1. Choose a decade—60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, the New Millennium.
2. Prepare a powerpoint presentation that includes many of the events, people, popular culture icons
3. PPt must be on cd/floppy and must open in class. I must also have hard copy of each slide handed in.
The Fabulous Fifties Baby-Boomers Abound
The Fabulous Fifties
1. "I Love Lucy" 13. Howdy Doody
2. Baby-Boomers 14. GI Bill
3. Betty Friedan/NOW 15. Cold War
4. Television 16. UNIVAC/ENIAC
5. Truman's Fair Deal 17. I Like Ike
6. The Checkers Speech 18. Korean Conflict
7. General Macarthur 19. Vietnam
8. Syngman Rhee 20. Elvis Presley
9. CIA 21. Salk Vaccine
10. U-2 incident 22. Ray Kroc
11. Interstate highway system 23. Rock'n'roll
Levittown 24. Dr. Benjamin Spock
Timeline: The Cold War
1950: February -- Joe McCarthy begins Communist witch hunt
1950: June -- Korean War begins
1951: January 12 -- Federal Civil Defense Administration established
1953: June 19 -- Rosenberg executions
1953: July -- Korean War ends
1954: March -- KGB established
1954 -- CIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala
1954: July -- Vietnam split at 17th parallel
1955: May -- Warsaw Pact formed
1956: October - November -- Rebellion put down in Communist Hungary. Egypt took control of Suez Canal; U.S. refused to help take it back
1957: October 4 -- Sputnik launched into orbit
1958: November -- Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin
1959: January -- Cuba taken over by Fidel Castro
1959: September -- Khrushchev visits United States; denied access to Disneyland
The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Specifically, the doctrine was a political response to Soviet aggression in Europe, illustrated through the communist movements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a result, American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as George F. Kennan phrased it, to that of containment.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resisting communism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being a domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region.
Truman signed the act into law on May 22, 1947 which granted $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece.
The Truman Doctrine also contributed to America's first involvements in what is now the nation of Vietnam. Truman attempted to aid France's bid to hold onto its Vietnamese colonies. The United States supplied French forces with equipment and military advisors in order to combat a young Ho Chi Minh and communist revolutionaries. Truman's policy of containment was the first American involvement in the Vietnam War.
The Fair Deal
the domestic policy of Harry S Truman's second administration. The Fair Deal aimed to extend the New Deal program, introducing legislation for civil rights, fair housing, national health programs, and federal aid to farmers and education. Most bills were blocked by Congress, but the Social Security program was expanded.
Executive Order #9981
Truman desegregated the military. Truman became aware that the armed forces were still segregated and had been all through WWII. He simply said that that was not right and that all of America’s fighting men were equal. He made it so by signing this executive order.
The Buck Stops Here DESK SIGN The sign "The Buck Stops Here" that was on President Truman's desk in his White House office was made in the Federal Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma. Fred M. Canfil, then United States Marshal for the Western District of Missouri and a friend of Mr. Truman, saw a similar sign while visiting the Reformatory and asked the Warden if a sign like it could be made for President Truman. The sign was made and mailed to President on October 2, 1945. Approximately 2-1/2" x 13" in size and mounted on walnut base, the painted glass sign has the words "I'm From Missouri" on the reverse side. It appeared at different times on his desk until late in his administration. The saying "the buck stops here" derives from the slang expression "pass the buck" which means passing the responsibility on to someone else. The latter expression is said to have originated with the game of poker, in which a marker or counter, frequently in frontier days a knife with a buckhorn handle, was used to indicate the person whose turn it was to deal. If the player did not wish to deal he could pass the responsibility by passing the "buck," as the counter came to be called, to the next player. On more than one occasion President Truman referred to the desk sign in public statements. For example, in an address at the National War College on December 19, 1952 Mr. Truman said, "You know, it's easy for the Monday morning quarterback to say what the coach should have done, after the game is over. But when the decision is up before you -- and on my desk I have a motto which says The Buck Stops Here' -- the decision has to be made." In his farewell address to the American people given in January 1953, President Truman referred to this concept very specifically in asserting that, "The President--whoever he is--has to decide. He can't pass the buck to anybody. No one else can do the deciding for him. That's his job. The sign has been displayed at the Library since 1957.
Berlin Airlift 1948
Russian dictator Joseph Stalin chose the night of June 23, 1948 to make good his threat to cut overland supply lines to West Berlin. He wanted to vent his frustration at refusal by the western allied powers to accept East Berlin as the capital of a communist puppet regime and at introduction of the Deutsche Mark in West Berlin. For nearly one year to come, the needs of West Berlin would be supplied by airlift on a scale never seen before.
The U.S. played a central role in the airlift. Operation Vittles, a round-the-clock airborne shuttle from U.S. airbases outside Frankfurt at Rhein Main and nearby Wiesbaden, Germany, supplied food, fuel, and occasionally candy to the beleaguered city and its children. Memories of the recent World War gave way to a new, human partnership as the months wore on and it became apparent the inconceivable would work.
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan , known officially following its enactment as the European Recovery Program (ERP), was the main plan of the United States for the reconstruction of Europe following World War II. The initiative was named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall.
Between 1948 and 1951, the United States contributed more than $13 billion dollars (nearly $100 billion at 2005 U.S. conversion rates) of economic and technical assistance toward the recovery of 16 European countries which had joined in the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC, forerunner to today's OECD) in response to Marshall's call for a joint scheme for European reconstruction.
On 12th March, 1947, Harry S Truman, announced details to Congress of what eventually became known as the Truman Doctrine. In his speech he pledged American support for "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures". This speech also included a request that Congress agree to give military and economic aid to Greece in its fight against communism. Three months later George C. Marshall, Truman's Secretary of State, announced details of what became known as the Marshall Plan or the European Recovery Program (ERP). Marshall offered American financial aid for a program of European economic recovery. Ernest Bevin, the British foreign secretary, made it clear he fully supported the scheme but the idea was rejected by the Soviet Union. A conference was held in Paris in September and sixteen nations in Western Europe agreed on a four year recovery plan. On 3rd April, 1948, Harry Truman signed the first appropriation bill authorizing $5,300,000,000 for the first year of the ERP. Paul G. Hoffman was appointed as head of the Organization for Economic Cooperation (OEEC) administration and by 1951 was able to report that industrial production in Western Europe had grown 30 per cent since the beginning of the Second World War. The European Recovery Program came to an end on 31st December, 1951. It its three year existence, the ERP spent almost $12,500,000,000. It was succeeded by the Mutual Security Administration.
The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Specifically, the doctrine was a political response to Soviet aggression in Europe, illustrated through the communist movements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a result, American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as George F. Kennan phrased it, to that of containment.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resisting communism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being a domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region.
Truman signed the act into law on May 22, 1947 which granted $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece.
The Truman Doctrine also contributed to America's first involvements in what is now the nation of Vietnam. Truman attempted to aid France's bid to hold onto its Vietnamese colonies. The United States supplied French forces with equipment and military advisors in order to combat a young Ho Chi Minh and communist revolutionaries. Truman's policy of containment was the first American involvement in the Vietnam War.
The United Nations
The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.
In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.
The Current Middle East
The Founding of Israel
The United Nations Special Commission on Palestine (UNSCOP) recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state. The commission called for Jerusalem to be put under international administration The UN General Assembly adopted this plan on Nov. 29, 1947 as UN Resolution (GA 181). The plan for "partition with economic union" divided the land into several cantons. Both the Jewish state and the Arab state had 3 cantons each that touched each other south of Nazareth and near Gaza. The borders of this plan are shown in the map below. This jigsaw puzzle would have been difficult to implement for friendly populations, and was impossible to implement given the hostility between Arabs and Jews.
This map shows how many countries in Eastern Europe were under communist control in 1949. All of the countries bordering Greece and Turkey were communist. This fact greatly heightened fears in the United States and Western Europe over the spread of Communism.
Communist Europe in 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance , Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance , is an international organization for defense collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Belgium Iceland Canada Portugal Denmark United Kingdom France Italy Luxembourg Norway United States Netherlands Later: Bulgaria (2004) Czech Republic (1999) Estonia (2004) West Germany (1955) Greece (1952) Hungary (1999) Latvia (2004) Lithuania (2004) Poland (1999) Romania (2004) Slovakia (2004) Slovenia (2004) Spain (1982) Turkey (1952)
The Warsaw Pact
Albania, later withdrew.
The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty , officially named the Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance , was a military alliance of the Eastern European Eastern Bloc countries, who intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance (which had been established in 1949). The creation of the Warsaw Pact was prompted by the integration of a "re-militarized" West Germany into NATO via ratification of the Paris Agreements. The Warsaw treaty was drafted by Nikita Khrushchev in 1955 and signed in Warsaw on May 14, 1955.
The Iron Curtain
Coined by Winston Churchill after the Soviets refuse to surrender the lands they have “liberated” in Europe.
Most of the Warsaw Pact were behind the iron curtain, and Yugoslavia, with Tito as its totalitarian ruler.
Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who captured and maintained world attention after being tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. The accuracy of these charges remains controversial, though decades later, Soviet communications decrypted by the VENONA project became publicly available and appeared to indicate that at least Julius Rosenberg was actively involved in espionage (although they provided no new evidence that he performed the specific acts of espionage for which he was convicted).
The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for conspiracy to commit espionage during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Judge Irving Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War:
To the very end, the couple denied all charges and insisted they were innocent, but they were executed in New York's Sing Sing in 1953, despite protests in the United States and abroad. The Rosenbergs were convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 of "conspiring to commit espionage in wartime" and sentenced to death, despite the fact that the US was not at war with the Soviet Union at the time of the alleged offenses
At the time, some Americans believed both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grass-roots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. Other Americans felt that the couple got what they deserved. Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but he refused on February 11, 1953 and all other appeals were also unsuccessful.
The couple were executed by the electric chair on June 19, 1953.
Congress of Racial Equality "Making Equality a Reality for All"
Born in Marshall, Texas, Farmer was an educator, administrator, and one of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality-CORE.
Raised in an environment that valued education and religious faith, James Farmer was an outstanding student. After skipping several grades in elementary school, he entered Wiley College in Marshall, Texas (where his father, one of the few African American Ph.D.s in the South, had taught), at the age of 14. Graduating in 1938, Farmer went on to Howard University's School of Religion. He graduated from Howard in 1941. Farmer opposed war in general, and more specifically objected to serving in the segregated armed forces. When the U.S. entered World War II later that year, he applied for conscientious objector status but found he was deferred from the draft because he had a divinity degree.
Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty. It was a job that left Farmer, who was then living in Chicago, Illinois, enough time to begin forming his own approach to these issues — one based less on FOR's religious pacifism than on the principle of nonviolent resistance.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students in Chicago. Many of these students were members of the Chicago branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), a pacifist organization seeking to change racist attitudes. The founders of CORE were deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's teachings of nonviolent resistance.
CORE started as a nonhierarchical, decentralized organization funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of its members. The organization was initially co-led by white University of Chicago student George Houser and black student James Farmer. In 1942, CORE began protests against segregation in public accommodations by organizing sit-ins. It was also in 1942 that CORE expanded nationally. James Farmer traveled the country with Bayard Rustin , a field secretary with FOR, and recruited activists at FOR meetings. CORE's early growth consisted almost entirely of white middle-class college students from the Midwest. CORE pioneered the strategy of nonviolent direct action, especially the tactics of sit-ins, jail-ins, and freedom rides.
By the late 1960s, Farmer, seeing CORE drift away from its Gandhian roots, left the organization he had helped found and had led for more than 20 years. Always an active writer and speaker, he continued to lecture publicly on civil rights and eventually took a teaching position at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. In 1968 Farmer ran for U.S. Congress on the Republican Party ticket and was defeated by Shirley Chisholm, an African American running as a Democrat. Shortly thereafter, he went to work for Republican President Richard M. Nixon's administration as Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
In the years since retiring from politics (1971), Farmer has served on many organizational boards, including the Coalition of American Public Employees. He has also continued to teach and lecture widely. In 1985 he published his autobiography, titled Lay Bare the Heart , and in 1998 President Bill Clinton awarded him the Congressional Medal of Freedom.
JAMES FARMER (January 12, 1920 - July 9, 1999) First National Director of CORE
The Cold War
Coined by Bernard Baruch as the alternative to a “hot” or shooting war.
The Cold War will shape American foreign policy and military spending throughout the Baby-Boomers’ youth. Until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the USSR, the cold War was the motivation for a strong defensive democracy.
Now, we know the Bad guys are out to get us, we just don’t know who they are now….
Mao Zedong vs. Chiang Kai-Shek
If China had been a united country and combined the forces of the Peoples Liberation Army with the Nationalist Army instead of against each other, it could well be that the Japanese forces would have been forced to withdraw early in the war. The self-seeking leaders of the two armies, Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalists and Mao (Tse Tung) Zedong of the Peoples Liberation Army uselessly wasted time in confrontation with each other instead of concentrating on the common enemy, Japan.
Chairman Mao Chiang Kai-Shek
Trouble in French Indochina
In 1945, an American intelligence team codenamed Deer parachuted into the jungles of Asia to help a band of guerrillas fighting the Japanese. They found the leader of these guerrillas, Nguyen Ai Quoc, seriously ill from malaria and dysentery. “This man doesn’t have long for this world," exclaimed the team medic, but he successfully nursed him back to health. The grateful leader agreed to provide intelligence and rescue downed American pilots in return for ammunition and weapons.
The team suggested that the United States continue to support Quoc after the war, but the recommendation was considered to controversial since Quoc wanted his nation’s freedom from our ally France. His request for help was ignored, although the rebel leader pleaded with President Truman to support his movement for independence from the French. The US decided that they didn’t like Quoc’s politics.
Nguyen Ai Quoc is known by another name: “He who enlightens”, or in Vietnamese—Ho Chi Minh. Sixty thousand Americans died in the Vietnam War, battling a former ally whose life we had once saved.
In the 1920s, Ho worked as a busboy in a hotel in Boston.
By 1954, he was president of an independent North Vietnam.
By the 1960s, he America’s public enemy #1.
Letter from Ho Chi Minh to President Harry S. Truman, 02/28/1946.
#34 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Bringing to the Presidency his prestige as commanding general of the victorious forces in Europe during World War II, Dwight D. Eisenhower obtained a truce in Korea and worked incessantly during his two terms to ease the tensions of the Cold War. He pursued the moderate policies of "Modern Republicanism," pointing out as he left office, "America is today the strongest, most influential, and most productive nation in the world."
Born: October 14, 1890; Denison, Texas...
Republican who served two terms. 1953-1961
Vice President: Richard M. Nixon
Eisenhower was the first president to work with three sessions of Congress controlled by an opposing political party...
Dwight Eisenhower entered the White House intending to preside over a period of national recovery from the tumult of the Roosevelt/Truman administrations. His "hidden-hand" style of governing indicated to some an air of conformity and aloofness, yet the general public held him in high esteem.
Confounding caricature, the military legend cut defense spending and warned against the unchecked growth of a military-industrial complex...
Died: March 28, 1969.
Korean Conflict 1950-1953
U.S. Forces patrol the Demilitarized Zone.
M*A*S*H was set in South Korea, near Seoul, during the Korean War. The series focused on the group of doctors and nurses whose job was to heal the wounded who arrived at this "Mobile Army Surgical Hospital" by helicopter, ambulance or bus. The hospital compound was isolated from the rest of the world. One road ran through the camp; a mountain blocked one perimeter and a minefield the other. Here the wounded were patched up and sent home--or back to the front. Here, too, the loyal audience came to know and respond to an exceptional ensemble cast of characters.
The Police Action/Korean Conflict
45 - Korea divided into US and Soviet occupation zones along 38th parallel
26 July 47 - President Truman's National Security Act creates US Department of Defense
15 Aug 48 - After supervised elections, US military government turns over power to Republic of Korea
25 Jun 50 - North Korean People's Army invades South Korea - UN calls for an end of aggression
27 Jun 50 - UN asks member countries to aid Republic of Korea - US announces intervention. North Korea attacks Seoul airfield.
28 Jun 50 - US bombers attack troops in Han River area - North Korean army captures Seoul
30 Jun 50 - President Truman orders ground forces into Korea and authorizes Air Force to bomb North Korea
5 Jul 50 - Near Osan, Task Force Smith troops fight for the first time and suffer heavy casualties
18 Jul 50 - US Cavalry lands at Pohangdong - US aircraft destroy key oil refinery in Wonsan
22 Jul 50 - Battle for Taejon ends with heavy US losses and retreat
4 Aug 50 - Pusan perimeter established in southeastern Korea
13 Aug 50 - First UN counterattack collapses
15 Aug 50 - Four-day battle of "the Bowling Alley" - UN forces hold back North Korean offensive
15 Sep 50 - Inchon landing of UN forces
29 Sep 50 - UN troops complete recapture of Seoul
7 Oct 50 - UN forces cross 38th parallel - UN sanctions defeat of North Korea and attempted reunification
14 Oct 50 - Chinese Communist troops cross Yalu River into Korea
19 Oct 50 - UN captures P'yongyang, the North Korean capital
1 Nov 50 - Chinese attack in force near Unsan
24 Nov 50 - General Douglas MacArthur's final "Home by Christmas" offensive begins
11 Dec 50 - End of Chinese strike against marine and army divisions at Chosin Reservoir - marines retreat
4 Jan 51 - Seoul captured by Chinese
25 Jan 51 - UN forces resume offensive
11 Feb 51 - Chinese counteroffensive begins north of Hoengsong
1 Mar 51 - UN line reaches between the 37th and 38th Parallels
18 Mar 51 - UN forces retake Seoul
11 Apr 51 - MacArthur recalled - General Matthew Ridgway given command
13 Jun 51 - UN forces dig in on the 38th Parallel
10 Jul 51 - Truce talks begin at Kaesong - Communists break off talks six weeks later
23 Sep 51 - UN forces take Heartbreak Ridge after 18-day battle
27 Nov 51 - Truce talks resume at Panmunjom
28 Mar 53 - North Korean and Chinese leaders agree to POW exchange
18 Apr 53 - Three-day battle of Pork Chop Hill ends in victory for UN forces
26 Apr 53 - Full peace talks resume at Panmunjom
14 Jun 53 - Communist offensive pushes Republic of Korea troops south
18 Jun 53 - South Koreans release 27,000 North Korean POWs, who refuse repatriation
25 Jun 53 - "Little Truce Talks" secure Republic of Korea's acceptance of armistice. Chinese launch massive attacks against South Korean divisions.
