhoti homespun
  20. 20. “I believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it. The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or complete independence.” Gandhi According to the quote, what ideals have influenced Gandhi? Who may be threatened by this rhetoric? According to the quote, what ideals have influenced Gandhi? Who may be threatened by this rhetoric? Do NowDo Now
  21. 21. The Salt March 1. British law claimed that the British had sole right to produce and sell salt in India 2. Gandhi wrote to Viceroy stating his intent to break the law 3. With 78 followers he marched 240 miles to the sea. By the time he reached the sea, thousands of people had joined the march
  22. 22. The Salt March March 12, 1930, Gandhi and 78 male satyagrahis started their 23-day-long journey 4. Gandhi and others harvested salt from the sea and were arrested 5. Reporters around the world reported the incident. The event embarrassed the British government who prided themselves on their democratic traditions. 6. Government of India Act -British remained central administrator but allowed Indian led provincial government – led to British Indian cooperation until WWII 4. Gandhi and others harvested salt from the sea and were arrested 5. Reporters around the world reported the incident. The event embarrassed the British government who prided themselves on their democratic traditions. 6. Government of India Act -British remained central administrator but allowed Indian led provincial government – led to British Indian cooperation until WWII
  23. 23. Hindu-Muslim Division Disagreement with Gandhi led to Muslim- Congress split  Jinnah began to fear Hindu domination of Congress – A “Hindu Raj”  Began to support the idea for an independent Muslim homeland_____________ meaning ________________________. Disagreement with Gandhi led to Muslim- Congress split  Jinnah began to fear Hindu domination of Congress – A “Hindu Raj”  Began to support the idea for an independent Muslim homeland_____________ meaning ________________________. Pakistan “land of the Pure”
  24. 24. World War II A. All Independence talks were postponed for duration of war B. Britain declares war for India without consulting them C. Quit India Campaign - Many members in Congress, start a non-cooperation campaign to protest war – Muslims support British for equal say at independence negotiations A. All Independence talks were postponed for duration of war B. Britain declares war for India without consulting them C. Quit India Campaign - Many members in Congress, start a non-cooperation campaign to protest war – Muslims support British for equal say at independence negotiations
  25. 25. INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION India Independence Act
  26. 26. India Independence and Partition  Grants full Independence to India in 1947  India Independence Act: Creates East and West Pakistan to avoid religious conflict – Gandhi not pleased Jinnah was able to get equal say at negotiations and refused to accept living under “Hindu Rule.” Jinnah planned to say a joke when he met Lady Mountbatten when he said, “A rose between two thorns.” However, he thought she would be in the middle.
  27. 27. India Independence and Partition Why was Pakistan created with such odd borders? What do you think will happen with the Muslims in India and the Hindus in Pakistan? M uslim s Muslims Hindus Hindus Do NowDo Now
  28. 28. Great Migration  Mass migration occur – thousands of Muslims and Hindus attempt to cross the borders of Pakistan and India  Extreme violence at the borders kills over 1 million people, millions are left homeless.
  29. 29. Great Migration  Gandhi opposes violence and fasts to make the horrors stop  Gandhi becomes a victim when he was assassinated on January 30, 1948 by a Hindu extremist who thought Gandhi was too protective of Muslims  Jinnah dies on September 11,1948 from tuberculosis
  30. 30.  Gandhi was shot in the chest 3 times at point blank range on January 30, 1948 in New Delhi.  Nathuram Godse was a Hindu nationalist who thought Gandhi was betraying the Hindus and giving too much to the Muslims. Nathuram Vinayak GodseNathuram Vinayak Godse  After a trial that lasted over a year, Godse was sentenced to death on November 8, 1949.  India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and two of Gandhi's sons pleaded for a prison sentence and not the death penalty that would dishonor Gandhi’s legacy of non-violence.  Godse was hanged a week later. Assassination of Gandhi
  31. 31. Indian Independence and Partition _______________ was India’s first Prime Minister. He introduced a Western-style secular government based on universal suffrage, religious freedom, social equality and the abolition of the caste system. The Indian economy successfully combined government-run industry with _______________________________. . _______________ was India’s first Prime Minister. He introduced a Western-style secular government based on universal suffrage, religious freedom, social equality and the abolition of the caste system. The Indian economy successfully combined government-run industry with _______________________________. . Jawaharal Nehru Private enterprise Nehru led the developing nations in practicing _____________ with the Superpowers and thus, received enormous aid from both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Nehru led the developing nations in practicing _____________ with the Superpowers and thus, received enormous aid from both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Non-alignment
  32. 32. Indian Independence and Partition Film Clip In 1984, Operation Blue Star ordered the Indian military to storm a Sikh shrine that armed militants had turned into a virtual fortress, even using tanks and artillery in the shrine’s residential area.
  33. 33. Indian Independence and Partition Film Clip Religious and political conflict remained a problem. In the 1980s, Sikhs demanded an independent state of Punjab and assassinated Prime Minister, __________________________ (Nehru’s Daughter) in 1984. Indira Gandhi
  34. 34. Indian Independence and Partition Other Developments in the region: After fierce fighting, __________ (East Pakistan) split from West Pakistan in 1971. In 1983, and endless war erupted in Sri Lanka with Hindu Tamils, the minority who wanted their own independent nation, fighting against the majority Buddhist Sinhalese. In the first of these clashes, India sent troops to restore order. As a result, the Terrorist group known as the Tamil Tigers assassinated Prime Minister ______________ (Indira Gandhi’s son) in 1991. Terrorism continues there today. Bangledesh Rajiv Gandhi
  35. 35. Indian Independence and Partition Relations between Pakistan and India remain unstable. Both nations want to control the Jammu and Kasmir regions near the Pakistan-India border. Tensions continued to increase after both India and Pakistan tested ___________________________ in 1998.nuclear weapons
  36. 36. Indian Independence and Partition In 1992, Hindu ________________________ supported by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) stormed the Babri Masjid mosque and razed it because it was said to be built on the site of a former Hindu temple. The incident sparked violent clashes that claimed dozens of Hindu and Muslim lives. The Congress government, which had ruled India almost uninterrupted for four decades, began to face increasing voter resentment for policies that failed. In 1998, the BJP has dominated the coalition government in New Delhi and has challenged ________________ to a fourth and final war. fundamentalists Pakistan
  37. 37. Failed Traditional Rebellion Western Inspired Nationalist Movement (Leaders & Goals) WWI, WWII, Cold War Independence Violent or Non-violent (Events/Methods) Resurgence of Indigenous Challenges (Major Problems) Building a Nation-State (Structure of new Gov’t) Modern, but not Western Society DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM 1914-Present •Sepoy Mutiny •B.G.Tilak •National Congress •Indian troops used during both wars •Failed attempts at local self rule •Amritsar Massacre •Gandhi and Nehru Hindu-Muslim unity, end untouchability, Total Independence •Jinnah – Muslim homeland •Non-violent- Independence/ Partition •Homespun, Salt March, boycotts, hunger strikes •Civil disobedience •Passive resistance •Led by Nehru and National Congress •Largest Democracy –based on Western model •Secular •Border disputes with Pakistan •Religious strife–Hindu Muslim conflicts, Sikh homeland •Rise of parties – BJP Fundamentalists •Assassinations •Industrialized •Nuclear weapons •Green Revolution •Hindu culture: caste system, arranged marriages •Globalization Film
  38. 38. Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building  Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s.  Three patterns: 1. Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China, Algeria, Vietnam, Palestine) 2. Non-Violent, negotiated independence (India, Ghana, Turkey) 3. Both violent and non-violent methods (Kenya, Egypt, South Africa)

×