10 Jul 53 - Communists return to negotiations
27 Jul 53 - Cease fire signed - fighting ends 12 hours later
4 Sep 53 - Processing of POWs for repatriation begins at Freedom Village, Panmunjom
Kilroy was here is an American popular culture expression, often seen in graffiti. Its origins are indistinct, but recognition of it and the distinct doodle of "Kilroy" peeking over a wall is almost ubiquitous in the US. There was one person who led or participated in every combat, training or occupation operation during WWII and the Korean War. This person could always be depended on. GI's began to consider him the "super GI." He was one who always got there first or who was always there when they left. I am, of course, referring to Kilroy Was Here. Somehow, this simple graffiti captured the imagination of GI's everywhere they went. The scribbled cartoon face and words showed up everywhere - worldwide. Stories (some even true) abound. A number of years ago the Philadelphia Inquirer responded to a question about the Kilroy Was Here signs. According to them, they were started by a Quincy MA shipyard inspector named James F. Kilroy. He first chalked the slogan on tank tops and cargo boxes to show they'd been checked. Cargo went everywhere and GIs spread the slogan. The Kilroy slogan soon became a special pal of scared soldiers. To show that an area had been cleared GIs wrote the slogan Kilroy was here. James Kilroy no relation to the original
Joe McCarthy , Senator fro WI claimed that he had a list of 57 people in the State Department that were known to be members of the American Communist Party. McCarthy went on to argue that some of these people were passing secret information to the Soviet Union. He added: "The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because the enemy has sent men to invade our shores, but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest nation on earth has had to offer - the finest homes, the finest college educations, and the finest jobs in Government we can give." The list of names was not a secret and had been in fact published by the Secretary of State in 1946. These people had been identified during a preliminary screening of 3,000 federal employees. Some had been communists but others had been fascists, alcoholics and sexual deviants. As it happens, if McCarthy had been screened, his own drink problems and sexual preferences would have resulted in him being put on the list. McCarthy also began receiving information from his friend, J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). William Sullivan, one of Hoover's agents, later admitted that: "We were the ones who made the McCarthy hearings possible. We fed McCarthy all the material he was using." On 20th February McCarthy made a six hour speech on the Senate floor about how the Democratic administration had been infiltrated by communist subversives. McCarthy named four of these people, who had held left-wing views in their youth, but when Democrats accused McCarthy of smear tactics, he suggested they were part of this communist conspiracy. This claim was used against his critics who were up for re-election in 1950. Many of them lost and this made other Democrats reluctant to criticize McCarthy in case they became targets of his smear campaigns.
With the war going badly in Korea and communist advances in Eastern Europe and in China, the American public were genuinely frightened about the possibilities of internal subversion. McCarthy, as chairman of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate, was in an ideal position to exploit this situation. For the next two years McCarthy investigated various government departments and questioned a large number of people about their political past. Some people lost their jobs after they admitted they had been members of the Communist Party. McCarthy made it clear to the witnesses that the only way of showing that they had abandoned their left-wing views was by naming other members of the party. This witch-hunt and anti-communist hysteria became known as McCarthyism. Some left-wing artists and intellectuals were unwilling to live in this type of society and people such as Joseph Losey, Richard Wright, Ollie Harrington, James Baldwin, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole and Chester Himes went to live and work in Europe. McCarthyism was mainly used against Democrats associated with the New Deal policies introduced by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. Harry S. Truman and members of his Democratic administration such as George Marshall and Dean Acheson, were accused of being soft on communism. Truman was portrayed as a dangerous liberal and McCarthy's campaign helped the Republican candidate, Dwight Eisenhower, win the presidential election in 1952. After what had happened to McCarthy's opponents in the 1950 election, most politicians were unwilling to criticize him in the Senate. As the Boston Post pointed out: "Attacking him is this state is regarded as a certain method of committing suicide. One notable exception was William Benton, a senator from Connecticut and the owner of Encyclopaedia Britannica . McCarthy and his supporters immediately began smearing Benton. It was claimed that while Benton had been Assistant Secretary of State he had protected known communists and that he had been responsible for the purchase and display of "lewd art works". Benton, who was also accused of being disloyal by McCarthy for having much of his company's work printed in England, was defeated in the 1952 elections. In 1952 McCarthy appointed Roy Cohn as the chief counsel to the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. Cohn had been recommended by J. Edgar Hoover. who had been impressed by his involvement in the prosecution of Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Rosenberg. Soon after Cohn was appointed, he recruited his best friend, David Schine, to become his chief consultant.
McCarthy's next target was what he believed were anti-American books in libraries. His researchers looked into the Overseas Library Program and discovered 30,000 books by "communists, pro-communists, former communists and anti anti-communists." After the publication of this list, these books were removed from the library shelves. For some time opponents of McCarthy had been accumulating evidence concerning his homosexual activities. Several members of his staff, including Roy Cohn and David Schine, were also suspected of having a sexual relationship. Although well-known by political journalists, the first article about it did not appear until Hank Greenspun published an article in the Las Vegas Sun in 25th October, 1952. Greenspun wrote that: "It is common talk among homosexuals in Milwaukee who rendezvous in the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities." McCarthy considered a libel suit against Greenspun but decided against it when he was told by his lawyers that if the case went ahead he would have to take the witness stand and answer questions about his sexuality. In an attempt to stop the rumors circulating, McCarthy married his secretary, Jeannie Kerr. Later the couple adopted a five-week old girl from the New York Foundling Home. In October, 1953, McCarthy began investigating communist infiltration into the military. Attempts were made by McCarthy to discredit Robert Stevens, the Secretary of the Army. The president, Dwight Eisenhower, was furious and now realized that it was time to bring an end to McCarthy's activities. The United States Army now passed information about McCarthy to journalists who were known to be opposed to him. This included the news that McCarthy and Roy Cohn had abused congressional privilege by trying to prevent David Schine from being drafted. When that failed, it was claimed that Cohn tried to pressurize the Army into granting Schine special privileges. The well-known newspaper columnist, Drew Pearson, published the story on 15th December, 1953.
Some figures in the media, such as writers George Seldes and I. F. Stone, and cartoonists, Herb Block and Daniel Fitzpatrick, had fought a long campaign against McCarthy. Other figures in the media, who had for a long time been opposed to McCarthyism, but were frightened to speak out, now began to get the confidence to join the counter-attack. Edward Murrow, the experienced broadcaster, used his television program, See It Now , on 9th March, 1954, to criticize McCarthy's methods. Newspaper columnists such as Drew Pearson, Walter Lippmann and Jack Anderson also became more open in their attacks on McCarthy. The senate investigations into the United States Army were televised and this helped to expose the tactics of Joseph McCarthy. One newspaper, the Louisville Courier-Journal , reported that: "In this long, degrading travesty of the democratic process, McCarthy has shown himself to be evil and unmatched in malice." Leading politicians in both parties, had been embarrassed by McCarthy's performance and on 2nd December, 1954, a censure motion condemned his conduct by 67 votes to 22. McCarthy also lost the chairmanship of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. He was now without a power base and the media lost interest in his claims of a communist conspiracy. As one journalist, Willard Edwards, pointed out: "Most reporters just refused to file McCarthy stories. And most papers would not have printed them anyway." McCarthy, who had been drinking heavily for many years, was discovered to have cirrhosis of the liver. An alcoholic, he was unable to take the advice of doctors and friends to stop drinking. Joseph McCarthy died in the Bethesda Naval Hospital on 2nd May, 1957. As the newspapers reported, McCarthy had drunk himself to death.
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin until February 1950 when he claimed to possess a list of 205 card-carrying Communists employed in the U.S. Department of State. From that moment Senator McCarthy became a tireless crusader against Communism in the early 1950s, a period that has been commonly referred to as the "Red Scare." As chairman of the Senate Permanent Investigation Subcommittee, Senator McCarthy conducted hearings on communist subversion in America and investigated alleged communist infiltration of the Armed Forces. His subsequent exile from politics coincided with a conversion of his name into a modern English noun "McCarthyism," or adjective, "McCarthy tactics," when describing similar witchhunts in recent American history.
The American Heritage Dictionary gives the definition of McCarthyism as: 1. The political practice of publicizing accusations of disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence, and 2. The use of methods of investigation and accusation regarded as unfair, in order to suppress opposition.] Senator McCarthy was censured by the U.S. Senate on December 2, 1954 and died May 2, 1957.
Alger Hiss was born in Baltimore on 11th November, 1904. Educated at John Hopkins University and Harvard Law School (1926-29) he worked for the Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, before serving in the departments of Agriculture, Justice and State, in the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hiss also served as Roosevelt's adviser at the Yalta Conference in 1945. After working briefly as secretary-general of the United Nations, in 1949 Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In August 1948 Whittaker Chambers appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee and during his testimony claimed that Hiss had been spying for the Soviet Union. In a federal grand jury investigation of the case, Hiss denied Chambers's accusations. However, as a result of this investigation, Hiss was charged with perjury. His first trial in 1949 ended in a hung jury but the following year, a second jury found Hiss guilty and sentenced him to five years imprisonment. Hiss was released from prison in 1954. He spent the rest of his life trying to clear his name. In the 1970s Hiss unsuccessfully sued the U.S. government under the Freedom of Information Act in an attempt to gain access to FBI and State Department files about the case.
Telegraph cables between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Second World War were released by the National Security Agency. One of the messages dated March 30, 1945, refers to an American with the code name Ales. According to the message, Ales was a Soviet agent working in the State Department, who accompanied President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the 1945 Yalta Conference and then flew to Moscow. As Hiss was with Roosevelt at Yalta it has been claimed that he was the Ales referred to in the cable.
With the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union, attempts were made to obtain information on the case from the Soviet intelligence files. In 1992 Hiss wrote to the Russian historian Dimitry Antonovich Volkogonov, the overseer of the Soviet intelligence archives, to request the release of any files on the case. On 14th October 1992, Volkogonov published a report that stated that he had found no evidence that Hiss had ever been an agent for KGB, for the GRU or for any other intelligence agency of the Soviet Union.
Alger Hiss died on 15th November, 1996.
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
Premier of Russia
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1953-1964.
Certainly the most colorful Soviet leader, Khrushchev is best remembered for his dramatic, oftentimes boorish gestures and "harebrained schemes" designed to attain maximum propaganda effect, his enthusiastic belief that Communism would triumph over capitalism, and the fact that he was the only Soviet leader ever to be removed peacefully from office--a direct result of the post-Stalin thaw he had instigated in 1956.
Khrushchev's enthusiasm for flashy gestures had not been liked by more conservative elements from the very start; many Soviets were greatly embarrassed by his antics, such as banging a shoe on the podium during a speech to the UN General Assembly. There were elements in the Party who were actively looking for an opportunity to oust him. Their opportunity came with the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In yet another case of showmanship that he was unable to back up with deeds, in 1962 Khrushchev deployed nuclear missiles in newly Communist Cuba, within easy striking distance of most major American population centers. Thanks to intelligence received from Oleg Penkovsky, a Soviet double agent, the United States was aware that the missiles were still only partially developed and did not pose an immediate threat. President John Kennedy called Khrushchev's bluff, and the latter was forced to remove the missiles from Cuba, with great loss of face both at home and abroad. Khrushchev never regained his prestige after the incident, and was quietly ousted two years later by opponents in the Politburo--significantly, with no bloodshed. He spent the rest of his life in peaceful retirement, and was the only Soviet leader not to be buried in the Kremlin wall after his death.
PROVIDENCE, R.I. -- Sergei Khrushchev will take the oath of U.S. citizenship on Monday, July 12, 1999, at 2 p.m. in Bishop McVinney Auditorium, One Cathedral Square, Providence.
Khrushchev, whose father, Nikita, was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, is a senior fellow at Brown's Watson Institute for International Studies. He and his wife, Valentina Golenko, will be sworn in as citizens along with 250 other candidates by U.S. District Court Chief Judge Ronald Lagueux.
To become citizens, Khrushchev and his wife passed a test of history, government, and English writing skills on June 23 administered by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service in Providence.
Khrushchev, 64, decided to become a citizen after eight years at Brown University, where he writes and teaches a senior seminar on relations among the post-Soviet states.
Khrushchev's fields of expertise are Soviet and Russian political and economic development, Soviet history, international security, and computer science. He has written numerous books, including Nikita Khrushchev: Creation of a Superpower and Khrushchev on Khrushchev: An Inside Account of the Man and His Era, by His Son.
has ruled Cuba since 1959, when he overthrew the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. Castro established a dictatorship and made Cuba the first Communist state in the Western Hemisphere. He became famous for his fiery, anti-American speeches.
Castro was born on Aug. 13, 1926, in Biran, near Mayari, Cuba. His given and family name was Fidel Castro Ruz. His father was a Spanish immigrant who owned a small plantation. Castro graduated from the University of Havana in 1950 with a law degree. Afterwards, Castro opened a law office in Havana. In 1952, he ran for election to the Cuban House of Representatives. But troops led by Batista halted the election and ended democracy in Cuba.
As a result of Batista's actions, Castro tried to start a revolution against the Batista dictatorship. On July 26, 1953, Castro's forces attacked the Moncada army barracks in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years in prison. Batista released him in 1955, however. Castro then formed the 26th of July Movement, a group of revolutionaries named after the date of his first revolt. He then went into exile in Mexico. Castro's forces landed in Cuba in December 1956. Many rebels were killed, and Castro and other survivors fled to the Sierra Maestra, a mountain range in southeast Cuba. People from the surrounding countryside joined the rebellion. Batista fled from Cuba on Jan. 1, 1959, and Castro took control of the government.
Castro seized property owned by Americans and other foreigners as well as Cubans. In 1960, the Castro government took over United States oil refineries in Cuba. The United States then stopped buying Cuban sugar. Castro responded by taking over all United States businesses in Cuba.
Castro has supported a number of revolutionary movements in South America, Central America, and Africa. The Castro government has provided improved education and health facilities for many Cubans. But the economy has often been troubled.
In the early 1960's, Cuba began depending heavily on the Soviet Union for economic support. This support ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union was dissolved. Castro vowed that Cuba would remain a Communist country. However, in the early 1990's, Cuba undertook limited reforms that loosened state control over parts of the country's economy.
Castro has been closely assisted by his brother Raul. He has named Raul as his eventual successor.
Consider what might have turned out differently had Fidel taken up a career in professional baseball rather than politics: no revolution overthrowing the Batista regime, no establishment of a Soviet-aligned government in Cuba, and thus no Bay of Pigs or Cuban Missile Crisis — watershed events in the history of the Cold War. Would the results of this alternate scenario have been a profound difference in the course of world events or merely a historical footnote of minor global significance?
Even if one opts for the "historical footnote" interpretation, the Castro legend is still appealing because of its unconventionality.
One of the quirkier historical "What if?" scenarios involves the legend that Cuban leader Fidel Castro was once given a tryout (and rejected) by an American major league baseball team (usually specified as either the Washington Senators or the New York Yankees). URBAN LEGEND
There is a well-known baseball trivia question that makes its way around most press boxes involving Fidel Castro as a 21 year-old pitching prospect for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Seems two corpulent scouts, hired by the parent club, went to Havana to watch the diminutive lefty break nasty curves and dip sinkers in and around the aggressive Latin competition, but were somewhat lukewarm about his speed. “The kid Castro has some command of breaking pitches (stop),” the report told the front office the next morning via Western Union. “Has nothing on the fast ball (stop) Double AA talent at best (stop).”
The Pirates never did have the patience to develop short Cuban kids with little pop on the cheese, so a dejected Fidel attended law school, went to prison, and disappeared into the Cuban socialist underground. Those were the days when his family and friends were subsisting on a steady diet of dung beetles and palm leaves chased by rotten disease-ridden water, while the mob ran numbers for a dictatorship backed by the muscle of Harry Truman’s United States.
It was a short walk from the entrance of Forbes Field to the den of hate. And hate turned into revolution on New Year’s Eve 1959, when the failed pitcher became champion of the weak and an American thorn; followed closely by the CIA’s spring invasion gone terribly wrong two years later. And when the Bay of Pigs sent the slugs from Florida’s underbelly to the right people, Jack Kennedy paid with his life in Dallas two years after that.
After the war and covered the Nuremberg War Trials and the growing tension between west and eastern Europe for the New York Tribune . In 1947 Higgins was promoted to bureau chief in Berlin. In 1950 Higgins was assigned to Japan where she became the newspaper's Far East bureau chief. On the outbreak of the Korean War, Higgins moved to South Korea where she reported the fall of the capital, Seoul, to North Korean forces. The New York Tribune sent their top war reporter, Homer Bigart, to South Korea and ordered Higgins to return to Tokyo. Higgins refused to go and continued to compete with Bigart to get the best stories. This became more difficult when all women reporters were banned from the front-line. Higgins was furious but was eventually able to persuade General Douglas MacArthur to allow her to resume her front-line reporting. Higgins, who was with the Marines when they landed in Inchon, 200 miles behind the North Korean lines, on 15th September, 1950, soon established herself as an outstanding war journalist. Her more personal style of reporting the war was popular with the American public. In October, 1950, Higgins was the subject of an article in Life Magazine . In 1951, her book, War in Korea , became a best seller. That year she won the Pulitzer Prize for international reporting and was voted Woman of the Year by the Associated Press news organization.
Higgins was sent to Vietnam in 1953 where she reported the defeat of the French Army at Dien Bein Phu. During the fighting she narrowly escaped injury when while walking alongside the photographer, Robert Capra, he was killed when he stepped on a land mine. In 1955 ,she traveled extensively in the Soviet Union and afterwards published her book Red Plush and Black Bread (1955). This was followed by another book on journalism, News is a Singular Thing (1955). Higgins also covered the civil war in the Congo. Higgins made many visits to Vietnam and her book Our Vietnam Nightmare (1965), documented her concerns about United States military involvement in the region. While in Vietnam in 1965 she went down with leishmaniasis, a tropical disease. Marguerite Higgins was brought back to the United States but died on 3rd January, 1966. In recognition of her outstanding war reporting, she was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
Marguerite Higgins was born in Hong Kong on 3rd September, 1920. Her father, Lawrence Higgins, an American working at a shipping company, moved the family back to the United States in 1923. Higgins was educated at the University of California. In her first year she worked on the student newspaper, The Daily Californian . After Higgins graduated in 1941, she moved to Columbia University where she completed a masters degree in journalism. In 1942 Higgins was hired by the New York Tribune . Higgins wanted to report the war in Europe but it was not until 1944 that her editor agreed to send her to London. The following year she moved to mainland Europe, first reporting the war from France and later in Germany. This included accompanying Allied troops when they entered the Nazi extermination camps of Dachau and Buchenwald.
Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), was the first black person to play modern major league baseball. Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 and played all 10 years of his major league career with the Dodgers.
Robinson started as a first baseman for the Dodgers but gained his greatest fame playing second base. Robinson was an outstanding hitter and finished with a .311 lifetime batting average. He was also a superior runner and base stealer. In 1947, Robinson was named Rookie of the Year. In 1949, he won the National League's Most Valuable Player award, as well as the league's batting championship with a .342 average.
Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on Jan. 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. He starred in four sports at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). In 1945, Robinson played with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro American League. In 1946, he played minor league baseball for the Montreal Royals. In 1956, Robinson received the Spingarn Medal. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. He died on Oct. 24, 1972.
Jackie Robinson, shown here sliding into home plate, became the first African American player in modern major league baseball. He joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Robinson gained fame for his hitting and his daring base running.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
While specializing in pediatrics, Spock realized that he could best help his young patients and their parents if he gained a greater understanding of their psychological needs and family dynamics. With the dedication and intensity that marked his every endeavor, he studied psychoanalysis for six years, making him the only practicing pediatrician of his time with this combination of training. The more he talked with parents and studied the psychological and emotional aspects of childhood, the more convinced he became that much of the prevailing wisdom of the day was flawed. And, in 1946, he was given the chance to publish his iconoclastic views in The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, a tome he penned for Pocket Books that initially sold for a modest 25 cents. During Spock's long lifetime, his book would be translated into 39 languages and sell more than 50 million copies, making it second in sales only to the Bible. Spock's ideas have become such a part and parcel of the parenting landscape that it's easy to forget how revolutionary they were. In post-war America, parents were in awe of doctors and other childcare professionals; Spock assured them that parents were the true experts on their own children. They had been told that picking up infants when they cried would only spoil them; Spock countered that cuddling babies and bestowing affection on children would only make them happier and more secure. Instead of adhering to strict, one-size-fits-all dictates on everything from discipline to toilet training, Spock urged parents to be flexible and see their children as individuals.
Perhaps most revolutionary of all, he suggested that parenting could be fun, that mothers and fathers could actually enjoy their children and steer a course in which their own needs and wishes also were met. All this and much more, including a wealth of helpful medical advice, was delivered in a friendly, reassuring, and common-sense manner completely at odds with the cold authoritarianism favored by most other parenting books of the time.
With characteristic modesty, Spock never would have predicted the overwhelming success that Baby and Child Care would come to enjoy. He once admitted that if he had known that his editors were entrusting him with producing the most influential parenting book ever written, he would have replied, "I don't know enough." As it turned out, he knew plenty-- Baby and Child Care was an instant success with parents and struck a chord with other progressive doctors and childcare practitioners.
As his celebrity grew in the '50s and '60s, Spock worked feverishly on behalf of children and parents. He taught child development at Western Reserve University (now Case Western) in Cleveland, Ohio, for 12 years, wrote many other books on childcare, and lectured around the world. He even had a television program devoted to the concerns of families. Dr. Spock had become a household name.
As the Cold War escalated and American troops were sent to Vietnam, he became a vocal political activist, speaking out for disarmament and against the war in Southeast Asia. To Spock, this was just another way of protecting the young people to whom he was so devoted. His political views made him unpopular in some circles and hurt the sales of Baby and Child Care, but he persisted, convinced that politics was an essential part of pediatrics. He participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations well into his 80s and 90s, and ran for President on a third-party ticket in 1972, speaking out on issues concerning working families, children, and minorities.
Elvis Elvis Aaron Presley January 8, 1935 - August 16, 1977
Elvis the Pelvis
Elvis charted more songs on Billboard's Hot 100 than any other artist. (149) Elvis spent more weeks at the top of the charts than any other artist. (80) Elvis had the greatest number of consecutive #1 hits. (10) Elvis is second only to the Beatles in total of #1 hits. (18) Elvis has the most Multi-Plaintum records (25) (The Beatles have 24; Led Zepplin and Barbra Streisand have 13) Elvis has more Platinum records than any other artist (55) (The Beatles have 37; Barbra Streisand has 30) Elvis has more Gold records than any other artist (97) (Barbra Streisand has 51; The Beatles have 42) No wonder they call him The King.
SINGLES Jailhouse Rock Treat Me Nice (with Jailhouse Rock) All Shook Up Love Me Too Much Teddy Bear Loving You (with Teddy Bear)
The Eckert and Mauchly Computer Co. of Philadelphia (which was soon purchased by Remington Rand) sells the first commercial computer, the UNIVAC 1, to the U.S. Census Bureau. UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer. The memory called up data by transmitting sonic pulses through tubes of mercury. An additional 45 UNIVAC 1 machines would eventually be sold. The massive computer was 8 feet high, 7-1/2 feet wide and 14-1/2 feet long. It has lots and lots of tubes that dimmed lights all over Washington when it cranked out information The UNIVAC was not the first computer ever built. A host of companies, including Eckert-Mauchly, Remington Rand, IBM, and others, all were developing computers for commercial applications at the same time. Perhaps the most famous computer of the era was the ENIAC, a computer developed for the U.S. military during World War II. Other computers developed in the 1940s were mostly used by academia. But the UNIVAC I was the first computer to be widely used for commercial purposes - 46 machines were built, for about $1 million each. UNIVAC I came to the public's attention in 1952, when CBS used one to predict the outcome of the presidential election. The computer correctly predicted the Eisenhower victory, but CBS did not release that information until after the election because the race was thought to be close. Rights to the UNIVAC name are currently held by Unisys.
The original Mr. Potato Head
The original Mr. Potato Head toy consists entirely of pieces! We used a real potato for the body! The Mr. Potato Head toy is the first toy ever advertised on network TV.
McDonald's begat an industry because a 52-year-old mixer salesman understood that we don't dine — we eat and run
On his travels he picked up the beat of a remarkable restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif., owned by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald, who had ordered eight mixers and had them churning away all day. Kroc saw the restaurant in 1954 and was entranced by the effectiveness of the operation. It was a hamburger restaurant, though not of the drive-in variety popular at the time. People had to get out of their cars to be served. The brothers had produced a very limited menu, concentrating on just a few items: hamburgers, cheeseburgers, french fries, soft drinks and milk shakes, all at the lowest possible prices.
Kroc, ever the instigator, started thinking about building McDonald's stores all over the U.S. — each of them equipped with eight multimixers whirring away, spinning off a steady stream of cash. The following day he pitched the idea of opening several restaurants to the brothers. They asked, "Who could we get to open them for us?" Kroc was ready: "Well, what about me?"
His confidence in what he had seen was unshakable. He was even more convinced than the McDonalds and eventually cajoled them into selling out to him in 1961 for a paltry $2.7 million.
Ray Kroc was the founder of the McDonald's Corporation. Brothers Mac and Dick McDonald opened the first "Speedee Shakes and Burgers" drive-in called McDonald's in 1953 in San Bernardino, California. They were persuaded to sell the name to milkshake salesman, Kroc, who opened the first store of the McDonald's Corporation in 1955 in Des Plaines, Illinois. McDonald's now has over 20,000 stores in 90 countries. The company claims it serves 29 million people a day and that a new store opens somewhere in the world every seven hours.
Jonas Salk (October 28, 1914 - June 23, 1995) is the discoverer/inventor of the Salk vaccine (polio vaccine). In America in the 1950s, summertime was a time of fear and anxiety for many parents; this was the season when children by the thousands became infected with the crippling disease poliomyelitis, or polio. This burden of fear was lifted forever when it was announced that Dr. Jonas Salk had developed a vaccine against the disease. Salk became world-famous overnight, but his discovery was the result of many years of painstaking research.
Salk was born in New York City. He spent his career as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. Later in his career, Salk devoted much of his energy to developing an AIDS vaccine.
His vaccine was one of the first successful attempts at immunization against a virus, specifically the Poliomyelitis virus. The vaccine provides the recipient with immunity against Polio, and was seminal in the near eradication of a once widely-feared disease. Salk used a "killed" virus technique which required the patient to be injected with the vaccine. The patient would develop immunity to the live disease due to the body's earlier reaction to the killed virus. By contrast, Albert Sabin developed a "live" vaccine which was released in 1961, and which could be taken orally.
Unlike some scientists who sought wealth or fame accompanying their innovations, Salk stated "'Who owns my polio vaccine? The people! Could you patent the sun?". The Salk Institute in La Jolla, California was named in Jonas Salk's honor.
Philo T. Farnsworth: The Mormon Who Invented TV
On Sept. 7, 1927, Philo T. Farnsworth scrawled in his journal perhaps the most understated report of the century: "The received line picture was evident this time."
Over the next 70 years that line picture would morph into Leave It to Beaver , man's first steps on the moon, the Vietnam War, the shooting of J.R., the beating of Rodney King, MTV, CNN and the chase of O.J. Simpson.
Farnsworth -- a 20-year-old college dropout -- had created the first electronic television.
Black and White (Under age 40? You won't understand.)
You could hardly see for all the snow, Spread the rabbit ears as far as they go. Pull a chair up to the TV set, "Good Night, David. Good Night, Chet." Depending on the channel you tuned, You got Rob and Laura - or Ward and June. It felt so good. It felt so right. Life looked better in black and white. I Love Lucy, The Real McCoys, Dennis the Menace, the Cleaver boys, Rawhide, Gunsmoke, Wagon Train, Superman, Jimmy and Lois Lane. Father Knows Best, Patty Duke, Rin Tin Tin and Lassie too, Donna Reed on Thursday night! - Life looked better in black and white.
I wanna go back to black and white. Everything always turned out right. Simple people, simple lives... Good guys always won the fights. Now nothing is the way it seems, In living color on the TV screen. Too many murders, too many fights, I wanna go back to black and white. In God they trusted, alone in bed, they slept, A promise made was a promise kept. They never cussed or broke their vows. They'd never make the network now. But if I could, I'd rather be In a TV town in '53. It felt so good. It felt so right. Life looked better in black and white. I'd trade all the channels on the satellite, If I could just turn back the clock tonight To when everybody knew wrong from right. Life was better in black and white!
The Howdy-Doody Show Let's see how much you remember! The show took place in Doodyville, a circus town which had both puppet and human inhabitants. The audience of kids was called the Peanut Gallery and there was a huge waiting list for tickets to the show. Everybody wanted to sit in the Peanut Gallery! The show typically had a short film, a song or two and visits by the various residents of Doodyville. Did you know that... Buffalo Bob Smith was one of the first to recognize the potential of television to market products to kids. Welch's Grape Jelly, Wonder Bread, Colgate. Howdy Doody was the first show to ever hit the 2,000 episode mark? Howdy Doody was the first regular network series in color? Howdy Doody had the first theme song to become popular outside of the show? Buffalo Bob Smith died in 1998 of cancer.
Davy Crockett was our hero. And to prove it, we all went out and bought coonskin caps. About 100 million dollars worth of raccoon caps sold in one year certainly qualifies as a fad of serious economic proportions. But we didn't stop there. We also bought capguns, wrist watches, books, moccasins, lunch boxes and all manner of merchandise. America had a major case of Davy Crockett-itis. Fess Parker portrayed both Davy Crockett and later Daniel Boone on TV. Many historians feel that this caused a permanent blurring of the two real life men into one entity forever making each less distinct. What's curious about this is that Davy Crockett was only a five feature Frontierland adventure which aired as part of Disneyland. The first three episodes were: "Davy Crockett Indian Fighter" 12/15/54 "Davy Crockett Goes to Congress" 1/26/55 "Davy Crockett At the Alamo" 2/23/55 Now as any student of history knows, Davy at the Alamo kind of boxed Disney into a corner because that's where his tale ends. So they had to go back and make episodes about his earlier exploits. Which were: "Davy Crockett's Keelboat Race" 11/16/55 "Davy Crockett and the River Pirates" 12/14/55 Davy Crockett never got a series of his own. Like most fads that come in with a vengeance, they tend to go out with the proverbial whimper. Thus it was with Davy Crockett and the coonskin cap.
Quiz Show Corruption
Albert Freedman Producer 1956-1958 30 minutes Black and White Jack Barry, host
Twenty-One broke the game show scandals wide open. Contestants were placed in isolation booths, given a category and asked how many points they wished to risk. Producer Freedman approached a young attractive English instructor at Columbia University, Charles Van Doren, about becoming a player on Twenty-One. Assistance would be provided to augment the "entertainment value" of the show. As Van Doren kept winning, his popularity grew until he became a recognized celebrity. His acting ability didn't suffer either as America watched him "agonize" over each question. Ultimately, he won $129,000 - a hefty sum at any time, but a huge amount in the 50's. One opponent, Herbert Stempel, didn't like being passed over for greatness by the producers. Bitter, he talked to investigators about Twenty-One and the practice of supplying some players with answers. Van Doren, now a broken and humiliated man, gave one last public performance - testifying before the Congress about his complicity in the deception.
I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy Many networks did not want to cover a sit-com that featured a mixed marriage, so Lucille Ball and her Cuban band-leader, Desi Arnaz, formed Their own production company called Desilu and Produced their own show. It captured the public’s hearts and became a classic. Two of my favorites episodes: The Candy Factory and the Vitameatavegamin commercial.
The Andy Griffith Show With Sheriff Andy Taylor, Deputy Barney Fife, Thelma Lou, Gomer, cousin Goober, Opie, Floyd the Barber, Otis the town drunk, and Aunt Bee life was safe and secure in Mayberry.
Captain Kangaroo This was my favorite kid show growing up. I watched it every morning before going off to school. He was as gentle as Mister Rogers, but had cartoons, books, and drawing. All of these will be found in other kid shows, but his was one of the first.
Ozzie & Harriet Ozzie and Harriet Tidbits For 14 years we watched Ozzie, in his alpaca cardigan and Harriet, with her ever ready pot of coffee and a plate of brownies. Boomers grew up with Ricky and David. When asked if this was a realistic view of family life, the answer is a resounding no. Their idea of a life crisis was having two chairs mistakenly delivered to the house. Speaking of the house at 522 Sycamore Road, Hilldale, the set was an exact replica of their real life home in Hollywood. If you remember all those scenes in the kitchen, that's because up until 1956, Hotpoint, the sponsor, was displaying their products! After that, you probably recall more outdoors scenes. Did you notice the cameras around everyone's necks? Yup, Kodak became the sole sponsor. Ozzie was producer, director and head writer. In short, he had control. Ricky has been bugging his father to let him sing a tune on the show. So on April 10,1957 in "Rick the Drummer" he covered Fat's Domino's "I'm Walkin." The song shot to the top of the charts. Eventually, the boys grew up and married and their real life wives joined the show. David married June and Ricky married Kris Harmon, daughter of Tom and brother to Mark. Ozzie Nelson died in 1975 of cancer, Rick Nelson died 1985 in a plane crash, and Harriet died in 1999 of congestive heart failure.
History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race.
Immediately after the Sputnik I launch in October, the U.S. Defense Department responded to the political furor by approving funding for another U.S. satellite project. As a simultaneous alternative to Vanguard, Wernher von Braun and his Army Redstone Arsenal team began work on the Explorer project.
Fear filled all American hearts when the Commies launched a successful satellite to orbit the earth—we feared nukes raining from the skies…death and destruction. Some built bomb shelters in their back yards. We practiced Air Raid/Bomb drills at school.
The Upheaval of the Sixties
1. The New Frontier 23. JFK
2. Camelot 24. 5 o'clock shadow
3. NASA/Space Race 25. John Glenn
4. Peace Corps 26. Bay of Pigs Invasion
5. Cuban Missile Crisis 27. 1000 Days
6. Warren Commission 28. Lee Harvey Oswald
7. Jack Ruby 29. Magic Bullet Theory
8. The Great Society 30. LBJ
9. VISTA 31. War on Poverty
10. desegregation 32. Malcolm X
11. Jackie Robinson 33. Brown v. Board of Education
12. Little Rock incident 1957 34. Sesame Street/PBS
13. Freedom Rides 35. Rosa Parks
14. Martin Luther King, Jr. 36. SCLC
15. SNCC 37. CORE
16. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 38. "I Have A Dream" speech
18. Rachel Carson/ Silent Spring 40. Thurgood Marshall
19. Civil Rights Act 1964/Voting Rights Act 1965 41. Medicare/Medicaid
20. Black Power 42. Black Panthers
21. Woodstock 1969 43. RFK
22. OPEC 44. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Timeline: The Cold War
1960: May -- Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory/U-2 incident
1960: November -- John F. Kennedy elected President
1961: April -- Bay of Pigs invasion
1961: July -- Kennedy requests 25% spending increase for military
1961: August 13 -- Berlin border closed
1961: August 17 -- Construction of Berlin Wall begins
1962: -- U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased
1962: October -- Cuban Missile Crisis
1963: July -- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified
1963: November -- President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas
1964: August -- Gulf of Tonkin incident
1965: April -- U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight Communism
1965: July -- Announcement of dispatching of 150,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam
1968: January -- North Korea captured U.S.S. Pueblo
1968: August -- Soviet troops crush Czechoslovakian revolt
1969: July 20 -- Apollo 11 lands on the moon
His maturing command of his powers was cut short by his assassination by Lee Harvey Oswald, as determined by the Warren Commission.
Revelations in later years of Kennedy's steady series of sexual liaisons with women tarnished his image in the minds of some Americans, but most people around the world continue to think of him as the fallen prince of Camelot.
US statesman and 35th president (1961–3), born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Descended from Irish-Americans who had shown a talent for politics, he studied at Harvard, and his senior thesis became the best-selling Why England Slept (1940). His later Profiles in Courage (1956) won the Pulitzer Prize. He enlisted as a seaman in the US Navy, and after Pearl Harbor was commissioned as an ensign, given command of a PT boat, and assigned to the South Pacific. He was wounded when his boat was cut in two by a Japanese destroyer. (The public would never really be aware of the extent of his various medical problems.) Returning to Massachusetts after the war, he was elected as a Democrat to the US House of Representatives (1947–53) and the US Senate (1953–61). Having failed in his 1956 bid for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination, in 1960 he became the youngest man, and first Catholic, to be elected US president. His short term in office would become one of legendary high hopes that was not always matched by tangible accomplishments. His liberal slate of social programs, called the ‘New Frontier’, largely faltered in Congress, although he gradually did actively support desegregation. In 1962 he went to the brink of nuclear war in the Cuban missile crisis, but in 1963 he secured an important nuclear test ban treaty with the USSR. He also established the Alliance for Progress, the Green Berets, and the Peace Corps, and above all he inspired a whole new generation to seek to better their world through government service.
The age of televised politics is upon us as Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard Nixon square off in four so-called "Great Debates." The first, on September 26, 1960, draws the largest single audience in television history to that point, 70 million U.S. viewers.
Nixon, who had been the first to successfully harness television for personalized political persuasion with his 1958 "Checkers" speech, loses the war of impressions. Famously, a majority of those listening on radio give the nod to Nixon; on television the veep looks pale and sweaty and downright spooky next to a young and camera-ready Kennedy. One woman says she couldn't vote for Nixon because she "didn't like the look in his eyes, especially the left one." A heavy 5 o’clock shadow gave Nixon a smarmy look. He had refused to use stage makeup.
Kennedy goes on to define the televised presidency, mastering the medium as only Reagan and Clinton have since.
Many people listening on the radio thought that Nixon won this debate or that it was a tie. But most people watching it on television were sure that Kennedy won. How do you think their judgments could be so different? Kennedy looked healthier than Nixon, who was getting over the flu. Nixon also seemed nervous, while Kennedy acted more confident. This debate, and three others that year, helped Kennedy win the Presidency that year.
"I felt as though I were inside a golden coach drawn by four pure-bred white horses into the glitter of mythic Camelot.“
-- Isaac Stern on meeting President Kennedy
Due to the charismatic and stylish couple inhabiting 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, the Kennedy White House became known as Camelot. Alan Jay Lerner, Kennedy’s Harvard classmate, had penned the hit song "Camelot" for the Broadway musical, a personal favorite of President Kennedy. The tune quickly became the unofficial theme of the Kennedy administration.
In an interview with Life magazine a few days after her husband’s assassination, Jackie Kennedy confessed that "I’m so ashamed of myself--all I keep thinking of is this line from a musical comedy." At night they would listen to the musical on their record player before they went to sleep, and JFK’s favorite song came at the very end of the recording. According to Jackie, President Kennedy had been enamored with the Knights of the Round Table from early childhood, and he held to an idealistic view of history replete with heroes. Linking JFK with Camelot, Jackie Kennedy remarked that "There’ll be great presidents again… but there’ll never be another Camelot."
Don’t let it be forgot That once there was a spot For one brief, shining moment that was known as Camelot. --President Kennedy's favorite lyrics from the Broadway show
"And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man."
With kids and family
Music (3/13/65) 1. Eight Days A Week (The Beatles) 2. My Girl (Temptations) 3. Stop! In The Name of Love (Supremes) Television 1. Bonanza (NBC) 2. Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. (CBS) 3. Bewitched (ABC) Books Malcolm X, "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" Ralph Nader, "Unsafe at Any Speed" Sylvia Plath, "Ariel, The Uncollected Poems" Movies The Sound of Music Dr. Zhivago
The first US combat troops arrive in Vietnam. By the end of the year, 190,000 American soldiers are in Vietnam. In February, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and more than 2,600 others arrested in Selma, Alabama, during civil rights demonstrations. Later that month, black nationalist leader Malcolm X is shot and killed at a Harlem Rally. In August, 34 people are killed, over 1,000 injured and nearly 4,000 arrested during the Watts Riots in Los Angeles. In March, Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov performs the first spacewalk. American Edward White II performs the second, but is the first American to spacewalk, in June. Influenced by rock music, particularly The Beatles, the "Mod" scene makes its way from London to the U.S. Fun clothes, considered revolutionary at the time, included bell bottoms, paisley prints, psychedelic colors and go-go boots. Fabrics shifted from the traditional to the unique, and included plastic, vinyl, paper, cellophane, fur and metal. False eyelashes and the rail-thin Twiggy look were also popular.
American Bandstand - Broadcast History
Bandstand began as a local program on WFIL-TV (now WPVI), Channel 6 in Philadelphia on October 7, 1952. Then it was hosted by Bob Horn and was called Bob Horn's Bandstand.
On July 9 of 1956 the show got a new host, a clean-cut 26 year old named Dick Clark. When ABC picked the show up, it was renamed American Bandstand, airing it's first national show on August 5, 1957.
The show was moved to Los Angeles in 1964. From 1963 to 1987 Bandstand was on only once a week, on Saturday.
Briefly it was part of the USA Network with new host David Hirsh but went off the air in 1989.
It's got a great beat and you can dance to it." Those immortal words came to represent the most popular feature of American Bandstand, Record Review. The formula was simple: three kids listened to three records and rated them between thirty-five and ninety-eight. A fourth teen calculated the average, often with the help of Dick Clark. The kids were usually right in their judgments, picking scores of songs that became top ten winners, demonstrating once again how their opinions counted.
After years of glamorous teen rebels, making teen idols was one of the ideas behind the celebrity machine that Chancellor Records created in the late fifties. Two of the chosen boys, Frankie Avalon and Fabian, were white, Italian, likable, easygoing teens from the same South Philadelphia neighborhood. Avalon was Chancellor's first success. His initial releases in 1957, "Cupid" and "Teacher's Pet," were bombs. His third release "DeDe Dinah" (1958), an innocuous ditty that even Avalon had no feel for, sold a million copies, and was the first of six top ten hits. Avalon soon left Philadelphia
Hope earned a fortune, gave lavishly to charity and was showered with awards, so many that he had to rent a warehouse to store them.
Through he said he was afraid of flying, Hope traveled countless miles to entertain servicemen in field hospitals, jungles and aircraft carriers from France to Berlin to Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. His Christmas tours became tradition.
He headlined in so many war zones that he had a standard joke for the times he was interrupted by gunfire: ''I wonder which one of my pictures they saw?''
So often was Hope away entertaining, and so little did he see his wife, Dolores, and their four adopted children, that he once remarked, ''When I get home these days, my kids think I've been booked on a personal appearance tour.''
Hope had a reputation as an ad-libber, but he kept a stable of writers and had filing cabinets full of jokes. He never let a good joke die - if it got a laugh in Vietnam, it would get a laugh in Saudi Arabia.
On his 100th birthday, he was too frail to take part in public celebrations, but was said to be alert and happy - and overwhelmed by the outpouring of affection. The fabled intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street was renamed Bob Hope Square, and President Bush established the Bob Hope American Patriot Award.
LOS ANGELES (July 28, 2003) - Bob Hope, ski-nosed master of the one-liner and favorite comedian of servicemen and presidents alike, has died, less than two months after turning 100.
The Road Pictures with Bing
Bob Hope's unwavering commitment to the morale of America's servicemen and women is entertainment history, indeed, world history. Many say 'legend.'
For nearly six decades, be the country at war or at peace, Bob, with a band of Hollywood gypsies, has traveled the globe to entertain our service men and women.
The media dubbed him "America's No. 1 Soldier in Greasepaint." To the GIs, he was "G.I. Bob" and their clown hero. It began in May 1941 when Bob, with a group of performers, went to March Field, California, to do a radio show for airmen stationed there.
Throughout World War II, with only two exceptions, all of Bob's radio shows were performed and aired from military bases and installations throughout the United States and theaters of war in Europe and the South Pacific. His first trip into the combat area was in 1943 when he and his small USO troupe - Frances Langford, Tony Romano, Jerry Colonna, and Jack Pepper visited US military facilities in England, Africa, Sicily and Ireland. In later years his itinerary included the South Pacific.
Bob began what was to become a Christmas custom in 1948. He, with wife Dolores, went to Germany at the request of then Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, to entertain the troops involved in the Berlin Airlift.
With the end of the Vietnam conflict in sight, Hope hailed his 1972 trip as his "last Christmas show." But each Christmas that followed, he was somewhere in the country doing a show at a military base or veterans hospital.
In 1983 the call came from Beirut and Hope was "on the road again." In 1987, Hope flew around the world to entertain servicemen and women in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans and in the Persian Gulf.
He embarked on a goodwill tour in May 1990 to entertain military personnel stationed in England, Russia, and Germany. At Christmas that year, he and wife Dolores, were in Saudi Arabia entertaining the men and women of "Operation Desert Storm."
1994 was a good year for Bob. His "Bob Hope: The First 90 Years," produced by daughter Linda Hope, won an Emmy. And he returned to his native England for a personal appearance tour in June, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II.
Bob Hope Hosted the Oscars every Year but never Won one.
Since 1961, the Peace Corps has shared with the world America's most precious resource—its people. Peace Corps Volunteers serve in 72 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, Europe, and the Middle East. Collaborating with local community members, Volunteers work in areas like education, youth outreach and community development, the environment, and information technology. Coming from all walks of life and representing the rich diversity of the American people, Volunteers range in age from college students to retirees. Every Peace Corps Volunteer's experience is different. From teaching English to elementary school children in Zambia to launching a computer learning center in Moldova to promoting HIV/AIDS awareness in South Africa to working on soil conservation in Panama, Volunteers bring their skills and life experiences to where they are needed most.
The first widespread use of the headgear by U.S. forces came shortly after, when a new Army organization that was specially trained for insurgency and counter guerrilla warfare began wearing a green variety in 1953. It took another eight years for the Army’s Special Forces — the “Green Berets” — to win presidential approval from John F. Kennedy to make their headgear official.
In the 1970s, Army policy allowed local commanders to encourage morale-enhancing uniform distinctions, and the use of berets boomed.
INVASION at Bay of Pigs
Richard M. Nixon proposed it | Dwight D. Eisenhower planned it | Robert F. Kennedy championed it | John F. Kennedy approved it | The CIA carried it out | 1,197 invaders were captured | 200 of them had been soldiers in Batista's army (14 of those were wanted for murder in Cuba) | One CIA soldier fired the first shot | A volunteer teacher was the first Cuban casualty | 4 American pilots and over 100 Cuban invaders were killed in battle | 1,400 Cuban invaders felt betrayed by their sponsor | One U.S. senator lied to the United Nations | One U.S. president was embarrassed in front of the world. April 17.
Cuban exiles, trained, armed and funded by the CIA, invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs (known in Cuba as Playa Girón). After three days of fighting the invading force is defeated by the Cuban army.
The plan included: 1) the creation of a responsible and unified Cuban opposition to the Castro regime located outside of Cuba, 2) the development of a means for mass communication to the Cuban people as part of a powerful propaganda offensive, 3) the creation and development of a covert intelligence and action organization within Cuba which would respond to the orders and directions of the exile opposition, and 4) the development of a paramilitary force outside of Cuba for future guerrilla action. These goals were to be achieved “in such a manner as to avoid the appearance of U.S. intervention.”
The counterrevolutionary forces, known as Brigade 2506, were assembled on the west coast of Guatemala, where U.S. engineers refurbished the airport especially for the mission. On April 14 six ships sailed from Nicaragua’s Puerto Cabezas, cheered on by Nicaraguan president and U.S.-friendly dictator Luis Somoza., The Cuban government knew an invasion was coming, but could not guess exactly when or where the attack would take place. When teams of U.S. B-26 bombers began attacking four Cuban airfields simultaneously on Saturday, April 15, the Cubans were prepared. The few planes belonging to the Cuban Air Force were dispersed and camouflaged, with some obsolete, unusable planes left out to fool the attackers and draw the bombs. As part of the CIA cover story, the attacking B-26 planes were disguised to look as if they were Cuban planes flown by defecting Cuban pilots. Prior to the start of the operation, CIA operatives were sent to Cuba. Their job was to aid the invading forces by blowing up key bridges and performing other acts of terrorism that would make it appear that the people of Cuba were joining the invasion. Shortly after the attack started,
Ambassador Adlai Stevenson, at the United Nations, flatly rejected Cuba’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Raúl Roa’s report of the attack to the assembly, saying that the planes were from the Cuban Air Force and presenting a copy of the photograph published in the newspapers. In the photo, the plane shown has an opaque nose, whereas the model of the B-26 planes used by the Cubans had a Plexiglas nose. Stevenson was extremely embarrassed a few hours later when the truth was revealed and he learned that Kennedy had referred to him as “my official liar.”
Without supplies or air cover, the invading forces fell. To them, the lack of air cover was a direct betrayal. In the end, 200 rebel soldiers were killed, and 1,197 others were captured.
The reality,” wrote Schlesinger, “was that Fidel Castro turned out to be a far more formidable foe and in command of a far better organized regime than anyone had supposed. His patrols spotted the invasion at almost the first possible moment. His planes reacted with speed and vigor. His police eliminated any chance of sabotage or rebellion behind the lines. His soldiers stayed loyal and fought hard. He himself never panicked; and, if faults were chargeable to him, they were his overestimate of the strength of the invasion and undue caution in pressing the ground attack against the beachhead. His performance was impressive.”
The controversial inspector general’s report concluded that ignorance, incompetence, and arrogance on the part of the CIA was responsible for the fiasco. It criticized nearly every aspect of the CIA’s handling of the invasion: misinforming Kennedy administration officials, planning poorly, using faulty intelligence and conducting an overt military operation beyond “agency responsibility as well as agency capability.” The report added, “The agency reduced the exile leaders to the status of puppets.”
Aside from being at once a major victory for the Cuban Revolution and a major embarrassment for Kennedy and the CIA, the attack at the Bay of Pigs set the stage for the major confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union: the missile crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.
In the meantime, perhaps as a result of the Bay of Pigs embarrassment, Kennedy’s obsession with eliminating Castro grew. A plan code-named “Operation Mongoose” spurred by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, attempted to eliminate Castro by any means necessary.
Bay of Pigs concluded
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban missile crisis occurred in October 1962 when the United States learned that the Soviet Union had secretly installed missiles in Cuba, about 90 miles (140 kilometers) from Florida. The missiles could have been used to launch nuclear attacks on American cities. The crisis was one of the most serious incidents of the Cold War, a period of intense U.S.-Soviet rivalry that had begun after World War II ended in 1945. Most experts believe that the missile crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war.
The Soviet Union had placed the missiles in Cuba earlier in 1962, after Cuban leaders became convinced that the United States was planning to attack Cuba. During the Cold War, Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union. President John F. Kennedy of the United States learned of the missiles' presence on October 16 and demanded that the Soviet Union remove them. On October 22, he ordered a naval quarantine (blockade) of Cuba to stop further shipment of arms.
At first, the United States expected to invade Cuba to destroy the missiles. At one point, an invasion was scheduled for October 29 or October 30. Nearly all of Kennedy's advisers agreed that a landing of U.S. forces in Cuba would probably mean war—most likely nuclear war—with the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union offered to remove the missiles if the United States would promise not to invade Cuba. It later said that it would not remove the missiles unless the United States would dismantle its military bases in Turkey. Turkey was a U.S. ally that bordered the Soviet Union. Kennedy agreed publicly to dismantle all U.S. missile bases in Turkey. However, to complete the deal, Kennedy and Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev also made a private agreement in which Khrushchev promised to remove all Soviet missiles in Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's promise that the United States would not invade the island. On October 28, the two leaders completed the agreement, ending the crisis.
The agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev was kept secret because many Americans opposed such a deal. Almost all Americans thus thought that Kennedy had forced the Soviet Union to remove the missiles simply by threatening war. Some experts believe that, as a result, U.S. foreign policy used greater toughness and more threats of force after the crisis.
One of the most serious incidents of the Cold War—a period of intense rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union—was the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Communists had come to power in Cuba in 1959. In October 1962, the United States learned that the Soviet Union had installed missiles in Cuba that could launch nuclear attacks on United States cities. The crisis passed after Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev and U.S. President John F. Kennedy agreed that the Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba in return for the removal of U.S. nuclear missiles from Turkey and Kennedy's promise that the United States would not invade Cuba. Shown here is an aerial photograph of a missile launch site in San Cristobal, Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 14. The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when U.S. reconnaissance aircraft photograph Soviet construction of intermediate-range missile sites in Cuba. President Kennedy demands the withdrawal of Soviet missiles and imposes a naval blockade. Khrushchev agrees on condition that Cuba receives guarantee of non-aggression from the U.S. and Jupiter missiles aimed at the Soviet Union are removed from Turkey.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The closest the world ever came to its own destruction was the event known to us as the Cuban Missile Crisis. In Cuba this event is known as the October Crisis of 1962, and in the former Soviet Union it was known as the Caribbean Crisis.
For nearly two weeks the U.S. and the Soviets stood on the brink of nuclear war, and only the leadership of Kennedy and Khrushchev kept the crisis from escalating into a full nuclear war.
For many of us the Cuban Missile Crisis seems like a legend from the past, yet it has continually baffled historians with every new bit of information declassified and each new memoir or re-examination published.
We know that the Kennedy brothers were largely responsible for the positive outcome. Not only were they able to resist the war lust and manipulations of the Joints Chiefs of Staff (JCS), but they were able to maintain peace and not fire their weapons. This was not easy.
We also know that Khrushchev had similar problems with his war machine, and he also managed to overcome them.
We still can't seem to grasp that past U.S.-Cuba relations played a major part in the reasons for the crisis.
This website will not try to tell the whole story of the crisis. Instead I'll point you to books and websites that will tell that story better than I could, and will help us all to get a more complete perspective on the crisis, its reasons, and the aftermath.
Texas Book Depository—6 th Floor
November 22, 1963
Suddenly shots rang out. A bullet passed through the president's neck and on through Governor Connally's back, chest, right wrist, and left thigh. Kennedy clutched his throat; Connally, his lap full of blood, slumped onto his wife in their seats to the front. Hearing the governor scream, Mrs. Kennedy turned anxiously toward the president, as a second bullet tore off the top of his head.
Abraham Zapruder film
Lee Harvey Oswald
Alleged assassin of President John F. Kennedy, according to the conclusions of the Warren Commission. Born in New Orleans, he married Marina Prusakova in Minsk. He was killed by Texas nightclub owner Jack Ruby two days after JFK's assassination, while being transferred to county jail.
Extract from the Warren Report : ... Federal Bureau of Investigation began an investigation at the direction of President Johnson. Within 35 minutes of the killing of Patrolman Tippit, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested by the Dallas police as a suspect in that crime. Based on evidence provided by Federal, State, and local agencies, the State of Texas arraigned Oswald within 12 hours of his arrest, charging him with the assassination of President Kennedy and the murder of Patrolman Tippit. On November 24, 1963, less than 18 hours after his arrest, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of the Dallas Police Department by Jack Ruby ...
On November 24, 1963, Ruby, then proprietor of the Carousel Club, shot and killed Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy ( see KENNEDY ASSASSINATION), in the basement of the Dallas City Jail, during Oswald's transfer to the county jail. Millions of witnesses watched on national television.
Although he was defended by Melvin Belli on the grounds that "psychomotor epilepsy" caused him to black out consciously while functioning physically, Ruby was convicted of murder with malice on March 14, 1964, and sentenced to death. In October 1966, however, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reversed the conviction on the grounds of improper admission of testimony and the necessity of a change of venue.
The arrangements for a new trial in February, in Wichita Falls, were under way, when, on December 9, 1966, Ruby was admitted to Parkland Hospital in Dallas, apparently suffering from pneumonia. Testing quickly revealed terminal lung cancer. He died at Parkland on January 3, 1967, of a blood clot in his lungs and was buried in Chicago. He never married. He espoused no political affiliation or party preference, denied any involvement in a conspiracy, and maintained to the end that he shot Oswald on impulse from grief and outrage.
Warren Commission Report
After Lee Harvey Oswald was shot to death, the new president, Lyndon Johnson, consulted with various government officials, many of them by telephone, regarding having some form of investigation into the assassination. On November 26, 1963, The Washington Post published an editorial advocating the formation of an investigative commission.
After many consultations throughout the week, LBJ, by executive order on November 29, 1963 created an investigatory commission to be headed by Earl Warren. He also called on the following members and told them that they would be members of the commission:
Representative Hale Boggs (Democrat - Louisiana)
Senator John Sherman Cooper (Republican - Kentucky)
Former CIA Director Alan Dulles
Representative Gerald Ford (Republican - Michigan), a future vice-president and president
Former World Bank President and diplomat John J. McCloy
Senator Richard Russell, Jr. (Democrat - Georgia)
Future Pennsylvania senator Arlen Specter worked as a staff attorney for the Commission.
During its investigation the commission heard testimony from 552 witnesses and the reports of 10 federal agencies, including the Secret Service, the FBI, the Department of State, the CIA, and military intelligence. The hearings were closed to the public unless the person giving testimony requested otherwise; only two witnesses made that request. Some of the witnesses gave sworn affidavits, two witnesses gave just written statements. In late September 1964, after a 10 month investigation (and about 5 weeks before the presidential election), the Warren Commission Report was published. The report maintained that Lee Harvey Oswald , acting alone and without accomplices, shot and killed the President and wounded Texas Governor John Connally from the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository Building in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963. Oswald was also declared the murderer of Police Patrolman J. D. Tippit , who tried to apprehend Oswald some 45 min after the shooting. In addition, Jack Ruby , a Dallas restaurant owner who killed Oswald the day after the assassination (Nov. 24), was found innocent of conspiracy; no connection was found between Oswald and Ruby.
The commission concluded its report by recommending reform in presidential security measures, and it offered specific proposals to improve the Secret Service. The commission's findings came under attack from a number of persons who felt it served as a “whitewash.”
In 1966 New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison began an independent inquiry based on the assumption that the assassination had resulted from a conspiracy. Oliver Stone
The horse was named Smiling Jack…or something like that.
It misbehaved every step of the way.
Single Bullet Theory
To support the scenario that a lone assassin (Oswald) could fire the purported number of shots within an allotted time frame, the Warren Commission concluded that one of the bullets fired that fateful day hit both Kennedy and Connally. This conclusion came to be known as the "single bullet theory." However, given the location of Kennedy's and Connally's wounds, for the "single bullet theory" to be correct, the bullet would have had to change course several times, behaving in the manner shown in the diagram ( below left ). The chief architect of the "single bullet theory" was the Warren Commission's ambitious junior counsel, Arlen Specter, now U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania. In the reenactment photo ( below right ) Specter, with his pointer in hand, attempts to make the "single bullet theory" appear more plausible by deceptively indicating a straight line trajectory for the bullet.
If you believe what the conspiracy books say the Warren Commission believed about the Single Bullet Theory, you would have to conclude the commissioners and staff of the commission were a bunch of fools. Conspiracy authors always show Connally seated directly in front of Kennedy, at the same height, and facing forward. While Arlen Specter (PA-R) managed to sell his "single bullet theory" to the Warren Commission, he had trouble selling it to the American public. A recent New York Times/CBS poll found that 77 percent of Americans rejected the Warren Report's conclusions.
The Beatles' first appearance on prime time television in North America was on the Jack Parr Show in January of 1964. It was a taped presentation of the lads playing "She Loves You." Parr allegedly derided the performance as "the downfall of British civilization." Of course, nothing was farther from the truth.
In February of 1964, The Beatles had begun gathering momentum as America's newest craze, and it was their first performance on The Ed Sullivan Show that solidified their popularity in North America.
Ed Sullivan, the poker-faced TV American variety-show host, spotted the Beatles in a scene of pandemonium at London's Heathrow Airport the previous October.
"Who the hell are the Beatles?" he'd apparently asked his associates.
He would quickly discover that they were Britain's newest fascination, and he decided to bring them over to play his show.
The Ed Sullivan Show was taped in the CBS studios in New York City. The studio had a seating capacity of 703. The CBS offices received over 50,000 requests for tickets. But only a small portion of these were delegated to Beatles' fans. The Ed Sullivan Show was family fare, and although Sullivan never shied away from acts that were controversial, such as Elvis Presley, James Brown and other impending rock stars, Sullivan was always clearly more comfortable with the "establishment " of the entertainment world. Still, Sullivan knew that The Beatles were something special, and he had them on his show in one form or another nine times.
On Sunday, February 9, millions of North Americans waited in front of small black and white television sets in anticipation of seeing this new phenomenon from Britain. The audience for that show alone is estimated to be over 70 million people.
On their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, the Beatles played five songs in two sets. The first set included All My Loving, Till There Was You, and She Loves You. Later in the second half of the show, the Beatles played I Saw Her Standing There, and I Want To Hold Your Hand.
Each song was well rehearsed and went off without a hitch. The audience, at least that section that was reserved for young Beatles' fans was reserved beyond belief until prompted by stage managers to scream their hearts out. That was a part of the deal, it seems. Sullivan had made a pact or a "promise" as he called it, with the "youngsters" in his audience to refrain from over exuberance until the music ended. This was, after all, television, not some local night club. And while The Beatles may have been headliners that night, Sullivan was equally proud of the fact that he was presenting the Broadway cast of "Oliver" -- featuring Georgia Brown and Davy Jones who went on to become one of The Monkees -- Frank Gorshen (comedian, doing impressions of celebrities), Mitzi McCall & Charlie Brill (comedy team), Tessie O'Shea (singer, medley of show tunes), Fred Kapps (magician), and Wells & the Four Fays (acrobats, doing physical comedy).
At the beginning of the February 9 show, Sullivan read a congratulatory telegram from Elvis Presley, the king of the rock movement in the United States. Some describe this as a "torch-passing" of sorts. The King was far from dead at that time, but his heirs were certainly present that evening in the CBS studio.
This was not to say that there were no detractors. Having lived through the hula hoop and the dance craze called "The Twist", most parents saw The Beatles as simply another momentary fad. Even Sullivan's musical director reportedly said "I give them a year." But it was more than the beginning of some brief love affair with four lads from Liverpool. It was the beginning of Beatlemania, a change in the cultural fabric that would last and continue through today.
Go to the front stairwell and read the inscription there. Spend a moment in prayer.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
On July 31, 1964, the USS Maddox, a navy destroyer, began a reconnaissance mission on the coast of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. The goal was to find out about North Vietnamese Costal Defense Forces and because of the amount of activity due to South Vietnamese attacks on the North Vietnamese coastal areas, much could be gathered. Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia.
On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action. On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia. Although there was disagreement in Congress over the precise meaning of the Tonkin Gulf resolution, Presidents Johnson and Richard M. Nixon used it to justify later military action in Southeast Asia.
LBJ said it was like Grandma’s nightgown—it covered everything!
The American intervention in Vietnam began in 1963 with the direct aim of stopping the South falling into 'communist' hands. In August of that year, Lyndon Johnson, who had taken over the American presidency in the wake of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, ordered the first air strikes on the North. Six months later the 'Rolling Thunder' air campaign began. In this campaign alone more bombs were dropped on North Vietnam alone than were used in the whole of the Second World War. In the following five years the two Vietnams received the equivalent of 22 tons of explosives for every square mile of territory, or 300lb for every man, women and child. 7 million tons of bombs and defoliants were dropped in total and 2.6 million Vietnamese were killed.
The American deployment jumped from 23,300 in 1963 to 184,000 in 1966 and reached a peak of 542,000 in January 1969 under Richard Nixon's presidency.
The Tet offensive is seen as the great turning point: from then on the war, costing $30 billion a year, was widely acknowledged as unwinnable by the Americans. It was only a matter of time before mighty US imperialism was humiliatingly forced to withdraw.
A 1968 CIA report concluded: 'The intensity, coordination and timing of the attacks were not fully anticipated,' adding, 'another major unexpected point' was the ability of the Vietcong to hit so many targets simultaneously.
I Do Not Choose to Run
Tet was the final nail in the coffin for the administration of Lyndon Johnson. In 1963, when he came to power in the wake of the assassination John Kennedy, his approval rating was over 80%. But by 1967 it was down to 40%. 'But then came Tet - and his ratings plummeted - as if Vietnam were a burning fuse that had suddenly ignited an explosion of dissent.'
By the beginning of March his popularity dropped towards 30%. More dramatically, endorsement for his handling of the war stood at only 26%. His credibility was gone.
On March 31st, Johnson announced 'I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President.'
He also announced that air strikes would be confined to below the twelfth parallel and authorized the opening of negotiations with the North Vietnamese. However, troop levels remained at about 500,000 and the war would drag on for another five years.
More American soldiers would die after Tet than before, and the United States itself would be 'torn apart by the worst internal upheavals in a century.'
Korean War (1950-1953)
Total Servicemembers (Worldwide) 5,720,000
Battle Deaths 33,686
Other Deaths (In Theater) 2,830
Other Deaths in Service (Non-Theater) 17,730 Total: 36,000
Non-mortal Woundings 103,284
Living Veterans 3,913,749*
Vietnam War (1964-1975)
Total Servicemembers (Worldwide) 9,200,000
Deployed to Southeast Asia 3,100,000
Battle Deaths 47,410 Total: 57,000
Other Deaths (In Theater) 10,788
Other Deaths in Service (Non-Theater) est. 32,000
Non-mortal Woundings 153,303
Living Veterans 8,300,106*
Even though the United States would drop 7 million tons of bombs –twice the total dropped on Europe and Asia during all of World War II—on an area about the size of Massachusetts, along with Agent Orange and other chemical defoliants, the United States was losing the war. At a cost of over $150 billion and 58,000 lives, the political and military leadership of this country failed to understand the Vietnamese character, culture, traditions, and history. That failure doomed America to its costly and tragic defeat in Vietnam.
The Memorial (wall) was designed by an undergraduate at Yale University, Maya Ying Lin, born in Athens, Ohio in 1959. Her parents fled from China in 1949 when Mao-Tse-tung took control of China, and she is a native-born American citizen. She acted as a consultant with the architectural firm of Cooper- Lecky Partnership on the construction of the Memorial.
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, now more than 20 years old, is still the most controversial, heart-wrenching monument in a city full of landmarks. Authorized in 1980 and dedicated in 1982, the work of Maya Ying Lin (then a 21-year-old Yale student) has been complemented over the years with two more conventional dedications. The first, Frederick Hart's Statue of the Three Servicemen, was added in 1984 to mollify those who thought the original design too dark and divisive. The second commemorates the sacrifices made by female members of the Armed Services during the conflict: Glenna Goodacre's vision, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, was added in 1993. Tearing across the ground in fitting metaphor as an emotional scar, the wall of names accurately depicts the enormity of the suffering, by both the soldiers and the civilians who lived through that turbulent period. It continues to evoke raw emotions and tears -- many tears. Pilgrims make the journey every day, both relatives of the dead and those interested in our nation's history. It's not uncommon to see folks rubbing pencil against paper to copy names off the wall, or leaving flowers and pictures.
Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
The Brown case was initiated and organized by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) leadership who recruited African American parents in Topeka for a class action suit against the local school board. Although school buses were provided for African American children, they were only allowed to attend designated public schools based on race.
On May 17, 1954, the United States Supreme Court announced its decision that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." The decision effectively denied the legal basis for segregation in Kansas and 20 other states with segregated classrooms and would forever change race relations in the United States.
Ultimately, the NAACP sought to end the practice of "separate but equal" throughout every segment of society, including public transportation, dining facilities, public schools and all forms of public accommodation.
On December 1, 1955, a tired seamstress stood up for her rights by remaining seated. Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat in the Montgomery County bus to allow a white person to take her seat. She had had enough! The bus pulled over and the cops arrested her on the spot. She was taken in and fingerprinted—that’s when the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, a young man named Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. stepped in. Together they masterminded the Montgomery Bus Boycott—in which the black community refused to use the buses until their segregationist policy was changed. They car-pooled, roller-skated, rode bikes, and walked—and the buses ran empty for 381 days--over a year. But they won!!!!
Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till is visiting family in Mississippi when he is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for allegedly whistling at a white woman.
Two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview.
The case becomes a cause célèbre of the civil rights movement.
Rosa Lee McCauley Parks
Birth: February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States Nationality: American Ethnicity: African American Occupation: civil rights advocate
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Lee Parks (née McCauley; born 1913) refused to relinquish her seat to a white passenger on a racially segregated Montgomery, Alabama bus. She was arrested and fined but her action led to a successful boycott of the Montgomery buses by African American riders.
She worked with the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and serving as a deaconess at the Saint Matthew African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Parks received numerous awards, including an honorary degree from Shaw College in Detroit, the 1979 NAACP Spingarn Medal, and an annual Freedom Award presented in her honor by the SCLC. In 1980 she was awarded the Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize and in 1984 the Eleanor Roosevelt Women of Courage Award. In 1988 she founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development, to train African American youth for leadership roles, and began serving as the institute's president. In 1989 her accomplishments were honored at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. Parks was in demand as a public speaker and traveled extensively to discuss her role in the civil rights movement.
In September 1994 Parks was beaten and robbed in her Detroit home. She fully recovered from this incident and remained active in African American issues. In October 1995 she participated in the Million Man March in Washington D.C., giving an inspirational speech.
In 1998 Parks was recognized with the first International Freedom Conductor Award given by the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. President Bill Clinton awarded Parks the Congressional Gold Medal, the nation's highest civilian honor, in July 1999. In December 2000, the 50,000-square-foot Rosa Parks Library and Museum, featuring a life-size bronze sculpture of Parks, opened in Montgomery.
December 8, 2003: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Parks could proceed with her suit against hip-hop duo Outkast, who used her name without permission on a 1998 track. Originally filed in 1999, the suit had been dismissed by a federal judge who cited free speech and ruled in favor of Outkast. An appeals court reinstated part of her lawsuit, requiring an artistic reason to justify calling the song "Rosa Parks."
October 28, 2004: A federal judge in Detroit upheld the appointment of former Detroit Mayor Dennis Archer as Parks' guardian. January 13, 2005: Parks has had dementia since at least 2002, according to medical records released as part of a legal battle over a hip-hop song titled with her name.
Trouble at Central High
Governor Orval Faubus refused to allow the Little Rock Nine into his all-white high school. He called out the National Guard to surround the school and prohibit their entrance, in defiance of federal law. Ike told Faubus that the law would be upheld and sent in the 101 st Airborne paratroopers to ensure the students’ safety and admission. As Commander-in-Chief, Ike was going to make certain that the federal law was upheld. The nine attended Central High.
The Little Rock Nine pictured with Daisy Bates, the president of the Arkansas NAACP
SNCC & later The Black Panthers
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded at Shaw University in Raleigh, N.C., providing young blacks with a place in the civil rights movement. The SNCC later grows into a more radical organization, especially under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966–1967). As SNCC chair in 1966, he ejected more moderate leaders and set off a storm of controversy by calling for “black power,” a concept he elaborated in a 1967 book (with C. Hamilton). He will help form the Black Panther Party.
His increasingly separatist politics isolated him from most of the civil-rights movement. He will leave America and change his name to Kwame Ture.
James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Violence and riots surrounding the incident cause President Kennedy to send 5,000 federal troops.
Medgar Evers - A civil rights activist and member of the NAACP, Evers was murdered on June 12, 1963 outside his home in Philadelphia. The killing brought tremendous national attention, though Evers attackers went unconvicted until 1994.
April 16, 1963
Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, AL; he writes his seminal "Letter from Birmingham Jail," arguing that individuals have the moral duty to disobey unjust laws.
During civil rights protests in Birmingham, AL, Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene "Bull" Connor uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators. These images of brutality, which are televised and published widely, are instrumental in gaining sympathy for the civil rights movement around the world.
The Sept. 15, 1963, bombing at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, was one of the most abhorrent crimes of the civil rights movement. Four young girls attending Sunday school—Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins, aged 11 to 14—were killed when a bomb exploded at the church. Twenty others were injured. The church was a center for civil rights meetings, and just a few days earlier, courts had ordered the desegregation of Birmingham's schools.
Bobby Frank Cherry, a demolitions expert, and three other white supremacists—Robert Chambliss, Thomas Blanton, and Herman Cash—were under investigation within days of the bombing. But two years later, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover declined to pursue the case, saying the chances for conviction were "remote." In 1968, federal authorities shut down the investigation.
In the 1970s, after a U.S. Justice Department investigation revealed that former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had blocked evidence, Jefferson County, Ala., prosecutors reopened the case. More than a decade-and-a-half after the crime, the ringleader, Robert Chambliss, was convicted of one count of murder in the death of Carol McNair in 1977. He died in prison in 1985 without ever publicly admitting a role in the bombing. By this time, it was too late to try suspect Herman Cash, who had died in 1994.
The remaining two suspects in the case, Thomas Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry, were finally indicted in 2000—more than two decades after Chambliss's conviction—when an FBI agent in Birmingham obtained more than 9,000 FBI documents and surveillance tapes that had been kept from the original prosecutors. Blanton was convicted of murder in 2001 and sentenced to life in prison. In Cherry's trial, several of his relatives came forward to testify against him. Cherry had bragged to a number of them over the years about the bombing. In 2002, he was convicted of four counts of murder and sentenced to life in prison, where he died in 2004. One of the prosecutors in the case, Robert Posey, said Cherry "has worn this crime like a badge of honor."
4 Little Girls Killed in Church Bombing
Other Desegregation Issues
At the University of Alabama in 1963, bigoted Gov. George C. Wallace “stood in the schoolhouse door” to defy integration, but RFK assured him that Alabama was going to be attended by both races from that point on.
Forrest hands Autherine Lucy her book when she drops it on the way into my alma mater.
Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, of which King is made the first president. The SCLC becomes a major force in organizing the civil rights movement and bases its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience.
According to King, it is essential that the civil rights movement not sink to the level of the racists and hatemongers who oppose them: "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline," he urges.
“ I Have a Dream!”
Martin Luther King Jr. waves to supporters on Aug. 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed Nov. 3, 1967, in the Jefferson County (AL) Courthouse to serve a five-day sentence imposed in 1963 for organizing a mass protest in Birmingham, AL, in defiance of a temporary restraining order.
Malcolm X (right) shakes hands with Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in New York's Audubon Ballroom Jan. 1, 1964.
On Aug. 28, 1963, over 200,000 Americans, including many whites, gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in the capital. To hear King's stirring "I Have a Dream" speech, which eloquently defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), an African American Baptist minister, was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during the 1950's and 1960's. He had a magnificent speaking ability, which enabled him to effectively express the demands of African Americans for social justice. King's eloquent pleas won the support of millions of people—blacks and whites—and made him internationally famous.
He won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for leading nonviolent civil rights demonstrations.
With other black ministers, King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 to expand the nonviolent struggle against racism and discrimination. At the time, widespread segregation existed throughout the South in public schools, and in transportation, recreation, and such public facilities as hotels and restaurants. Many states also used various methods to deprive blacks of their voting rights. In 1960, King moved from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more effort to SCLC's work. He became co-pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church with his father.
King and other civil rights leaders then organized a massive march in Washington, D.C. The event, called the March on Washington, was intended to highlight African-American unemployment and to urge Congress to pass Kennedy's bill. The movement won a major victory in 1964, when Congress passed the civil rights bill that Kennedy and his successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson, had recommended. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination in public places and called for equal opportunity in employment and education. In spite of King's stress on nonviolence, he often became the target of violence. White racists threw rocks at him in Chicago and bombed his home in Montgomery, Alabama. Finally, violence ended King's life at the age of 39, when James Earl Ray, an assassin, shot and killed him. King was fatally shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, April 4, 1968.
Malcolm X Also known as: Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
Birth: May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska, United States Death: February 21, 1965 in New York, New York, United States Nationality: American Ethnicity: African American
Malcolm X (1925-1965), African American civil rights leader, was a major 20th-century spokesman for black nationalism.
Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebr. His father, a Baptist minister, was an outspoken follower of Marcus Garvey, the black nationalist leader in the 1920s who advocated a "back-to-Africa" movement for African Americans. During Malcolm's early years his family moved several times because they were threatened by Ku Klux Klansmen in Omaha; their home was burned in Michigan; and when Malcolm was 6 years old, his father was murdered. For a time his mother and her eight children lived on public welfare. When his mother became mentally ill, Malcolm was sent to a foster home. His mother remained in a mental institution for about 26 years. The children were divided among several families, and Malcolm lived in various state institutions and boarding-houses. He dropped out of school at the age of 15.
Living with his sister in Boston, Malcolm worked as a shoeshine boy, soda jerk, busboy, waiter, and railroad dining car waiter. At this point he began a criminal life that included gambling, selling drugs, burglary, and hustling.
In 1946 Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years for burglary. In prison he began to transform his life. His family visited and wrote to him about the Black Muslim religious movement. (The Black Muslims' official name was the Lost-Found Nation of Islam, and the spiritual leader was Elijah Muhammad, with national headquarters in Chicago.) Malcolm began to study Muhammad's teachings and to practice the religion faithfully. In addition, he enlarged his vocabulary by copying words from the dictionary, beginning with "A" and going through to "Z." He began to assimilate the racial teachings of his new religion; that the white man is evil, doomed by Allah to destruction, and that the best course for black people is to separate themselves from Western, white civilization--culturally, politically, physically, psychologically.
In 1952 Malcolm was released from prison and went to Chicago to meet Elijah Muhammad. Accepted into the movement and given the name of Malcolm X, he became assistant minister of the Detroit Mosque. The following year he returned to Chicago to study personally under Muhammad and shortly thereafter was sent to organize a mosque in Philadelphia. In 1954 he went to lead the mosque in Harlem.
Malcolm X became the most prominent national spokesman for the Black Muslims. He was widely sought as a speaker, and his debating talents against white and black opponents helped spread the movement's message. At this time in the United States there was a major thrust for racial integration; however, Malcolm X and the Black Muslims were calling for racial separation. He believed that the civil rights gains made in America were only tokenism. He castigated those African Americans who used the tactic of nonviolence in order to achieve integration and advocated self-defense in the face of white violence. He urged black people to give up the Christian religion, reject integration, and understand that the high crime rate in black communities was essentially a result of African Americans following the decadent mores of Western, white society. During this period Malcolm X, following Elijah Muhammad, urged black people not to participate in elections because to do so meant to sanction the immoral political system of the United States.
In 1957 Malcolm X met a young student nurse in New York; she shortly became a member of the Black Muslims, and they were married in 1958; they had six daughters.
For at least two years before 1963, some observers felt that there were elements within the Black Muslim movement that wanted to oust Malcolm X. There were rumors that he was building a personal power base to succeed Elijah Muhammad and that he wanted to make the organization political. Others felt that the personal jealousy of some Black Muslim leaders was a factor.
On Dec. 1, 1963, Malcolm X stated that he saw President John F. Kennedy's assassination as a case of "The chickens coming home to roost." Soon afterward Elijah Muhammad suspended him and ordered him not to speak for the movement for 90 days. On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced that he was leaving the Nation of Islam and starting two new organizations: the Muslim Mosque, Inc., and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He remained a believer in the Islamic religion.
During the next months Malcolm X made several trips to Africa and Europe and one to Mecca. Based on these, he wrote that he no longer believed that all white people were evil and that he had found the true meaning of the Islamic religion. He changed his name to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. He announced that he planned to internationalize the black struggle by taking black people's complaints against the United States before the United Nations. For this purpose he sought aid from several African countries through the Organization of Afro-American Unity. At the same time he stated that his organizations were willing to work with other black organizations and with progressive white groups in the United States on voter registration, on black control of community public institutions such as schools and the police, and on other civil and political rights for black people. He began holding meetings in Harlem at which he enunciated the policies and programs of his new organizations. On a Sunday afternoon, Feb. 21, 1965, as he began to address one such meeting, Malcolm X was assassinated.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
During a press conference in 1964, Dr. King holds a picture of three missing civil rights workers, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman (left to right), who were murdered in Mississippi.
LBJ signs the CRA’64
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 in the United States was landmark legislation. The original purpose of the Bill was to protect black men from job (and other) discrimination, but at the last minute in an attempt to kill the bill, it was expanded to include protection for women. As a result it formed a political impetus for feminism.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 transformed American society. It prohibited discrimination in public facilities, in government, and in employment.
This simple statement understates the large shift in American society that occurred as a result. The Jim Crow laws in the South were abolished, and it was illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring.
Although initially enforcement powers were weak, they grew over the years, and such later programs as Affirmative Action were made possible by the Civil Rights Act.
The March on Selma, AL
Blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
By 1965 concerted efforts to break the grip of state disfranchisement had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall and in some areas had proved almost entirely ineffectual. The murder of voting-rights activists in Philadelphia, Mississippi, gained national attention, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism.
Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings began soon thereafter on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act.
Congress determined that the existing federal anti-discrimination laws were not sufficient to overcome the resistance by state officials to enforcement of the 15th Amendment. The legislative hearings showed that the Department of Justice's efforts to eliminate discriminatory election practices by litigation on a case-by-case basis had been unsuccessful in opening up the registration process; as soon as one discriminatory practice or procedure was proven to be unconstitutional and enjoined, a new one would be substituted in its place and litigation would have to commence anew. Poll taxes and literacy tests were removed. Felony to interfere with voter registration.
President Johnson signed the resulting legislation into law on August 6, 1965.
American Culture Icons
Robert F. Kennedy Birth: November 20, 1925 Death: June 8, 1968
RFK was a candidate for the 1968 presidential election, but was shot down at Ambassador Hotel, in Los Angeles, just after winning the Democrat primary election of California. Officially, his murderer, Sihran Bishara Sihran acted alone, but some researchers think Bobby Kennedy was killed as a result of a conspiracy.
Young kitchen worker, Juan Romero, knelt at the side of Robert F. Kennedy, who has been hit by the bullets of Sirhan Bishara Sirhan.
Richard Nixon to Carter 1968-1980
1. Kent State 26. Vietnamization
2. Henry Kissinger 27. Pentagon Papers/Daniel Ellsberg
3. Daniel Ellsberg 28. plumbers/dirty tricks
4. Watergate break-in and cover-up 29. Spiro T. Agnew
5. Tet Offensive 30. Nelson Rockefeller
6. Impeachment 31. Katherine Graham
7. Peace with Honor 32. Gray Panthers
8. Cesar Chavez 33. Ho Chi Minh Trail
9. Agent Orange 34. SDS
10. 26th Amendment 35. The Wall/Vietnam Memorial
11. Woodward & Bernstein 36. China Trip
12. G. Gordon Liddy 37. Judge John J. Sirica
13. Ralph Nader 38. My Lai Massacre
14. Neil Armstrong 39. hippies/Flower Child
15. “I am not a crook!”-- 40. Gerald Ford
16. Disco music 41. "I'm a Ford, not a Lincoln”
17. Warren Commission 42. George Lucas/Steven Spielberg
18. Roots 1976 43. MicroSoft/Bill Gates
19. Bicentennial Celebration 44. TMI meltdown
20. Affirmative Action 45. Jimmy Carter
21. Bakke case -reverse discrimination 46 Camp David Accords
22. Cabbage Patch dolls 47. Ayatollah Khomeini
23. John Lennon/John Mark Chapman 48. Gas shortages/rationing
24. Geraldine Ferraro 49. 1980 Moscow Olympics
25. Iran hostages 50. Russians in Afghanistan
Timeline: The Cold War
1970: April -- President Nixon extends Vietnam War to Cambodia
1972: July -- SALT I signed
1973: January -- Cease fire in Vietnam between North Vietnam and United States
1973: September -- United States helps overthrow Chile government
1973: October -- Egypt and Syria attack Israel; Egypt requests Soviet aid
1974: August -- President Nixon resigns
1975: April 17 -- North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
1979: July -- SALT II signed
1979: November -- Shah of Iran overthrown; Iranian Hostage Crisis
1983: -- President Reagan proposes Strategic Defense Initiative
1983: October -- U.S. troops overthrow regime in Grenada
1985: -- Iran-Contra Affair (arms sold to Iran, profits used to support contras in Nicaragua)
1985: -- Mikhail Gorbachev ascends to power in Soviet Union
1986: -- Gorbachev ends economic aid to Soviet satellites
1986: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe
1986: November -- Iran-Contra Affair revealed to public
1987: October -- Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short-range nuclear missiles by signing treaty
1989: January -- Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan
1989: June -- China puts down protests for democracy; Poland becomes independent
1989: September -- Hungary becomes independent
1989: November -- Berlin Wall falls
1989: December -- Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania; Soviet empire ends
1990: March -- Lithuania becomes independent
1990: May 29 -- Boris Yeltsin elected to presidency of Russia
1990: October 3 -- Germany reunited
1991: April -- Warsaw Pact ends
1991: August -- End of Soviet Union Cold War Ends
#37 Richard M. Nixon 1969-1974
Henry Kissinger détente China and Moscow visits
SALT I signed.
“ Peace with Honor”
Vietnamization of the war, bombing in Cambodia and Laos
Spiro T. Agnew—Gov. from MD, household name resigns “nolle contendere” to bribe charges
Gerald Ford—in as VP
Four Dead in Ohio—Kent State—National Guard opens fire on students protesting
The Silent Majority
Appoints 3 Supreme Court judges: Blackmun, Lewis Powell, and Rehnquist Roe v. Wade 1973
Sesame Street 1969
AIM—take Alcatraz (1969) and incident at Wounded Knee (1971)
1970—Cesar Chavez and the migrant fruit-pickers form a union.
1971 26th Amendment—18 yr. olds get the vote
George Wallace runs as an independent.
July 20, 1969 at 10:56 The Eagle had landed. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin moon landing
NIXON wins by a landslide and then “it” hits the fan
CREEP—Committee to Re-Elect the President
Started with “Plumbers” and “dirty tricks”—to stop leaks, esp. Daniel Ellsburg—bugged his psychiatrist’s office to discredit his Pentagon Papers
E.Howard Hunt, James McCord, and G. Gordon Liddy—break-in at Democratic Committee Headquarters—Watergate
Woodward/Bernstein and “Deep Throat” hush $, slush $, cover-up
Sam Ervin (SC)—Senate hearings
Special Prosecutor—Archibald Cox and then Leon Jaworski
“ Saturday Night Massacre”—Bork fires Cox and Jaworski demands tapes
“ I am not a crook!”--Nixon resigns Aug. 9, 1974
In his 1968 bid for the presidency, Richard Nixon announced to the war-weary country that he had a secret plan to end the Vietnam War. When he ran for re-election four years later, American troops were still fighting in Indochina, with casualties continuing to climb. August 9, 1972 Now, as I was saying four years ago
Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Nixon visits Russia and meets with Premier Brezhnev. The discussion opens talk of trade between our two countries, a relaxing of the heavy Cold War stance. They signed agreements to limit the production of nuclear weapons. Later that year, the Soviet Union became a major buyer of U.S. wheat.
Henry Kissinger is Sec. of State. Détente and Realpolitik.
Nixon is a big hit here. Comes to agreements with the leaders of Red China—begins ping-pong diplomacy! In February 1972, the president visited China for seven days, and he began the process that led to formal recognition of China by the United States in 1979.
Opens the door a crack!
Nixon now has more credibility & leverage at the peace talks since he has apparently spoken to USSR and China about a mutual understanding @ VN. Peace With Honor is still possible!
Henry Alfred Kissinger , (born May 27, 1923) former United States Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford Administrations and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, who played a dominant role in foreign affairs between 1969 and 1977.
An admirer of realpolitik, Kissinger pioneered the policy of détente, began strategic arms reduction talks, "opened" China, ended the protracted Vietnam War, maintained friendly diplomatic relationships with anti-Communist military governments in the Southern Cone, approved of covert CIA intervention in Chilean politics, and ended the U.S. doctrine of undifferentiated containment of the Soviet Union through direct military intervention. Kissinger's foreign policy record has made him a controversial figure amongst anti-war liberals and conservative anti-Communist hawks alike. Some of Kissinger's critics accuse him of having committed war crimes while in government; although these allegations have not yet been proven in a court of law, it is considered legally dangerous for Kissinger to enter many countries in Europe and South America.
bordered by Laos, Red China, and Cambodia.
It is about the size of MA.
Vietnamization of the War/Peace with Honor
ARVN takes over—sure!
Nixon believed that we should withdraw our troops in Vietnam and turn it over to the South Vietnamese. He also believed that we should expand the bombing to include Laos and Cambodia—to cut off supplies from the Ho Chi Minh Trail. He wanted to talk peace from the position of power. Trick was: don’t tell Americans that you are expanding the war by bombing countries other than VietNam.
Meanwhile, boys are dying over there and we are protesting over here—on campuses (Kent State)and in DC (The Moratorium).
Americans have taken part in peace initiatives across the United States to protest against the continuing war in Vietnam. The Peace Moratorium is believed to have been the largest demonstration in US history with an estimated two million people involved.
1969: Millions march in US Vietnam Moratorium Burning of draft cards Mary Ann Vecchio kneels over the body of Jeffrey Miller After the Nat’l Guard fired on protestors at Kent State (Ohio).
My Lai Massacre
On March 16, 1968, U.S. soldiers, led by Lt. William Calley, invaded the village of My Lai in South Vietnam in search of Viet Cong and their sympathizers. Some 347 unarmed civilians, including women and children, were killed. After about a year of covering-up the killings, the Army opened its own internal investigation, which led to congressional hearings. Five soldiers were court-martialed for participating in the attack. Four were found innocent, and Calley was sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1974, a federal court overturned the verdict, and Calley was released.
Ralph Nader (born February 27 , 1934 ) is an activist attorney who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental , consumer rights , and pro-democracy issues. Nader has also been a strong critic of recent American foreign policy, which he views as corporatist, imperialist, and contrary to fundamental values of democracy and human rights.
Nader was the U.S. presidential candidate of the Green Party in the 1996 election and 2000 election . In both 1996 and 2000, Winona LaDuke was his vice-presidential running mate. In 2004 , however, the Green Party nominated David Cobb , and Nader ran as an independent candidate in the 2004 U.S. presidential election . In some states in 2004, Nader achieved ballot access by virtue of winning the nomination of an alternative political party, such as the Reform Party , and in others by forming a Populist Party . His vice-presidential running mate in 2004 was Green Party activist Peter Camejo .
One Small Step for Man…
One Giant Leap for Mankind.
Star Trek We had been watching Star Trek for years when we actually landed people on the Moon. Thin veneer of Klingons representing Commies and the Federation representing the Good Guys. I believe the Prime Directive to be the most Important concept of the Federation— non-interference policy towards less developed cultures encountered
Although 10,000 or 20,000 people were expected, over 400,000 attended, most of whom did not pay admission. The highways leading to the concert were jammed with traffic as people tried to make it to the concert. The weekend was rainy, the facilities were overcrowded, and attendees shared food, alcoholic beverages, and drugs . However, no violence was reported and the fact that attendees were remarkably well behaved was particularly noted. The Woodstock Festival represented the culmination of the counterculture of the 1960s and the high point of the " hippie era". The festival did not initially make money for the promoters, although, thanks to record sales and proceeds from the highly regarded film of the event, it did eventually become profitable. There were two deaths and two births at Woodstock. Woodstock is also the name of the famous documentary film about the concert; the film, directed by Michael Wadleigh and edited by Martin Scorsese , was released in 1970 and won the Academy Award for Documentary . The film has since been deemed "culturally significant" by the U.S. Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry . Myth of Woodstock
Woodstock has been mythologized in American popular culture as a festival where nearly 500,000 people came together to celebrate peace and love. Many people at Woodstock smoked marijuana or took other drugs. Woodstock did indeed experience its share of crime related misbehavior. As stated before, Woodstock was not intended for such a large crowd and thus, many needed facilities were not present, such as toilets and first aid tents. Some who attended the festival felt that it was chaotic and did not report having a positive experience.
Artists who performed at Woodstock
Joan Baez The Band Jeff Beck Group Blood, Sweat & Tears Paul Butterfield Blues Band Canned Heat Joe Cocker Country Joe and the Fish Creedence Clearwater Revival Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Grateful Dead Arlo Guthrie Tim Hardin Keef Hartley Richie Havens
Jimi Hendrix Incredible String Band Janis Joplin Jefferson Airplane Melanie Mountain Quill Santana John Sebastian Sha-Na-Na Ravi Shankar Sly and the Family Stone Bert Sommer Sweetwater Ten Years After The Who Johnny Winter
Spiro T. Agnew
Vice President of the United States; born in Baltimore, Md., November 9, 1918; educated in the public schools of Baltimore; attended the Johns Hopkins University; graduated from the University of Baltimore Law School 1947; served in the United States Army during the Second World War and the Korean conflict; practiced law in Baltimore; elected county executive of Baltimore County 1962; elected Governor of Maryland 1966; elected Vice President of the United States on the Republican ticket with President Richard M. Nixon on November 5, 1968; resigned as Governor of Maryland on January 7, 1969; inaugurated 39th Vice President of the United States on January 20, 1969; reelected Vice President, November 7, 1972; charged with accepting bribes and falsifying federal tax returns, pleaded nolo contendere to the latter charge in federal court, and resigned October 10, 1973; international trade executive; was a resident of Rancho Mirage, Calif., and Ocean City, Md.; died September 17, 1996, in Ocean City; cremated, ashes interred at Dulaney Valley Memorial Gardens, Timonium, Md.
Ellsberg grew up in Detroit and attended Cranbrook School, then attended Harvard University, graduating with a Ph.D. in Economics in 1959 in which he described a paradox in decision theory now known as Ellsberg's Paradox. He served as a company commander in the Marine Corps for two years, and then became an analyst at the Rand Corporation. A committed Cold War warrior, he served in the Pentagon in 1964 under Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. He then served for two years in Vietnam as a civilian in the State Department, and became convinced that the Vietnam War was unwinnable. He further believed that nearly everyone in the Defense and State Departments knew, as he did, that the United States had no realistic chance of achieving victory in Vietnam, but that political considerations prevented them from saying so publicly. McNamara and others continued to state in press interviews that victory was "just around the corner". As the war continued to escalate, Ellsberg became deeply disillusioned.
The Pentagon Papers
Working again at Rand, Ellsberg managed to procure, photocopy, and return a large number of classified papers regarding the execution of the war. These documents later became collectively known as the Pentagon Papers. They revealed the knowledge, early on, that the war would not likely be won and that continuing the war would lead to many times more casualties than was admitted publicly. Further, the papers showed a deep cynicism towards the public and a disregard for the loss of life and injury suffered by soldiers and civilians.
Ellsberg knew that releasing these papers would most likely result in a conviction and sentence of many years in prison. Throughout 1970, Ellsberg covertly attempted to convince a few sympathetic Senators (among them J. William Fulbright who refused to break the law) to release the Pentagon Papers on the Senate floor, because a Senator cannot be prosecuted for anything he says on record before the Senate. No Senator was willing to do so.
Finally, Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times . On June 13, 1971, the Times began publishing the first installment of the 7000 page document. For 15 days, NYT was prevented from publishing its articles on the orders of Nixon administration. However, Supreme Court ordered publication to resume freely. Although the Times did not reveal the source of the leak, Ellsberg knew that the FBI would soon determine that he was the source of the leak. Ellsberg went underground, living secretly among like-minded people. He was not caught by the FBI, even though they were under enormous pressure from the Nixon Administration to find him.
The publication of the papers greatly detracted from public support for the war in Vietnam. This was a primary reason that President Nixon decided to make discrediting Ellsberg a high priority. Nixon's Oval Office tape from June 14 shows H. R. Haldeman describing the situation to Nixon.
To the ordinary guy, all this is a bunch of gobbledygook. But out of the gobbledygook comes a very clear thing: you can't trust the government; you can't believe what they say; and you can't rely on their judgment. And the implicit infallibility of presidents, which has been an accepted thing in America, is badly hurt by this, because it shows that people do things the president wants to do even though it's wrong, and the president can be wrong.
The release of these papers was politically embarrassing, not only to the incumbent Nixon Administration, but also to the previous Johnson and Kennedy Administrations. Nixon's Attorney General John Mitchell almost immediately issued a telegram to the Times ordering that it halt publication. The Times refused, and the government brought suit against them. Although the Times eventually won the trial before the Supreme Court, an appellate court ordered that the Times temporarily halt further publication. This was the first attempt by the federal government to restrain the publication of a newspaper. Ellsberg released the Pentagon Papers to other newspapers in rapid succession, making it clear to the government that they would have to obtain injunctions against every newspaper in the country to stop the story.
On June 28, Ellsberg publicly surrendered to the US Attorney's Office in Boston, Massachusetts. He was taken into custody believing he would spend the rest of his life in prison; he was charged with theft, conspiracy, and espionage.
In one of Nixon's actions against Ellsberg, G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt broke into Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office in September 1971, hoping to find information they could use to discredit him. The revelation of the break-in became part of the Watergate scandal. On May 3, 1972, the White House secretly flew a dozen Cuban CIA "assets" to Washington DC with orders to assault or assassinate Ellsberg. (They backed out because the crowd was too large.) Because of the gross governmental misconduct, all charges against Ellsberg were eventually dropped.
Frank Wills : Watergate Security Guard On June 17, 1972, Frank Wills, an $80-a-week security guard for the Watergate office complex in Washington D.C., stumbled upon what was later called a "third-rate burglary" taking place in an office leased to the Democratic National Committee. His life, as well as that of his nation, would never be the same. Frank Wills, a native of Savannah, Georgia, visited Washington D.C. in 1971 and decided to stay. Later that year, a security services firm called GSS hired him to man the midnight-to-7 a.m. shift at the Watergate office complex. About an hour into his shift in the early morning of June 17, 1972, he noticed a piece of adhesive tape covering part of the lock mechanism on a door between the basement stairwell and the parking garage. At first, Wills suspected the cleaning crew - which had left by this time - had taped over the door latch to prevent it from locking. He removed the tape and went on with his duties. James McCord, the leader of the buglers and a former security officer at the CIA, noticed the tape was missing but rather than calling off the escapade, he simply retaped the door. Had he not, it is possible, perhaps even likely, that Richard Nixon would have served out his second term with all of the abuses of power of his administration simply speculated upon rather than prosecuted. At around 1:55 a.m., Wills again made his rounds and discovered the lock had once again been taped over. He called the D.C. police and they arrested five men wearing surgical gloves and carrying bugging equipment in the sixth-floor offices of the Democratic National Committee. During their arraignment the following day, it would be discovered that some of the burglars were former CIA personnel. who noticed tape on a lock and called police at 1:47 a.m. on June 17, 1972 to report the break-in. Police came and took five men into custody.
Frank Wills: Movie Star
As the importance of the burglary became apparent, Wills began receiving recognition for his efforts. He received an award from the Democratic Party and the Martin Luther King Award from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference - its highest honor. He even played himself in the movie "All the President's Men" starring Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman and written by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein.
For a brief time after the break-in, he was "in demand" amongst the Washington press corps. He hired lawyer Dorsey Evans as his agent and charged reporters as much as $300 for interviews. Some reporters paid the fee, but his plans to work the lecture circuit met with apathy and were soon abandoned.
"He's the only one in Watergate who did his job perfectly," said Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward to The Post . "...Calling the police was one of the most important phone calls in American history, and it was so simple and so basic."
Where Are They Now?
Frank Wills died penniless on September 27, 2000 at age 52 in a hospital in Augusta, Georgia. He had been diagnosed with a brain tumor. A very sad end for a man who helped protect the integrity of a system he later become so disillusioned with.
The Watergate complex was once again mentioned frequently in the context of a presidential scandal when it was revealed that Monica Lewinsky lived there while working at the White House under Bill Clinton.
Watergate Cover Up
On the night of June 17, 1972, former employees of the Nixon reelection campaign broke into the Democratic headquarters in the Watergate building. This incident began the unraveling of the Nixon Administration's abuses of power and illegal actions and the administration's efforts to cover up these activities. Two days after the break-in, Herb Block drew cartoons of Nixon and his attorney general feigning surprise, and saying, "Who would think of doing such a thing?"
This was followed by one of Nixon and Department of Justice officials saying, "Remember, we don't talk until we get a lawyer." He also did a cartoon showing scandal footsteps leading to the White House.
Says Herb Block: "Watergate was not even the first by the Nixon ‘plumbers.' They had previously broken into the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist. And in the Nixon tapes, he [Nixon] tells aides how to break into such places as the IRS offices. "
In 1974, Herb Block produced Herblock Special Report , a book of cartoons and text devoted to Nixon's political activities from the 1940s to his resignation in 1974.
Nixon cartoons by Herblock Nixon awash in his office By June 1973, the country had become transfixed by the investigation of Watergate via the televised hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. On June 25, former presidential counsel John Dean began his testimony, the first before the committee to directly accuse President Richard Nixon of involvement in the coverup. Nixon hanging between the tapes Even more damning than President Richard Nixon's profiting from public office were the disclosures of his corruption and attempts at corruption of the government itself including the CIA, the FBI, the Pentagon and even the Secret Service. A taping system that had recorded most of President Nixon's conversations in the Oval Office provided the "smoking gun" that spoke of crime and corruption. Nixon refused to release the tapes until the Supreme Court ordered him to do so.
Nixon, "unindicted co-conspirator"
By July 14, 1974, President Richard Nixon stood almost alone. His vice-president Spiro Agnew, pleaded nolo contendere to a charge of tax evasion, and was forced to resign. Many of Nixon's closest aides had been convicted of illegal activities. Nixon himself was named an "un-indicted co-conspirator" by the Watergate grand jury. A few days later, the House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment, and the Supreme Court required him to turn over all subpoenaed tapes. When even his closest friends, reviewing these tapes, agreed that the evidence against him was overwhelming, Nixon bowed to the inevitable, resigning on August 9.
# 38 Gerald Ford (R) 1974-1977 “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln”
former Michigan football player
on Warren Commission
Bicentennial Celebration with tall ships
“ Klutzy” but athletic president—portrayed as falling down Air Force 1 steps, hitting gallery in golf
SNL sketches crucify Ford Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind—1977
1975 out of Vietnam—56,000 Americans dead vs. 1.3 million Viet Cong
Last flight from Saigon
Top Grossing Movies
#39 Jimmy Carter (D) 1977-1981
Alan Bakke-reverse discrimination case vs. Affirmative Action
Plaines, Georgia Peanut One and brother Billy
Inclusive of women and minorities
Walter Mondale is his VP Fritz and Grits
Shuttle diplomacy with Cyrus Vance
Camp David Accords—Begin and Sadat
Unemployment very high
Cabbage Patch dolls
Double digit inflation
Speed Racer cartoon is popular
Gas shortages/rationing on odd or even days
OPEC holds US over a barrel
Holy Shiites!!! The Ayahtollah Khomeini in Iran hold 52 hostages from our embassy for 444 days
Amnesty to draft-evaders 1977
Soviets invade Afghanistan, so we boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics that summer
TMI meltdown in March, 1979
1980 John Lennon shot by John Mark Chapman
1980 Mt. St. Helens erupts
Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro run v. Reagan and Bush—1st female VP
Khomeini was a Shi'ite Muslim, but his beliefs were an extreme form of the Shi'a creed. From exile, he developed the concept of a theocracy, which dramatically changed what had previously been a largely apolitical branch of Islam.
In November 1979, a group of student radicals overran the U.S. embassy and took everyone inside hostage, with Khomeini's support, in retaliation for the U.S. agreeing to shelter the Shah. The crisis lasted for more than a year, (444 days!),paralyzing Jimmy Carter's presidency and eventually contributing greatly to his loss to Ronald Reagan in the 1980 election.
After the Shah died, the hostages were released on Jan. 20, 1981, the day of Reagan's inauguration.
Ted Koppel: Good evening, if you've been anywhere near a television or a radio these past few hours, you already know that John Lennon of the Beatles is dead. He was shot late this evening in front of his apartment building in New York City. Apparently, he was killed almost immediately. The man who shot John Lennon, walked up to the musician as he was leaving his limousine. According, to eye witnesses, he said 'Mr. Lennon" and then fired at him, point blank at least 5 times. Standing by now, in New York, is ABC's Lynn Sure.
Lynn Sure: John Lennon's body was immediately rushed in a police car, here, to Roosevelt hospital, just 13 blocks away from his apartment in upper Manhattan. He was dead on arrival. They tried resuscitation and they tried transfusions, but nothing worked.
John Lennon was shot at a well known New York apartment building, the Dakota House at West 72nd street, and ABC's Rita Sands is standing by at the Dakota, now. Rita, what have you been able to learn since the shooting?
Rita Sands: Ted, what we know about the suspect at this time, is first of all his identity: 25 year old, Mark David Chapman. He comes from Hawaii, police tell me he's been in the New York area about a week. And began to hang around the Dakota apartment, over the weekend asking about John Lennon.
Ted Koppel: Chapman, asked John Lennon, or simply said Mr. Lennon, and then pulled out a gun and pumped 5 shots at point-blank range into John Lennon. The singer was killed almost instantly, he was pronounced bed, dead upon arrival of Roosevelt hospital, in New York.
The end was actually the second version of the program we did for the west coast. By that time of the morning, hundreds of John Lennon fans stood out in the dark and the cold, holding candles and singing Beatles songs
TMI Three Mile Island
The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania, on March 28, 1979, was the most serious in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history,(1) even though it led to no deaths or injuries to plant workers or members of the nearby community. But it brought about sweeping changes involving emergency response planning, reactor operator training, human factors engineering, radiation protection, and many other areas of nuclear power plant operations. It also caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to tighten and heighten its regulatory oversight. Resultant changes in the nuclear power industry and at the NRC had the effect of enhancing safety.
The sequence of certain events -- equipment malfunctions, design related problems and worker errors -- led to a partial meltdown of the TMI-2 reactor core, but only very small off-site releases of radioactivity.
The Republican Revolution 1980-1992
1. Reaganomics 12. The Great Communicator
2. Strategic Defense Initiative/Star Wars 13. John Hinckley
3. “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” 14. “Thriller” album
1986 Challenger disaster 15. AIDS
Sandra Day O’Connor 16. Boris Yeltsin/USSR meltdown
6. Iran-Contra 1986 17. He-Man & Ninja Turtles
7. Exxon Valdez 18. "Read My Lips. No new taxes!”
9. Persian Gulf War/Operation Desert Storm 20. Stormin’ Norman Schwartzkopf
10. Colin Powell 21. H. Ross Perot
Hubble Space Telescope 22. Pope John Paul II
#40 Ronald Reagan (R) 1981-1989
our oldest President “Death Valley Days”
The Great Communicator
Supply side economics Reaganomics voodoo economics Keynesian economics
SDI Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars
Sandra Day O’Connor is appointed by Reagan as the first woman Supreme Court Justice
Maya Lin’s idea: Vietnam War Memorial
1981 AIDS discovered.
1981 both Pope and Reagan targets of assassins
Presidential Aide James Brady badly wounded in the Reagan attempt by John Hinckley, Jr. to impress Jodie
1984 Madonna hits the stage
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev in USSR introduces glasnost and perestroika
“ Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
Boris Yeltsin USSR meltdown
The Teflon President—Iran-Contra 1986 Oliver North in Nicaragua
1986 Nintendo invented
January 28, 1986 Challenger disaster with Christa McAuliffe
1987 Stock Market dive
Transformers, He-Man, My Little Pony, Smurfs, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles are popular
Apple pc introduced by Steven Jobs
Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” in 1993
1989 Exxon Valdez ruins Alaska with an oil spill
All Time Hits
Eagles - Their Greatest Hits (1971-1975) - 28 times platinum
Michael Jackson - Thriller - 26 times platinum
Pink Floyd - The Wall - 23 times platinum
Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin IV - 22 times platinum
Billy Joel - Greatest Hits Volume I & II - 21 times platinum
AC/DC - Back in Black - 20 times platinum
Fleetwood Mac - Rumours - 19 times platinum
The Beatles - The Beatles ("the White Album") - 19 times platinum
Shania Twain - Come on Over - 19 times platinum
Boston - Boston - 17 times platinum
Whitney Houston - The Bodyguard (soundtrack) - 17 times platinum
Hootie and the Blowfish - Cracked Rear View - 16 times platinum
Elton John - Greatest Hits - 16 times platinum
Alanis Morissette - Jagged Little Pill - 16 times platinum
The Beatles - 1967 - 1970 - 16 times platinum
In a lecture at UNC the other day where they played a video of Oliver North during the Iran-Contra deals during the Reagan administration. In this particular clip. There was Ollie in front of God and Country getting the third degree. But what he said was stunning, as he was being drilled by some senator, who asked him;
'Did you not recently spend close to $60,000 for a home security system?'
Oliver replied, 'Yes I did sir.'
The senator continued, trying to get a laugh out of the audience, 'Isn't this just a little excessive?'
'No sir,' continued Oliver.
'No. And why not?'
'Because the life of my family and I were threatened.'
'Threatened? By who.'
'By a terrorist, sir.'
'Terrorist? What terrorist could possibly scare you that much?'
'His name is Osama bin Laden.'
At this point the senator tried to repeat the name, but couldn't pronounce it, which most people back then probably couldn't. A couple of people laughed at the attempt. Then the senator continued.
'Why are you so afraid of this man?'
'Because sir, he is the most evil person alive that I know of.'
'And what do you recommend we do about him?'
'If it were me I would recommend an assassin team be formed to eliminate him and his men from the face of the earth.'
The senator disagreed with this approach and that was all they showed of the clip.
It's scary when you think 15 years ago the government was aware of Osama bin Laden and his potential threat to the security of the world. I guess like all great tyrants they start small but if left untended spread like the virus they truly are.
Mikhail Gorbachev Oliver North
In the Iran-Contra Affair (also known as "Irangate" ), United States President Ronald Reagan's administration was involved in the sale of arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 , and was said to have contributed the proceeds to the Contra rebels who ultimately forced the leftist Sandinista government of Nicaragua out of office in democratic elections. Those sales thus had a dual goal: appeasing Iran, which had influence with militant groups that held several American hostages in Lebanon and supported bombings in Western European countries, and funding a guerrilla war aimed at toppling the pro-Communist Nicaraguan government, which was backed by Cuba and the Soviet Union.
Both transactions were contrary to acts of the then Democrat-dominated Congress, which opposed the funding of the Contras and the sale of weapons to Iran.
The arms-for-hostages deal arranged by Oliver North.
Thriller Thriller is currently the best selling album of all-original material of all time in the United States. The Eagles' Their Greatest Hits (1971-1975) is currently the best-selling album in the United States, with Thriller in second place, although the albums have traded position a number of times over the past few years. In 2003, the TV network VH1 named it the 23rd greatest album of all time.
1986: Seven dead in space shuttle disaster January 28, 1986
The American space shuttle, Challenger, has exploded killing all seven astronauts on board. The five men and two women - including the first civilian in space - were just over a minute into their flight from Cape Canaveral in Florida when the Challenger blew up.
The astronauts' families, at the airbase, and millions of Americans witnessed the world's worst space disaster live on TV. The shuttle crew was led by Commander Dick Scobee, 46. Christa McAuliffe, 37, married with two children, was to be the first school teacher in space - picked from among 10,000 entries for a competition.
This evening, the president went on national television to pay tribute to the courage and bravery of the seven astronauts.
He said: "We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them this morning as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God."
Reagonomics or 'voodoo economics'
President Reagan believed that getting the government out of the lives of its citizens as much as possible would boost economic growth.
He pushed for tax cuts, especially for the rich, on the grounds that giving them greater incentives would stimulate risk-taking and entrepreneurship.
His advisers believed that the additional economic activity would actually boost tax revenues.
However, his parallel commitment to fight communism led him to propose a vast increase in military spending, draining the public purse.
The result was a burgeoning budget deficit which worried conservative Republicans as much as Democrats.
But it worked!!! It did trickle down and during the next 12 years we had a wonderful economy—but Clinton claimed that he had had something to do with it.
#41 George Bush (R) 1989-1993
VP J. Danforth Quayle who is no Jack Kennedy and no Noah Webster potatoe
Read My Lips. No new taxes!”
Poland’s solidarity with Lech Walesa
Noriega is nailed.
Waco Incident—Hello, Reno!
1990 Germany unites
Hubble Space Telescope launched
Iraq’s Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in 1990
Persian Gulf War Operation Desert Storm 42 days sorties—300 Americans died vs. thousands of Iraqis
1992 Internet—e-mail, fax, cell phones
South African Apartheid ends.
1993 Share Nobel Peace Prize De Klerk and Nelson Mandela (after 27 yrs. in prison)
Stormin’ Norman Schwartzkopf and Colin Powell are heroes in the Gulf War
H. Ross Perot runs as an independent.
Life in the 1990s and Beyond/Bubba to Dubya
1. 1992 Internet—e-mail & cell phones 13. It Takes A Village
2. Monica Lewinsky and IMPEACHMENT 14. Whitewater Scandal
1994-5 O. J. Simpson trial 15. EU
Waco Incident 16. Mother Teresa
5. 1995 Oklahoma City bombing 17. NAFTA
6. Tanya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan 18. Forrest Gump
7. Kosovo with Milosovich 19. Elian Gonzalez
8. Columbine Shooting 20. Million Man March
9. Mark McGwire vs. Sammy Sosa 21. “Saving Private Ryan”
10. Y2K 22. hanging chads
11. The Disputed Election 23. 9/11—Osama Ben Laden
12. Al Qaeda 24. Operation Iraqi Freedom
#42 Bill Clinton (D) 1993-2000
Baby-Boomer in the White House
Saxophones, Hillary ( It Takes A Village ) Chelsea, Socks, and Buddy
Al Gore—Tommy Lee Jones’ roomie at Harvard, VP with Tipper
National Health Plan? A roaring failure when Hillary presents it, Congress resents it
Republican Resurgence—“Contract with America” starring Newt Gingrich
Whitewater Scandal—shady Arkansas land deals/rumors of sexual misconduct
1994 Forrest Gump
1994-5 O. J. Simpson trial
1995 Tanya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan fun
1995 Oklahoma City bombing Timothy McVeigh sentenced to death
1996 Madeline Albright named Secretary of State
Re-elected in 1996.
“ Titanic” in 1997
Dolly the Sheep is cloned.
Mother Teresa dies.
Kosovo with Milosovic—ethnic cleansing Bosnian Serb
Million Man March
1998- Mark McGwire hits 70 homers; Sosa hits 66.
“ Saving Private Ryan”
Federal Budget balanced.
Monica Lewinsky and IMPEACHMENT
1999 We return Panama Canal to Panama
Columbine Shooting occurs
John Kennedy, Jr. dies.
Y2K fears loom!!! And then fizzle. This isn’t the Millennium yet.
Bill Gates-$45 billion personal worth—still had a bad haircut
Multiculturalism Immigration—Myth of the Melting Pot—Tossed Salad or Stew
The Graying of America: Baby-Boomers turn 53
264 million Americans ; 2/5’s non-English
Hillary Rodham Clinton
Her 1996 book It Takes a Village and Other Lessons Children Teach Us was a best seller, and she received a Grammy Award for her recording of it.
As First Lady, her public involvement with many activities sometimes led to controversy. Undeterred by critics, Hillary won many admirers for her staunch support for women around the world and her commitment to children's issues.
She was elected United States Senator from New York on November 7, 2000. She is the first First Lady
elected to the United States Senate and the first
woman elected statewide in New York.
Monica Lewinsky (born July 2 3, 1973 ) is an American woman who was thrust into the public limelight after having a private a sexual affair with U.S. President Bill Clinton , conducted while Lewinsky was working as an intern at the White House in the mid- 1990s . The affair's repercussions for President Clinton are often referred to as the Lewinsky scandal .
Lewinsky, who is of Russian Jewish descent, was born in San Francisco and grew up in Southern California on the west side of Los Angeles and in Beverly Hills . She graduated with a Psychology degree from Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon in 1995 , and afterwards moved to Washington, D.C. where she worked at the White House during Clinton's first term.
While at the White House she had a short-term sexual relationship with the President. Clinton and Lewinsky both denied that the relationship involved sexual intercourse. The news of this affair, and the resulting investigation, and impeachment, became known as the Lewinsky scandal.
Confidant Linda Tripp was secretly recording her telephone conversations with Lewinsky regarding the affair with Clinton. Later, Tripp would give the tapes to Kenneth Starr (independent prosecutor), and these would divert him from an investigation of the Whitewater scandal .
Lewinsky admitted that her relationship with Clinton involved oral sex in the Oval Office . This was documented in the Starr report, which eventually led to President Clinton's impeachment on the allegation of perjury regarding the affair.
Clinton denied having sexual intercourse with Lewinsky while under oath in an unrelated trial. In a nationally televised clip from a White House news conference, Clinton later claimed "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky." The line later became a punch line for its technical verity but deceptive nature, based on one's definition of "sexual relations." In addition, he stated "There is no sexual relationship" with Lewinsky, a statement which he later said was truthful depending on one's definition of "is." Under pressure from Starr on August 19, 1998 , who Clinton learned had obtained from Lewinsky a blue dress with Clinton's semen stain, Clinton apologized for misleading the American people, and he admitted that he had had an "inappropriate" relationship with Lewinsky. Clinton denied having committed perjury because oral sex was not a sexual relation.
Clinton soon faced impeachment hearings in the U.S. Congress. Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives but not convicted in the Senate , so he was not removed from office. Interestingly, Clinton saw his job approval ratings among the American people increase during and after the scandal.
The affair, and its sordid details, led to a period of cultural celebrity for Lewinsky; as an unlikely sex symbol, and as a younger-generation nexus of a political storm that was both lighthearted, and extremely serious at the same time. Some mild use of the name "Lewinsky" still exists as a term for oral sex, though Lewinsky references and jokes have long cooled in the public interest.
By her own account, Lewinsky survived the intense media attention by knitting. She now runs her own business, selling her own brand of handbags. She was also the host of the short-lived reality television dating program called Mr. Personality . Lewinsky currently lives in New York City .
On March 4, 1999 Monica's Story , an authorized biography detailing her affair with Bill Clinton, went on sale in the United States.
FAMOUS PEOPLE FORREST MET
ELVIS - Forrest showed "The King" how to move his hips. GEORGE WALLACE - Forrest picked up Vivian Malone's book as Wallace was standing in the schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama. ABBY HOFFMAN - At an anti war demonstration. JOHN LENNON and DICK CAVETT - On Cavett's Television show.
PRESIDENTS JOHN F. KENNEDY - as a member of the All-American Football team.
With Tricky Dicky receiving the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Flex-o-lite Ping Pong Paddles.
HE INFLUENCED The "S*** Happens" bumper sticker. The "Smiley Face" bumper sticker and the "Have a Nice Day" slogan.
HE INVESTED In some kinda "Fruit Company" (Apple Computer).
MOMMA ALWAYS SAID:
"There's an awful lot you can tell 'bout a person by their shoes" --- "Where they goin'" "Where they been"
Forrest Gump :
"I've worn lots of shoes"
"There is only so much fortune a man really needs - and the rest is for showin' off"
"Life is like a box of chocolates, Forrest. You never know what you're gonna get"
FOR NO PARTICULAR REASON:
[ The Kennedy assassinations ]
"Sometime later - FOR NO PARTICULAR REASON - somebody shot that nice young president when he was riding in his car"
"and a few years after that, somebody shot his little brother too - only he was in the hotel kitchen"
"Must be hard being brothers"
[ John Lennon's Assassination ]
"Some years later that nice young man from England was on his way to see his little boy and was signing autographs - FOR NO PARTICULAR REASON AT ALL - somebody shot him"
Forrest Gump : "Stupid is as stupid does"
Forrest Gump : "We were like peas and carrots, Jenny and I"
[ Forrest's repeated phrase at the end of recollections of particularly sensitive incidents ]
Forrest Gump : "That's all I have to say about that"
[ Forrest remembers Jenny's father ]
Forrest Gump : "Was some kind of a farmer. He was a very loving man - he was always kissing and touching her and her sisters"
[ After hitting Jenny's boyfriend ]
Forrest Gump : "Sorry I had a fight in the middle of your Black Panther party"
[ Forrest remembers Lt. Dan Taylor ]
Forrest Gump : "He was from a long great military tradition - somebody in his family had fought - and DIED - in every - single - American - war"
"I guess you could say he had a lot to LIVE up to"
[ Forrest on his being shot in the buttocks ]
Forrest Gump : "They said it was a million dollar wound. But, the army must keep that money, cause I still ain't seen a nickel of that million dollars"
[ Miscellaneous ]
Forrest Gump : "I'm sorry for ruining your party, Lieutenant Dan. She tasted of cigarettes"
Forrest Gump : "Now you wouldn't believe me if I told you, but I could run like the wind blows. From that day on, if I was ever going somewhere, I was run-ning!!"
Forrest Gump : "Now for some reason I fit in the Army like one of them round pegs"
Forrest Gump : "They sending me to Vietnam - it's this whole other country"
Bubba Blue : "You ever been on a real SHRIMP boat?" Forrest Gump : "No - but I been on a real BIG boat"
Lt. Dan : "Have you found Jesus yet Gump?" Forrest Gump : "I didn't know I was supposed to be looking for him - Sir!"
Army Sergeant : "Gump, what is your sole purpose in this army?" Forrest Gump : "To do whatever you tell me, Drill Sergeant!" Army Sergeant : "Gump, you are a @#$%&! genius"...
The Principal of Greenbow County Central Schools : "Your momma sure does care 'bout your schoolin' son"
Coach "Bear" Bryant : "Who in the hell is that?" High School Coach : "That there is Forrest Gump, coach - Just the local idiot"
"'Forrest Gump is simply brilliant . . . a magnificent new film. Director Robert Zemeckis is both a superb, commercially successful entertainer and an artist with a distinctive world view . . . a great film maker, he keeps getting better." Gary Sinise and Tom Hanks "Forrest Gump" was acclaimed Best Movie of the Year, Tom Hanks was hailed as Best Actor, and Robert Zemeckis won as Best Director in the Academy Awards voting, and now this instant classic -- eagerly embraced by audiences who made it one of the top-grossing movies of all time -- has its network television premiere as "The ABC Sunday Night Movie," MAY 4 (8:00-11:00 p.m., ET), on the ABC Television Network. The phenomenally successful film, which earned three more Oscars and was nominated for a total of 13, also won Golden Globes for Best Film Drama, leading man (Tom Hanks), leading lady (Robin Wright), supporting actor (Gary Sinise), and director (Robert Zemeckis), and for its screenplay and music. Zemeckis was also honored by his peers with the Director's Guild Award. Sally Field and Mykelti Williamson also delivered memorable performances in the film. Tom Hanks Forty years of American triumphs and disasters, exaltations and exclamations, are recalled through a unique vision -- the vision of a tender, loving man-child named Forrest Gump (Hanks). His IQ is subnormal but his heart is superior; Forrest is an innocent in a corrupt world -- defying the odds by becoming a hero. In high school and college he is a football star; in Vietnam he is decorated for bravery; after the war he becomes an international celebrity as a masterful Ping-Pong player. His successes are not without pain. His best friend in the Army, Bubba Blue (Mykelti Williamson), with whom he shares a dream, dies in his arms. Lieutenant Dan Taylor (Gary Sinise), who has led him in battle, loses both his legs. Forrest's mother (Sally Field), whose devotion has never flagged, dies, leaving him to face life alone. Nothing comes easy for Forrest Gump, but sometimes things can actually seem perfect, as when the girl he has loved since boyhood -- Jenny Curran (Robin Wright) -- becomes his wife. But even perfection is flawed for this simple man -- soon Jenny's tormented past makes it impossible for her to live within his love, and she disappears. Following the dream he shared with Bubba -- and with the help of Lt. Dan -- Forrest becomes rich. But, after Jenny leaves him, he is almost unbearably unhappy. So he runs. And runs and runs and runs, picking up a cult of followers who are sure there is cosmic wisdom in his run to no special place for no obvious reason. And then he just stops. His run has been completed. But Forrest Gump's journey is not over. There are still some nougats in the box of chocolates that is his life. The 1994 Paramount picture was directed by Robert Zemeckis and produced by Wendy Finerman, Steve Tisch, and Steve Starkey from the screenplay by Eric Roth, based on the novel by Winston Groom.